Imatges de pÓgina


the structural improvements which ments for the removal of impurities the rich have been taught by the -no external drainage, no ventilaprecepts of the sanitarians to carry tion--that there is dampness within out for the sake of their own health and miasma all around them outside and comfort, have been destructive —what can the most active, cleanly, to the health and comfort of their tidy domestic managers do to counpoorer neighbours. Not far from the teract such a heavy pressure towards spot where this remark is penned, filth and degradation ? One is surthere is a dell penetrated by a stream. prised at the rapid facility with which Along its edge there had been origi- those brought up to the air of the nally a rural village, which, as a mountain, and the sights and smells neighbouring town pressed nearer of nature, assimilate themselves to towards it, gradually enlarged itself the filth and squalor of the poor for the accommodation of the artisans man's town ; but they must do it, who found employment there. The and, for their peace and comparative newest and most aristocratic portion happiness, the sooner all qualms are of the town now crowns the neigh- gone the better. So the immigrants bouring bank-the village has swol- to such spots, should they have any len to a crowded, dirty suburb. The remnant of purity in their nature, stream, in which old people remem- must see it decay within themselves, ber to have trouted, is as black as and behold their offspring brought ink, and many a bubbling circle rip- up without it-animals naturalised ples its surface, which rural children to the human rat-holes in which they at first sight mistake for the leaping crowd. The most intelligent of the of little fishes, but which the expe- working-classes proclaim that they rienced neighbours know to be the could afford to hire clean and saluescape of mephitic gases. Now, this brious houses, if they could get them suburb, uncleanly as it is, has not at their true money-value-at a value created this dire pollution ; its un- proportioned to that which the midcleanness has not taken that direc- dle-classes pay for their houses. But tion ; for it has been left to itself, the law of supply and demand canand consequently does not possess a not be brought to bear on house prohydraulic organisation for the re- perty as it does on hardware and moval of impurities. But the hand- woollens. Competition cannot alsome houses on the top of the bank ways get a sphere for its exercise ; are cleansed and drained in the most and though the capital is at hand skilful and effective manner, and it is which might supply small cleanly from their impurities that the stream houses, the means of investing it is polluted, and renders the dirty may not be accessible.

In many suburb more dirty and more insa- places the whole area of a manufaclubrious than it would ever have turing town belongs to one person been had it not been near an aristo- or one company, and the inhabitants cratic district. Surely a case like are as entirely at their mercy for the this is one for protection ; and if houses they are to live in, as the means were taken for the removal of Sutherland tenants are at the mercy the foulness sent down by the upper of their ducal landlord for the size ranks, it could scarcely be counted and tenure of the farms which he an interference with the rights or the thinks proper to let on his domains. independence of the lower.

Even where there are many house Throughout our large towns the owners, they have a monopoly which domiciliary position of the poorer shuts out competition. Their houses, classes in general is only too closely in such as they are, exist, and are filled parallel to the instance we have given. with tenants at a rent as high as such That they should congregate in towns, tenants could pay for the best kind of is only another way of saying that houses. Why, then, should any one they must live where they find the of these landlords trouble himself means of living. But when the condi- with improvements? A new man tion of all the dwellings for them is, might be tempted to come among that they have no internal arrange- them, and undersell them by offering


a better article for the money ; but times the cruelty, of extracting paythey hold the ground—they possessment for his commodity after it has the area of the city — there is no been,as it were, consumed. If he have rooin for the competitor.

let his house, for a term, to a man The landlords of poor people's in good work and repute—though town-houses are a peculiar and not the tenant should immediately turn an amiable class. Over and over dissipated and be dismissed, yet the again, in fictitious literature, they landlord must let him enjoy the occuhave been called on the stage as the pancy to the end of the term. Hence natural oppressors of virtuous po- the landlords of the houses of the verty, and the cruel aggravators of city poor are generally men of a very misfortune. The pet hypocrite and vigilant habit, with inexorable wills, scoundrel in Dickens's last fiction is wherever their interest is concerned, one of this class. There would not and hearts tempered and hardened be such a special run upon this order to the functions they have underof small capitalists, as distinguished taken. It is not from such men that from others, if their peculiar trade we are to expect enlightened schemes did not afford some characteristic to of sanitary reform. They have in suit the novelist's purpose; and so many instances, indeed, brought their it does. A landlord of this class to influence to bear with effect against obtain his proper returns must gene local efforts for the improvement of rally be an oppressor. Hence this towns. Wherever a measure is prokind of investment is shunned by posed for paving, or draining, or premen whose feelings or whose tastes paring a town by timely cleaning revolt at putting on the screw. It against the approach of cholera, their naturally falls, therefore, to those opposition may be pretty securely whose dispositions are adapted to it; counted upon. It is believed to have and they, as is always the case with been chiefly through the influence of a trade requiring peculiar qualifica- this class that every effort to pass a tions, bad or good, of course clear all Sanitary Act for Scotland has been the larger a profit by their partial defeated. monopoly.

Should there be exceptions among We have to reflect but a moment them—men inclined to give what the on the peculiar character of the workmen are asking for—a wellbusiness to see how this must be. conditioned house as much worth A man need not, necessarily, have to the rent to be paid as the houses of be oppressive and coercive though the gentry and middle-classes arehis dealings in the way of business there are always great impediments be with the poorest creatures. It is to such an isolated undertaking. pitiful enough to see the halfpenny Good, clean, well-drained houses set parcels of tea and sugar, on the up in an undrained foul district counter of perhaps an affluent capi- only make the wretched houses in talist, whose shop is in a poor and their neighbourhood more wretched. crowded district, and to reflect on We could point to two or three inthe close battle for life which these stances of " model houses for the slender purchases imply, and the hard working classes,” where everything destiny to which they can prove but is as compact and tidy, within as a faint alleviation. But there is no skill and zeal can make it. The inoppression done, though the grocer ternal impurities are removed by may be deriving a large profit in the most scientific hydraulic arrangethat class of business, and perhaps ments, making their exit triumkeeps his carriage at the sunnier end phantly in tubular drains — but of the town-the halfpenny is put whither ?

There are

no streetdown and the tiny parcel removed, sewers, and it is a worse case still and so the transaction is over. The than the pollution of a river. The landlord, however, must give credit, sewage flows upon the open streets though it may be of the shortest in the gutters past those other he has, therefore, always the diffi- workmen's houses which are not culty, and with the difficulty some- model houses, and of course renders them more pestilential than to tramps, beggars, and all the motley ever.

class who frequent what Police ReHence it is, we fear, in vain to ports and Acts of Parliament call look for a remedy in private enter- " low lodging - houses.” Driven to prise, unless the way be opened by the worst localities, and generally public measures. When these ren- poverty-stricken creatures, this humder the supply of well-aired and blest class of hotel-keepers must have well - drained houses for the poor extreme difficulty in doing anything practicable, the time will come when practically to raise the necessarily the law may fairly require that low sanitary condition of their estabno others shall be put to use. Far lishments. They have been required, more stringent measures than this however, by law to comply with cerhave been adopted without remorse tain regulations for cleansing their in the floundering and incoherent pro- premises and furniture, and restrictgress of sanitary regulations. Thirty ing the number of lodgers received by thousand inhabitants of Liverpool them to the means of ventilation in used to live in cellars. A few years the premises ; and it has been stated ago this species of domicile was in the usual official manner, in numesuddenly prohibited, and the thirty rous reports, that these regulations thousand were driven forth from have within their narrow sphere imtheir homes to find new dwellings. proved the public health. It was said that they did find them, to Of every one of the numerous docuthe advantage of themselves as well ments which have lately been issued as other people, since the morta- about the public health, the latest in lity of Liverpool, though still at the date always proves more distinctly head of the mortality of England, than its predecessors how efficacious was declared to have immediately the few measures of protection actudeclined. But the coercion which ally accomplished have been, and how would provide sound dwellings when much still remains to be accomplishthe way is cleared for them, need ed. In the papers presented to Parnot be in this cruel shape. Example liament by the Board of Health, just may be taken of other transactions as it was merging into a department in buying and selling, or letting and of the Privy Council, the instance of hiring. The person who buys or Tynemouth is cited among others. hires is entitled to a sound article. Between the two visitations of choThe tradesman who sells to him lera in 1849 and in 1854, the place putrid meat or other food in a had been cleansed under the Public condition deleterious to health, is Health Act. liable to punishment. The housejobber who lets out a poisonous

“ The provisions of the Act relative to house, should be amenable to similar the registration and regulation of comrestrictions. There is no interference houses, and the construction of new

mon lodging - houses and slaughterhere with proper freedom of transac

streets and houses, were immediately tion, any more than there is in the put in force. Care was taken to preinspection of markets and the de

vent the erection of houses without protection of unwholesome meat. The

per conveniences and provision for venhouse-jobber is not bound to offer tilation : no ashpits were allowed to be houses for hire, nor to have his made against the main walls of dwelling houses of any particular shape, size, houses, or without proper doors and or value--he is to be bound only, like

covers: wherever sewers existed, drains every other dealer, to give the article from the bouses were insisted on; and he deals in genuine-a house suited all persons laying out new streets were for its proper purpose – a house to compelled to have back - entrances to live, not to die in. Already the Legis- struction of drains from the backs of

the houses, and to provide for the conlature has fixed as much of this kind the houses instead of carrying them of responsibility as it practically underneath the basement story as was could on the poorest and the weakest previously usual. In the autumn of of the class who deal in house ac- 1852, when the appearace of cholera in commodation—the letters of lodgings this country was considered probable

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an active inspection of the town was ter natural conditions for healthi-
instituted by the Public Health Act ness :-“ Newcastle and Gateshead
committee; the by-courts and lanes suffered on that occasion the most
were thoroughly cleansed; the gully terrible outbreak of cholera yet ex-
grates trapped; the foul open ditch be; perienced in England, and lost within
hind the North Street was cleansed
and filled in; and many other local

a few weeks nearly 2000 of their nuisances throughout the borough were

population.” Nor could the immuremoved."

nity of Tynemouth be possibly attri

buted to any of the old exploded This same town had received a sig- superstitions about isolation from nificant hint to put itself in order by contagion, since, in the words of the the cholera visitation of 1849, which Report, many thousand persons carried off 463 of its inhabitants. In from Newcastle and Gateshead fleil the visit of the epidemic which fol. to Tynemouth, and many continued lowed these preparations, we are told to pass daily between the towns that there were only four fatal in- during the time of the visitation.” digenous cases ;” and to make this Such is one instance of what the immunity more notable and instruc- law can accomplish, through suffitive, there is the following statement cient sanitary provisions, for saving as to two towns within eight-miles of the lives of the people. Tynemouth, and enjoying rather bet

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A STORM is at all times a scene ing off the foam and spray from replete with the sublime and beauti- her bows, which perhaps was more ful, heightened in interest, to the appreciated by the crew of the sailor who is upon the sea at such a “Furious” than by her distinguished time, by the anxiety incident to the passengers, who, though capital sailcharge of his frail home, and the ors, would in these frolicsome momany lives dependent on his judgments occasionally express a preferment and energy. But in our posi- ence for the shore, which was not tion, off an almost unknown coast, to be wondered at. whose lofty and rugged line promised There were certain symptoms about no lack of off-lying rocks, with the the gale now setting in, which told want of sea-room from the many us it was not fair hard north-east islands and reefs surrounding us, breeze, nor one against which even it was the last thing we could have a powerful vessel might struggle. desired; but having come, we had There was far too much moisture, only to do our best to meet the diffi- mist, and cloud, with a falling baroculties of our position. The “Furi- meter, for that. ous” evidently thought so too, as As we approached Cape Satanomishe struggled against the wind, sea, saki, the sky and sea looked so exand current, that rushed down upon ceedingly wild that it was evident us as we neared the narrows of Van- the sooner we reached a sheltered couver's Strait. There was a glorious anchorage the better. The first im“abandon” about the tight frigate pulse was to run up the gulf of as she flung herself into the sea, and Kago-Sima, then well open to the cut her way through the angry north of us; but it was totally unbarrier which the storm made in her surveyed, and if this gale veered path, and rose with a spring, throw- into a typhoon or circular storm, we VOL. LXXXV.--NO. DXX.



should find ourselves in an awkward The coast upon the western side predicament: the other resource left of Cape Satanomi-saki or Tchichakoff, us was to find an anchorage close to though bold, is not precipitous above and under the lee of the extreme end the water-line; it consists of hills of the Japan group, and remain there varying from one to two thousand while the storm raged from the di- feet in altitude, with rounded outrection of the Pacific, and, directly lines, covered to their summits with it veered so as to blow from the verdure. In all the valleys, and upon Chinese Sea, to dash out and do our the sheltered bill-sides, many trees best.

were seen, mostly pines; and there The long projecting tongue of high was a considerable amount of terrace land forming the south extreme of cultivation. In every cove there Kiu-siu was steadily approached. nestled a hamlet, and out of almost Within a mile of the rocks there every, copse of wood peeped the were no ordinary soundings to be thatch of a Japanese cottage. Not obtained-closer still we went, keep- a mile from our ship there was a ing a sharp look-out for sunken village of some size, situated in a rocks, many of which would peep little bay, across the entrance of out of the smooth-heaving sea, rear which the breakers now formed a their weed-crowned heads as if to barrier; and on its shingly beach warn us off, and then sink again we observed many boats hauled up, with a gurgle and whirl of foam. either on account of the weather, or Down through valley and glen rushed for fear of the European ships that fierce squalls of winds (or “willy- had so strangely visited their secludwhaws," as sailors call them), which ed haunts. The night came on dark whisked the water into a sheet of and rainy, with no lack of wind ; foam, and made the tall ship reel but through the storm we were like a cockle-boat. At last, close to amused to see numerous watch-fires the rocks, we obtained bottom in lighted up along the coast, showing thirty fathom; but before the anchor that the inhabitants were on the could be let go it diminished to look-out. The effect of the flames fifteen ; we had then barely room to against the wild sky heightened maswing clear of the breakers. Thank- terially the strangeness of the scenery, ful to have found a good anchorage The 7th August brought po decided within three-quarters of a mile of change of wind, and one might have the cape, we lost no time in making been tempted to push out and fight preparation for the gale which was the gale, but our limited quantity of so likely to veer to the south-west, coal rendered it necessary to husand then what was now a friendly band the store, in order that our shelter would be a deadly lee-shore. return to Shanghai might be inTowards evening the “ Retribution” sured. and yacht Emperor” were to be Some vague idea that coal was seen to the westward, looking for an procurable in Japanese ports, beanchorage likewise.

When they cause coal-veins abound in Japan, sighted us their course was altered, had prevented any. depôt being and they eventually anchored near. formed at Nangasaki for the serThroughout the night the weather vice of the Ambassador, and even continued to look still more ugly at Shanghai it was only obstinate and threatening, and the quicksilver perseverance that enabled us to proin the barometer was what we call cure as much for the “Furious "pumping,” rising and falling with she could carry. an irregular undecided action. In In the afternoon a heavy groundall the squadron the sharpest look- swell, coming in from the south-east, out was kept, and, with the steam up, indicated that the gale in the offing we were ready to start at a mo- was veering, and soon after the vesment's warning; for we well knew sels were canted across the wind by that, if surprised by a typhoon in our a strong current setting into the position, its resistless rush and power Pacific Ocean from the Sea of China. would throw us on the rocks in spite This current, running counter to the of engines and anchors.

gale still blowing, occasioned a fright



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