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and unity of purpose between France vouchsafed them from Frano, vs and Sardinia. The discourteous re- granted only on the condition ti ception of Baron Hubner, the Aus- the crown of the Netherlands sem trian minister, by the Emperor at the be settled on the Duke of Anjou TK beginning of the year-the family dismemberment of Poland was peralliance concluded by the somewhat mitted without any interference a hasty marriage of Prince Napoleon the part either of England or Fra with the Princess Clothilde the and though much sympathy was evisit of Count Cavour to Paris, and cited throughout Europe by the be his subsequent tone of defiance—all roic efforts of the Poles, in 1931, te these, coupled with the unusual emancipate themselves from the role amount of military preparation, and of Russia, not a finger was raised in other symptoms, show very clearly their behalf. Moreover, it must be that the contracting parties had de- remembered that in no case can active termined that the present year should interference be justified, unless tbe be made memorable by an Italian quarrel between rulers and the ruial campaign. Whether the confederacy has taken the decided form of an ap is as yet confined to these two peal to arms. There may be discos powers, or includes another whose tent and dissatisfaction in a country appearance in the field would make without an actual revolt. There may confusion worse confounded, is as yet be revolts so ill-planned and poor's unknown.
supported that they are at once supAssuming, then, the fact of concert pressed with very little exertion. But and preparation, what possibly could these do not call for foreign intabe the motive of France and Sardinia ference or interposition-indeed, isexcept the hope of territorial aggrand- terference in such cases would be a isement by means of conquest? Na- gross violation of the law of patios tions are usually selfish in their un- Were it otherwise, peace could not dertakings, and unwilling to go to be maintained in Europe for a single war when their personal interests are year, because, unfortunately, there is not directly involved. That has al- no lack of malcontents in every cour: ways been the case; but in modern try. If the voice of the discontented times the aversion to anything re- is to be taken as a sufficient voucher sembling Quixotic enterprise is much for the tyranny of a government, Eve! stronger than it was before. All men Britain might be made liable to adknow that a nation involved in war monitory remarks or threatened ismust sustain great injury as regards terference from abroad. Not many its commerce and industrial products. years have elapsed since the Chartists Taxation is increased, loans are con- in England clamorously demanded tracted which become a perpetual a new constitution; and a numerburden, and the strength of the po- ous section of the Irish people de pulation is impaired by the constant clared that nothing would content demand for soldiery to fill up the them save emancipation from the losses occasioned by battle and dis- Saxon rule, and, so late as 1848, ease. In proportion to the prosperity sent deputies to the revolutionary of a nation is its real aversion to war. government of France to request the Substantial interests are identified favour of an invasion! So stringent with the maintenance of peace; and is the rule which limits foreign intergovernments are popular or other. ference, and which is founded on wise wise according as they exert them- considerations both of right and ex. selves to preserve it. There are in- pediency, that even the tyrannical stances, no doubt, of interference by proceedings of the King of Naples a great nation on behalf of an op- with regard to his subjects, which pressed people struggling for their were universally felt as an outrage liberties; but these are few in num- on humanity, did not provoke us to ber, and remote in point of time. The an armed demonstration. States of Holland were left almost Such being the law of nations, what without aid to fight their own battle justification, we ask, can France and against the ruling Spaniard and the Sardinia plead for appearing against Inquisition ; and what assistance was Austria in arms? There is no revolt
vehement protestations. It is a gene- the frontiers of Austria for the to tous fault, if it be one, and cer- dent purpose of favouring the deas tainly is preferable to the Machia- of the latter, conld not be oberce vellian method of considering every interpreted, both here and in Gman a rogue until he has proved many, than as the token of a do limself to be otherwise. But we laid conspiracy, and from that biz must not suffer ourselves to be hood. we might abandon all hope of 1 winked, or allow our confidence to be ing from a general contiet. For ! abused. We have seen enough of cannot imagine such an active in Louis Napoleon to be aware that he ance except for aggressive purjus cannot be trusted. His career has been neither can we suppose that has tortuous and crooked, he is a prac- would interfere without being its tised and profound dissembler, and ed by the prospect of some spoca he has, in the Iders Napoleoniennes, advantage to herself. written in 1839, long before he had a then be forced to conclude that Pris chance of empire, developed an ag- sia was about to recommence bera gressive policy for the guidance of tempt on Turkey under cover of the France which ought surely to put us war in Italy, and that her military upon our guard. We have also had demonstration on the Austrian fruaample experience of the machinations tier was intended to prolong the of Russia, of her secresy in forming war, and indirectly to aid the French plans, her obstinacy in adhering to arms by distracting the attention of them, and her ingenuity in carrying their antagonists. It is quite prize them out. A separate alliance there- sible that some such game mase fore between France and Russia, played, or at least be in contempis the two great intriguing powers of tion; and we must keep that coutinEurope, of whatever nature it may gency in view. In the councls be, must necessarily cause anxiety Europe at this moment there is w both in Britain and in Germany, much moral obliquity, that we do France and Russia combined would not know in whom we can repose be in a position to assert, though confidence, to whose honesty w they might not be able to achieve, may trust. The greed of empire, both maritime and military supre- so long restrained, is now manifestad macy; and we must not forget that and almost openly avowed by states such a combination is not a new of magpitude and power. Nation is thing. It has happened more than arrayed against nation, and kingdea once already.
against kingdom, not, as of yore, for It is, however, by no means cer- the sake of vindicating religious free tain that Russia has engaged herself dom, or of asserting claims of here to France so deeply, for it is question. ditary succession, but for a trial v able whether her doing so would be brute strength, robbery being the ob a wise political step. We believe ject of one party, and dogged resis that she was deeply offended by the tance the determination of the other. conduct of Austria, in not giving her It is of great consequence that we active assistance during the Turkish should not allow ourselves, through war, an assistance which she con- vague sympathies for what are called sidered herself well entitled to ex- oppressed nationalities, or aspirations pect, in return for the services ren- after freedom which are too often dered in 1849. But great states are utopian in their character, to take a rarely revengeful, at least as indivi- false view of the real position of duals are. Accommodation is better affairs on the Continent, and the than rupture; and there is that com- animus of the different parties. Let munity of interest, of sentiment, and it be conceded that the rule of Austria of political theory between the govern- is despotic—so, it may be said, is ments of Russia and Austria, which that of almost every other country must render a permanent misunder- Our own tree of liberty was of slow standing a serious calamity to both. growth. It did not start up sudAn alliance of Russia with France, denly in full luxuriance, like the so intimate that the military force of gourd of Jonah-had it done so, we the former should be stationed on may fairly conclude that it soon would have withered away. Con- In the first place, we should have to
stitutions conjured up for the nonce, consider whether by natural law or like those of the Abbé Sièyes, have the ordinances of God it is permisno real vitality. They are raised in sible that two or more nations of the morning, and ere sundown they distinct origin and with different have wholly perished. So has it languages should be subject to the
been with the many constitụtions sway of one ruler. Surely it is too 12 which distracted France has known. late to agitate such a question as -315 None of them have proved perma- that, more especially as the British <!*. nent; none of them have been des- empire affords us many instances of
* tined to endure. Like trees which a similar union. In the second place, *227 have been hastily cut down, trans- we should have to enter thoroughly e ported to another place, and stuck in- into the examination of title, which
to the earth without roots, to serve as might require the production of a is a temporary avenue for some pageant treatise as lengthy and intricate as
E' or procession, they have drooped and Mr Carlyle's dissertation on the rise 16.5. died, and become firewood; and of the House of Brandenburg. We
3 now, in their place, we behold indeed venture to think that there is no ex a tree, but it is the rooted upas of necessity whatever for going beyond
absolutism. Some of us in this coun- the fact that Austria is in prescriptry are far too apt to take for granted tive possession of Lombardy. She
that constitutional freedom is a neces- received it, with the consent of all a sary consequence of successful revolt. the European powers, more than
Alas ! experience has shown us but forty years ago, and has since held too plainly that in the majority of it undisturbed, save by the treachercases the actual result is anarchy, ous attempt of the King of Sardinia and the establishment of a mob des- subsequent to 1848. No better title potism infinitely more dangerous could be given ; and if this be adand destructive than that of a single mitted, and we do not see how it can man. These are things, however, be denied, surely it is great folly in which our enthusiasts are slow to any of us to call in question her perceive, or perceiving will not allow. rights. If a general congress cannot They sympathise with every re- settle boundaries, and give a valid volt, without inquiring whether or title to the possession of provinces, not the revolt has been justified by what can it effect ? What is the oppression on the part of the Govern- purport of its meeting, or the use of ment; and they express their abstract its deliberations ? Without such a detestation of despotism, without solemn settlement, bearing the chareflecting that despotism is the stock racter of a general European compact, best adapted to receive the graft of there would be a perpetual contest constitutional liberty. And never for dominion, and the sword would yet did the nation fit for freedom never be sheathed. Do not let us fail to attain to it, not by violent undervalue or contemn these treaties, spasmodic efforts, but by that gradual for they have been productive of vast spread of intelligence and irresistible benefits to us. They have preserved power of opinion which even sceptres us from wholesale war for more than cannot control, and which, while it forty years, within which space of renders the freeman capable of using time more progress has been made rightly his great privilege, inculcates in the arts and sciences, and more that respect for law and order with- social improvements planned and out which liberty is nothing but a executed, than men of the last gener
ation could have imagined in their Some of us may think it a hard wildest dreams. They have served, thing and unjust that Austria should at all events, to curb ambition, if they have rule over any part of Italy, have not wholly restrained it; and and may find fault with the political even now they furnish us with a clear arrangements which gave her the means of ascertaining who are the command of Lombardy. That point, aggressors in this fresh international were we to take it up, would open to quarrel. us a very wide field for discussion. There is, we observe, a tone of poco
18 pre del te of 17
curantism assumed of late by some France, even though her operatis influential journals of the Liberal were confined merely to madh sort, upon which, as it is calculated troops to the Gallician frontier, F. to mislead, we must necessarily offer add greatly to the ferment in Ge a remark. They maintain that, un- many, and possibly compel Prize der no conceivable circumstances, who has hitherto done good will it be necessary for Britain to by restraining the more fery and's take part in the conflict—that this patient section of the Germanic Cis merely a struggle between tyrants, federation, to assume an offensive :which they must be left to fight titude, or at least to give her CODRI out by themselves—that while they hitherto withheld, to the stationire exhaust themselves by war, we shall a federal army of observation en te rapidly become more prosperous by Rhine, which certainly would be to peace--and that we have no inte- lowed by a similar movement on to: rest whatever in opposing any kind part of France. The policy antonof change in the balance of power on ced by Prussia is shortly this:-S the continent of Europe.
declines to interfere on behalf of the That is, no doubt, a comfortable Austrian non-federal dominions. She creed; but, like most creeds com- will not take the initiative, by ostposed entirely on the soothing prin- ing a demonstration on the Rberish ciple of embodying our hopes and frontier ; but at the same time, she de wishes only, we apprehend that it is clares, without hesitation or restra, fallacious. Nations cannot be indif- that she will take the field in case the ferent to what is going on around territory of the Confederation should them. War, like the flames on an be menaced on any side whatever. Indian prairie, or a conflagration in It is impossible to over-estimate the a crowded city, has a tendency to value of this cautious though resspread
lute policy on the part of Prussia * “Et tua res agitur, paries cum proximus the present crisis ; for the war party
in Germany is very strong, and sest Therefore we must take good heed lest ral of the states seem inclined to the fire should extend beyond certain arm in Austria's quarrel, indepalimits. So long as it is confined to dent of federal considerations. The one locality which is strongly fenced representatives of Bavaria, Hanover, without, there is hope that it may Saxony, Baden, Hesse-Cassel, and exhaust its fury there without injury Hesse-Darmstadt, have been urging to the neighbouring tenements; and the Diet to order the immedisë so long as Italy remains the sole seat movement of three corps-daré of war, and no other belligerents de- towards the Rhine ; a proposition clare themselves, this country is un- which, if agreed to, would, in our der no obligation to declare itself opinion, be construed by the French on either side. Our Ministers dis- nation into a challenge. Besides ch ged one part of their duty, and this, there is another danger very a most important one, though it was likely to arise contingently on the not crowned with success, by making success of the French and Sardinia every effort to prevent the outbreak: arms. The latter could hardly effect another part yet remains, and that is, their object of driving the Austrians to use every means of persuasion and out of Lombardy, without entering remonstrance with the undeclared some part of recognised German powers, in order to restrain them territory. It may, indeed, be said, from rushing into the fray. Blind that as such territory will presumindeed must the man be who has ably be Austrian, no new complicano perception of the danger which tion can arise, because the belligethreatens the whole of Europe, and rents continue the same; but those which can only be averted, under who argue thus know little of the God's grace, by extreme caution and spirit which animates the German forbearance. There is danger in more Bund; for as certainly as the roll of quarters than one. The appearance thunder follows the flash of lightof Russia acting in concert with ning, will Germany rise in arms so