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comrade had long since been executed. Bright days now smiled upon the gore-tried Dutchmen and their honest pilot; they were given everything they needed, treated most kindly, but they and their stout bark were never again to leave Japan. The "Erasmus" was ordered to the city of Yedo, then, as now, the capital of the Tai-koon, as Miaco was that of the Mikado. Will Adams's merits were so appreciated at court that he eventually obtained great influence. When, in 1609, the next Dutch ships arrived in Japan to act hostilely against the Portuguese, they found the Japanese government very well disposed towards them, and considerable privileges, as well as the port of Firando, were conceded to them, through the good offices of William Adams. Though he individually behaved with forbearance to the Portuguese, and, as he assures us, returned good for their evil, the Dutch had no such intention; and it is certain that, in introducing the Hollander to the commerce of Japan, our Englishman struck the deathblow to Portuguese interests there. By the Dutch ships Will Adams sent the interesting letters we have quoted, and at last, as he desired, stimulated his countrymen to enter upon the same remunerative trade. He had been thirteen years
in Japan, when at last he learnt that a ship bearing the red cross of England had reached Firando.
She was the "Clove" of London, belonging to the East India Company (then in its infancy), and commanded by Captain John Saris, furnished with a letter from King James I., and suitable presents to the emperor The good ship "Clove" had pushed to sea from the Thames on April 18th, 1611, and reached Firando on the 11th of June 1613, two years having been profitably spent in trading on the way, as ships were wont to do in those days. Adams was then at Yedo, and was immediately sent for by the Prince of Firando, who, in the mean time, treated the newly-arrived Englishmen with marked attention. On the 29th July 1613, poor Will Adams arrived, and greeted his long-expected countrymen; thirteen weary years he had looked forward hopefully, and at last the old man's prayer was granted. Early in August, Captain Saris, William Adams, and ten Englishmen, started for Yedo, bearing the royal letter and presents. The dignified bearing of Saris and the influence of Adams soon obtained from the emperor, or Tai-koon, a favourable treaty, granting to England the most important privileges that had ever been conceded by Japan
TREATY CONCLUDED BETWEEN THE EMPEROR OF JAPAN AND KING JAMES
"ART. 1.-We give free license to the subjects of the King of Great Britain-viz. Sir Thomas Smith, Governor, and the Company of the East India merchants and adventurers-for ever safely to come into any of our ports of our empire of Japan, with their ships and merchandise, without any hindrance to them or their goods; and to abide, buy, sell, and barter, according to their own manner with all nations; to tarry here as long as they think good, and to depart at their pleasure.
“ART. 2.—We grant unto them freedom of custom for all such merchandises as either now they have brought, or hereafter shall bring into our kingdoms, or shall from hence transport to any foreign part; and do authorise those ships that hereafter shall arrive and come from England to proceed to present sale of their commodities, without further coming or sending up to our court.
"ART. 3.-If any of their ships shall happen to be in danger of shipwreck, we will our subjects not only assist them, but that such part of ship or goods as shall be saved be returned to their captain or cape merchant, or their assigns. And that they shall or may build one house or more for themselves in any part of our empire where they shall think fittest, and at their pleasure.
"ART. 4.-If any of the English merchants or others shall depart this life within our dominions, the goods of the deceased shall remain at the disposal of the cape merchant, and that all offences committed by them shall be punished by the said cape merchant according to his discretion; and our laws to take no hold of their persons or goods.
ART. 5.—We will that yo our subjects trading with them for any of their com
to a foreign power. Saris carried back a letter likewise from the Taikoon Tyeyas, in which he says he especially desires the friendship of James I., promises that his subjects shall be "heartily welcome," applauds much their worthiness and skill as navigators, and promises that in their "honourable enterprises of discoveries and merchandising, they shall find the said Tai-koon further them according to their desires."
The year 1613 saw the English factory established (as was the Dutch) at Firando. The English, from political reasons, very soon withdrew, and so avoided the troubles that overtook the other European residents in Japan. It is worthy of note that in the following year the persecution of the priests and their converts recommenced with renewed vigour, and ended, as I said before, in the expulsion of the Portuguese, and then the close imprisonment of the Dutch to the Island of Decima, where they have submitted to be considered anything but Christians.
In 1637 the great interdict was published, of which one paragraph runs thus:-"No Japanese ship or boat whatever, nor any native of Japan, shall presume to go out of the country; and who acts contrary to this shall be put to death, and the ship and goods shall be forfeited; and all Japanese who return from abroad shall be put to death."
From that time their vessels have never voluntarily left the coasts of Japan, though many a ship-load of poor wretches has drifted away in storms, and reached some foreign land. But when, as once or twice was done, Christian ships carried back these men to Japan, they have been sternly refused admittance. The American Government have,
however, of late years, wrought a change in the law on this point, and more than one Japanese seaman now, who has against his will been blown away to the Sandwich Islands or the American continent, has been restored to his country.
When, in 1673, the East India Company attempted to reoccupy their former factory, there was no Will Adams to be their advocate with the emperor. The selfish Dutchmen did not choose to remember that they owed their own introduction to Japan to the influence of the English sailor. Although the English were civilly treated, yet, at the instigation of the Dutch, our trade was refused, because our then reigning king (Charles II.) was married to a daughter of the King of Portugal! The Dutch remained undisputed masters of the field until Sir Stamford Raffles made two attempts to break down their monopoly, but failed. After that no nation except Russia, whose ends are purely political, gave Japan further notice until 1831. In that year,
American attention was directed to the islands, and it was thought that a good plea for introducing America to their notice in a kindly way might be found in sending back some shipwrecked Japanese sailors. They received a very uncivil welcome, and, repelled with violence, the ship "Morrison" desisted from her purpose. But not so the persevering nation that had sent her forth! If smaller ships did not succeed, bigger ships might; so the huge two-decker "Columbus," of 90 guns, and the corvette" Vincennes," were sent. This time, to speak the truth honestly, America wanted intercourse for commercial and political purposes with Japan. She then intended to be very shortly on the shores of the
modities, pay them for the same, according to agreement, without delay, or return their wares again unto them.
"ART. 6.-For such commodities as they have now brought or shall hereafter bring, fitting for service and proper use, we will that no arrest be made thereof; but that the price be made with the cape merchant, according as they may sell to others, and present payment upon the delivery of the goods.
"ART. 7.-If in discovery of other countries for trade, and return of their ships, they shall need men or victuals, we will that ye our subjects furnish them for their money as their need shall require.
ART. 8. And that without other passport, they shall and may set out upon the discovery of Jesso or any other part in or about our empire."
Pacific, and this great force ought to have shown the Japanese that Brother Jonathan was in earnest. But the Tai-koon still held out. No trade except with Holland was still his motto; and America, being in no immediate hurry, was patient but watchful. In 1849 the Japanese were foolish enough to retain some American seamen shipwrecked upon the coast. The U. S. ship "Preble," Captain Glynn, forthwith dropped in and gave them such a shaking that they gladly liberated the citizens of the United States. Then a very efficient officer and admirable squadron were sent from America in 1853, to bring about by moral force some specific terms regulating the intercourse of the two countries. Commodore Perry, in his voluminous work, has so recently told us what
means he employed to this end, that we need say no more than that he fully succeeded. The treaty he obtained in itself is no great thing; but it was the small end of the wedge; and, after all, sailors cannot be expected to finesse in diplomacy. Hardly was the ink dry with which this treaty was signed, when the lamentable war with Russia broke out, and the Japanese found their islands, creeks, and inland seas used for a game of hide-and-seek played by the Russian and Allied squadrons. Then everybody wanted treaties with the Japanese; and in apparently a waggish humour, they gave a British admiral one in 1854, which must ever stand unique amongst such documents. (To be continued.)
HOW TO BOIL PEAS.
So here we are safe at home once more from Lady Scrubbs'; for which let us be thankful. Away with the vanities of patent leather, and let us find those easiest of slippers. And now, Mary, you be off to bed, there have been three terrible yawns already; I must sit up an hour and philosophise. "That means, smoke,” you say. Well, that's what a good deal of very reputable philosophy begins and ends in. "Let you stay?" By no manner of means; women don't understand philosophy, and don't require it :—
"What moral is in being fair!" "You don't mind the cigar!" Of course not, no sensible woman does. But sitting up late, you know, is very bad for the complexion; and, besides, who can philosophise with a pretty face opposite him? Plato himself couldn't have done it; and I am not Plato, as you very well know.
Turk, sir, get up into that armchair opposite, and let me stick this paper cheroot in your mouth; there, that looks companionable. Now look as wise as you can, and hold your tongue; it's what many otherwise rational beings haven't the
sense to do. I shall address my remarks to you, and challenge contradiction. It is pleasant to have an imaginary opponent of this kind; one is always prepared for his arguments, and they are so much easier to answer. Whereas, your real live articulate-speaking human adversary, if he be worth anything, is never convinced. Mahomet was quite right in his system of persuasion; a man is seldom a hearty convert till he has been well thrashed.
Did you ever read "Peter Pindar ?” Excuse me, my good friend, if, in these days of reading for the million, I very much doubt it. You have read the last shilling novel off the railway bookstall, no doubt, though there is such a strong resemblance between it and half-a-dozen of its predecessors that you have not the least idea at this moment what it was about; but as to your acquaintance with our really original English writers, I suspect the less closely we examine you the better. Well, you possibly know that Peter was Dr Wolcot, and that he amused himself and the public by libelling-with tolerable good-humour, however, I should say that best of men and
monarchs, or that pig-headed Hanoverian farmer, (which was he?) George the Third. He was, in short, to that respected personage much what Punch may be supposed to be to Prince Albert, only his jokes were better; and the fact of their being rather broader was no discredit in his days.
But as he may not be. a very familiar acquaintance to the men of this generation, let me tell you one of his stories, in which I assure you there is nothing whatever disrespectful either to the third George or to the present Prince Consort, or even any scandal against poor Queen Elizabeth, which has been of late revived. The original is in verse, and is called "the Pilgrim and the Peas." Two unfortunate sinners, by way of penance, were bid to undertake a pilgrimage to Loretto: the place to which (as all good Catholics, we will charitably trust, do not believe) a little red house belonging to the Virgin Mary walked of itself one fine morning. To Loretto, then, they were bound; and by way of making the travelling easy and pleasant, there being no excursion trains in those days, their father confessor had recommended them to put peas in their shoes. Any one who has walked a mile with an accidental grain or two of gravel under the heel of his stocking may form some idea of what it would be to do fifty (that was the distance) under their circumstances. One of them had scarcely got over half his journey, in much bodily grief, and in a frame of mind scarce befitting a penitent-for, according to our friend Peter, he was doing anything but blessing "the souls and bodies of the peas"--when he met his brother sinner returning, stepping out as briskly as if he were the daily postman, and happy in the consciousness of having been thoroughly whitewashed, and free to begin a new score. He very naturally expressed his surprise and envy, in pretty strong language too, according to Dr Wolcot, whom therefore I decline to quote. As to his getting to Loretto, he said, it was quite out of the question; if his absolution depended upon that, there was an end of him; for the peas, at all events,
had done their duty, and he had not a toe left to stand upon. How had the other managed?-was it long practice, or a miracle? Neither one nor the other; the simplest thing in the world, as all great discoveries are ;-"Why, to tell the truth," said the successful traveller,
"Just before I ventured on my journey, To walk a little more at ease,
I took the liberty to boil my peas.”
Now, in this story there lies an admirable moral, which may perhaps have been an unintentional prophecy on our friend Peter's part, for, indeed, morals do not seem to have been much in his line. But I trust you will not imagine for a moment that such a story would have been introduced by me here except with a very high moral and philosophical purpose. We have all of us heard this human life of ours very often described as a pilgrimage. Very often indeed, especially in some of those dull sermons about which we have all on a sudden become so critical. Rather a favourite theological fancy, in short, and, as such, common property, from Bishop Patrick and John Bunyan down to the present archbishops and Mr Spurgeon,-which is a long way down. Yet the word is by no means so very happy a selection after all. It will not do to say that we have scriptural authority for it in the English translation, no doubt, it stands visible enough; but there is nothing whatever in the word in the original which at all corresponds to our English notion of a pilgrim. We surely understand by the term, a person who undertakes a journey purposely long, or wearisome, or perilous, or it may be all these combined, either as an expiation of some crime, or with the view of thereby purchasing a certain quantum of sanctity. "A superstitious discipline" is what our modern theological dictionaries give us as the explanation of the word "pilgrimage." And we picture to ourselves at once, if we call up our notions of the pilgrim apart from the accident of theological association, a weary, way-worn traveller, voluntarily expatriating himself for a while, from a high religious motive, making an asceticism more or less
strict a necessary part of his vow, and looking forward, as the termination of his wanderings, not to the city or the shrine towards which his vow leads him and here lies the great failure in the analogy-but to the country from which he set out. Not merely to reach Jerusalem, or Rome, or Loretto, was the real pilgrim's object, but to return to his own home, and resume his place in society when his penance was completed, or his religious standing secured. It is plain that this is not the idea conveyed in any passage where the word occurs in the Bible; it could not be, for pilgrimage is of necessity a comparatively modern idea; and one rather wonders, when one comes to think about it, that the Puritan writers especially, excellent men, who hated palmer, and penance, and absolution, and religious vows, with an honest and hearty hatred, should have been so very fond of the word. Bunyan's pilgrim is, in fact, no pilgrim at all; the very last thing he would have wished to do would have been to return to the City of Destruction where he was born; he is a traveller, and a soldier; and these are the real similitudes which the sacred writers use. Man is a wayfarer, life is a journey; man is a soldier, life a campaign; but surely the soldier will hardly fight the better for looking upon his vocation as a hardship, or the traveller get through his journey more successfully for groaning at every step.
But I find myself basely taking advantage of the preacher's privilege of having no one to contradict me, to add another to the dull sermons inflicted on a helpless public,-and under such a shabby disguise too! My apology is, that I would not willingly be suspected, even over a cigar, of throwing the slightest ridicule, intentional or otherwise, upon any scriptural view of human life; but if it turns out to be only a theological view instead of a scriptural one, I have not the slightest additional respect for it on that ground; it must stand or fall by its own weight, and put up with a little rough handling like the rest of us; if it be not orthodoxy, but only your-doxy, as Swift has it, then let it take its chance.
I argue, then, if you will have it still that life is a pilgrimage-(and really Bunyan and Bishop Patrick, to say nothing of the resuscitated Guillaume de Guileville, have had possession of the field so long that it may seem ungrateful as well as hopeless to try to dispossess them)—at all events, there can be no objection to boiling the peas. In fact, the great mistake we are all apt to make is the not doing so. Troubles we shall all have, plenty of them, Heaven help us! But it has been admirably said, that "the worst are those which never come;" certainly they are those which we run to meet halfway, and look at through magnifying-glasses when they do arrive. If life must be a pilgrimage, let us put a stout heart to it, and not make it a more painful one than it need be. Let us set the palmer's hat on jauntily, and take a little wine with us in that medieval-looking bottle. The peas must be in the shoes; that makes part of our sentence; little things in themselves, but with a wonderful capacity for making themselves unpleasant; but there can be no religious or moral obligation against boiling them, and the difference it makes is wonderful. This secreto per esser felice is not a difficult one, yet few things seem so little understood by the pilgrims of this highly civilised nineteenth century. Some men, instead of boiling their peas, seem to take a pride and pleasure in choosing for themselves the largest and the hardest-Brobdignag marrowfats and disposing them conscientiously under the tenderest places. It would be nothing to them to walk through life without a grievance. Grievances are part of their inherited privileges as Englishmen. They must have come in with Magna Charta and Habeas Corpus. have been called "a nation of grumblers;" and most of us probably take it as a compliment. There was once a difficulty amongst the schoolmen in finding out for the human species its proper logical differentia (meaning thereby, my unlogical friend, that which specially distinguishes men from other animals); Plato, as is well known, had marked him down as a featherless biped," which was