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of this analogous Rite of the Ægyptians, Diodorus Siculus, and Ælian. Diodorus says that the Chief Justice of Ægypt had an. Image of precious Stones hanging from his Neck by a golden Chain, which they called Alethea, or Truth. And that the Causes then began, when the Chief Justice had fitted to himself this Image of Truth. And Ælian relates the same not much unlike. Of old among the Ægyptians the Priests were Judges. And the Chief Judge was the ancienteft an mong them, who gave Judgment to all. Now be of all Men ought to be the most juft and impartial. He had an Image about his Neck of Sapphire-stone, which was called the Image of Truth, And Diodorus adds farther, that after the Litigames had twice given their Libels to the Judges, then the thirty Judges confer among themselves, and the Chief Justice does eliminar si ladroy Tõs cancias, apply the Image of Truth so the other Side. Now in all this there is nothing so like the Urim and Thummim, as does necessarily evince that this Jewish Custom was derived from the Ægyptians. For in Ægypt this was the Ornament of the Chief Justice, among the Jews the Ensigns of the High-Priest. Among the Jews, it was a standing Oracle to consult in extraordinary Affairs of State, among the Ægyptians used in ordinary Justice. Nor does it appear to me, that this Ægyptian Alethea was any more than an honorary Ensign of the chief Judge, who could not regularly perform his Office without it, and had nothing more Oracular in it

than a Serjeant's Coif, or an Alderman's Chain. And Petrus Vallenfis, in a Letter wrote from Grand Cairo, seems to have seen a Mummy of one of these old Judges, which does ascertain the Figure of the Ægyptian Alethea. Where he says he had seen a Mummy, about whose Neck a golden Collar

, was painted, banging from his Neck like the Knights of the golden Fleece. And in the Middle, xpon his Breaft, was the Representation of a Plate of Gold, with the Figure of a Bird upon it, Epist. 18. Now this is

Now this is very different from the Urim and T hummim of the High-Priest, which was made of Cloth beset with precious Stones. All the Difficulty is what Diodorus means by his megolistadas, by applying the Alethea to the contrary Side. Now since no

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History mentions any Thing oracular in this; we can-
not fancy it more than only some Hieroglyphical Mementa
to the Judges, of the Regard they ought to bear to
Justice and Truth; or to the Witnesses or Litigants,
which the Chief Justice did often exhibit to them, to
put

them in Mind of their Duty. But you will say,
how then came the Jews to have an U.fage so very like
the Ægyptian, if they did not learn it from thence ?
Why, I answer, it was a common Ensign of Honour in
all Nations, to wear a golden Chain, and
People have used it as well as the Jews and the Ægypti-
ans. Thus not only. Pharaoh, when he had a Mind to
advance Joseph to Honour, and a Place of great Trust,
put a Chain of Gold about his Neck, Gen. xli. 42. but
the King of Babylon did the same to Daniel

, Dan. V. 29.
For as Crowns and Scepters in all Nations have been En-
Signs of the Regal Authority; so are Gold-Chains and
Rings Tokens of the higher Honour, and used not only
by the Eastern Satrape, but even by the noble Gants in
the West. As is evident by what * Pliny relates of the
Rise of the Family of the Torquati at Rome from the first
Torquatus, who was called so from killing a noble Gaula
and taking his Chain from him yet reeking with Blood,
and putting it about his own Neck. Now what great
Occasion for Wonder is there, that the Chief Justice of
Ægypt had a Chain, with a remarkable Medal appen-
dant to it different from other Nobles? Or why might
not the Jewish High-Priest hang his Breast-plate by a
golden Chain, without going to Ægypt for the Inventi-
on? For any other Nation could have taught that won-
derful Contrivance as well as the Ægyptian. And as to
the Appendants, there is so little Agreement between
them, viz. a Cloth a Span square beset with Jewels, and
a golden Medal representing the Figure of a Bird, that
one of these can hardly be said to have given Rise to
the other.

* Plin. Hist. Lih. 20.

3

ments not

Priefts Li. 3. As for your borrowing the Use of Linen only for nen Gar- the Garments of the Priests ; I think the just contrary from £- thereof is true, and that the Jews in this were rather pergypt.

fectly

opposite to the Ægyptians, than their Imitators. The Breast-plate and Robe of the Jewish High-Priest were ordered to be made of Scarlet, Blue and purple woolen Cloth, only embroidered with Wreaths of fine Linen. But the Use of woolen Cloth was, as Plutarch fays, execrable to the Ægyptian Priests. de If. Offr. And * Herodotus tells us, that they wore only Linen, and Shooes of the Papyrus, and that it is unlayful to them to use any other Garment or Shooes. But the Jewish High-Priest's Robes were rather like the Babylonians, than the Ægyptians. For of the Babylonians, Herodotsis writes thus, This is the Fashion of their Clothing. They use a linen Garment down to their Ankles, over this they put on another of Wool, and over all a Xacyidov

, a t kind of a short wbite Coat, which does exa&ly resemble the Ephod. And besides he relates this of the Laity among the Ægyptians, That they wear linen Coats fringed about the Legs, which they call Calafyris, over this they put white woollen Garments

, but they do not come into the Temples with them, nor are buried in them, that being profane. Now to take all this together, it seems rather that Mofes's Laws concerning the facerdotal Robes, were given in pure Opposition to the Ægyptians ; by ordering that the Jewish High-Priest, the most facred Person of all, should wear fome of his Garments of Linen, and others of Woollen, like the ordinary Ægyptians in their common Conversation ; and that the subordinate Priests should be drest in the Temple, but like the common Laity in Ægypt.

4. And fo for the Figure of the Cheribim, there is as Cherubim. little Ground for the pretended Imitation in this as the

other. There is no constat in any Records of the Ægyptian Antiquities, that there was any Thing among them like a Mercy-Seat or Covering over the Ark, adorned, with such like Figures. I think there is no Necessity,

Nor the

* Herod. Lib. 2. C. 37.

+ Id. Lib. I.

to

to assert, that this Covering of the Ark was to be absohutely plain, without any Manner of Sculpture. And if the Figure of something must be engraved, why not the Figure of Cherubim, at well as any Thing else? Do you think that Imagery was proper only to the Agyptians ? Or do you think, that all Nations in the World must be beholden to them to make a Figure of any Thing? Had not they Eyes to behold Postures, and Fancies to delineate them, without going to Ægypt for them? Nay, is there not in this Ordinance a particular Opposition to the Ægyptian Idolatry? For their Temples were generally filled with the Images of Monkeys and Calves and Serpents, the Representations of real Animals, which according to the natural Deism of those Times, they fancied to be Parts or Exhibitions of the Deity, and had supreme Worship given them. But Moses here orders Figures to be made, which had little or no Resemblance of any Thing in the World; and therefore Jofephus says *, they had a form stir tó üt'cir Ogas minor w Eguivar ega Fritid, like nothing that is seen by Men. Their Images had divine Worship paid to them, and Temples consecrated to their Honour ; but these by the Mofaick Institution were made subservient to the supreme Deity, and constituted Attendants upon his Mercy-seat; as it were in Despight to the Ægyptian Polytheism, fewing that these were the Representations only of Angelick. Na tures, who were so far from being Gods, that they were only God's ministring, Spirits. What was the particular Figure of these Cherubim, at this Distance is hard to imagine. Indeed Grotius and others have very ingeniously conjectured from the Creatures seen by Ezekiel in his Visions, Ezek. i. 5. and 10, 15. which he calls Cherso bim, that they had the Face of a Man, the Wings of an Eagle, the Mane of a Lion, and the Feet of an Ox. And by this Grotius will have the Dispensations of the Divine Providence by the Ministry of Angels symbolically represented ; the Lion representing the Severity of his

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Fustice, the Eagle the Celerity of his Bounty ; the Mari his Goodness and Mercy; and the Ox the Slowness of his Punishment, which comes, (as the Greek Proverb says) Boei modi, with an Ox's Foot. Whether or no the Angelick Appearances in this Form were common to the Patriarchs, I shall not now dispute ; but the Ideas of the Cherubim seems to have been ordinary enough among the Jews, by Moses's not describing them as he does other Things; and were as well known as the Painting among us of an Angel, in the Figure of a beautiful tall Youth with Wings. Among all the Ægyptian Representations I do not find any Thing like this to represent the Angetick Natures ; and therefore 'tis in vain to bring in their. other Simulacra modumogoa, which were Hieroglyphicks of their Offris, Ifis, &c. which they worshiped not as Angelick Natures, depending upon the supreme Deity, but as fempiternal Deities themselves. Neither need we grant; that this Hieroglyphical or Symbolical Imagery was at all owing to the Ægyptians, more than to other Nations, that sort of enigmatical Representation, being in Use over all the eastern Countries, and even the Teraphim in Use in the Patriarch's Time, Gen. xxxi. 19. And as for the Image of Sphinx which was frequently pictured upon the Doors of the Ægyptian Temples, as Clemens Alex. relates, Strom. L. 5. that cannot be conceived in any Wife to have contributed an Origin to the Cherubim, not only because they were situated in a quite different Place; but because the Occasion of the Sphinx being painted there, was to be an Hieroglyphick, that a great many of the Ceremonies in their Temples were enigmatical, and had another hidden Meaning more than their outward one did declare.

5. Indeed Dr. Spencer has amassed together an Abundance of Learning to prove, that the Ægyptians, and ancient Idolaters made Use of a Cista, an Ark or Chest, in their Superstitions. That the Stolifte *, or those of Oggris's Wardrobe, made Use of a Cheft or Ark; which

Nor the
Ark.

Plut. de Ilid.

any

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