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himself up for the work of his Master India was suddenly thrown into conin heaven, and to go forth and preach vulsions ? Had we turned our back the gospel to the gentiles, let him do upon our national Christianity ? so: he will have his reward—but he Were we not, indeed, increasing must first cease to serve Mammon. Church Establishment and Fortunately, there can be no mistake building churches everywhere? The upon this point. A man who, for Punjab bad been but a little time conscience' sake, sacrifices his worldly under British rule, and yet, in prospects, and emancipates himself 1856, seventeen churches or chapels from the thraldom of worldly obliga- had been constructed, or were in tions, cannot, so far, be wrong; but course of construction, in that prohe may be very wrong if, whilst he vince alone. Is the magnificent admits the authority of the temporal cathedral erected on the great plain government by wearing its livery and of Calcutta any sign of the practical receiving its pay, he knowingly dis- negation of our Christianity? The obeys its orders, in accordance with fact, indeed, is, that the declaration of the precepts of what he rightly calls our State Christianity was positive higher authority, but which autho- and unmistakable. It is equally a rity is never more unmistakably fact that the declared policy of the declared than in the mandate to sub- Company's government was adverse mit one's-self to the ordinances of the in the extreme to any kind of autholaw and the decrees of the temporal ritative “interference with the regovernment. Moreover, if the great ligious belief and worship" of the end sought be the diffusion of the natives of the country, and that, if gospel, why, out of pure self-will and there was such interference on the presumption, do that which is more part of any servants of the State, it likely to retard than to advance its was in defiance of the orders of Ġoprogress ? One “missionary” colonel vernment. The Christianity of the may undo the work of fifty mission State was, and is (according to the aries. This, in itself, ought to settle Proclamation), self-asserting and unthe question. But, in reality, what- aggressive ; and so we trust that it ever vagueness there may be about will ever remain. that word interference, every man's This toleration of all creeds is conscience, we believe, and every further expressed in the next paraman's intelligence, will enable him to graph of the Proclamation : “And supply the right meaning. That it is our further will,” it is said, meaning is rather to be felt than 'that so far as may be, our subjects, described ; and something, doubtless, of whatever race and creed, be freely must be_left to time and circum- and impartially admitted to offices stance. But, in the meanwhile, no in our service, the duties of which servant of the State can err by scru- they may be qualified, by their edu. pulously abstaining from all active cation, ability, and integrity, duly to interference in missionary affairs. discharge." In this her Majesty The missionary will always be ready announces only what Parliament to receive his money-and, some- decreed a quarter of a century ago. times, his information and advice; The Act of 1833, under which India but be will not ask for his authority was governed during the subsequent or for his ministry. He would rather twenty years, distinctly declared do the work by himself.

that no one, by reason of his country, Practically, indeed, the whole bis colour, or his creed, was to be question of the duty of the Christian precluded from any office under the State towards its un-Christian sub- Company's government which he jects remains where it was before. was otherwise qualified to hold. That All that we have gained is the solemn practically this provision has been proclamation of the Christianity of inoperative, inasmuch as that Hinthe Queen of England; and from doos and Mohammedans have been this we derive a distant impression excluded from the covenanted service that the British Government designs of the Company, we admit. But we henceforth, manfully and proudly, to do not hear complaints on this score assert the Christianity of the nation. 80 much as on that of the exclusion But were we not doing this when of native Christians from the more subordinate offices under the British law, due regard be paid to the anGovernment. We never heard, how- cient rights, usages, and customs of ever, until very recently, that native India.” On the first part of this Christians had not received, in pro- clause we need not comment, we portion to their numbers, a fair share bave so recently expressed our opinof Government patronage ; and we ion on the subject of proprietary now believe that, if they have not a rights in the soil. The latter half, fair numerical share of the loaves and we confess, errs somewhat on the fishes of the State, it is because they side of vagueness—serviceable as that are not as well qualified by “educa- vagueness often may be. If the law tion, ability, and integrity” as the generally is to be framed with due Hindoo and Mohammedan candi- regard to the ancient usages and cusdates for office who have competed toms of India, there is an end to with them. We certainly never heard those humanising and civilising efof a competent person being exclud- fects which are the glory of the Brited from office on the ground of his ish government in India. The words, being a native Christian. Mr Mont- indeed, would seem to indicate a regomery's Circular,” in which he trograde policy, for which we were declares the fact of the exclusion of not by any means prepared, and native Christians from office in the which we do not believe to be the Punjab, has been considerably dis- intention of Her Majesty's Govern. cussed. It appears to us, whatever ment. But for the word "generally,'' the fact, to have been quite uncalled we might believe that the reference for. If, practically, the native Chris- was merely to laws relating to the tians were excluded from office in tenure of land. But we apprehend the Punjab, whose fault was it? And that the passage is intended to have in whose hands did the remedy lie ? a much wider signification, and, in In those of Mr Montgomery and this sense, we fear that it may be his colleagues. There being legally misunderstood. The meaning, doubtand theoretically no exclusion of any less, is, that the ancient usages and particular class, the high function- customs of India are to be regarded aries in the Punjab might have ap- in the framing of the laws so far as pointed as many Christians to office they are consistent with humanity as they pleased ; and if they did and morality, and are not at variance

; not, it may be presumed that the with the declared intentions of Her omission resulted from the conviction Majesty, as expressed in other parts that the Hindoo and Mohammedan of the Proclamation. The ancient candidates for office would make usages and customs of the country better public servants than their sanction Suttee and other abominaChristian competitors. As there was tions; they sanction penal provisions no prohibition-no disability,we do against seceders from their ancestral not see that such a manifesto as the faith. If no one is to be “molested famous “Punjab Circular” was in or disquieted by reason of his reliany way called for by the exigencies gious faith,” the ancient usages and of the case. If practically an injustice customs of Hindooism must assuredhad been done to the native® Chris- ly be disregarded. A little more spetians, the remedy lay in the hands of cification might have been servicethose who had committed it, and the able here ; for there are some, doubtmore quietly it was applied the better. less, who will inveigh against the

The next paragraph of the Procla- words of the passage, as prohibitory mation relates to the tenure of land. measures for the advancement of “We know and respect,” says the humanity and civilisation. Queen in Council, "the feeling of at- This clause is the last, with the tachment with which the natives of exception of the concluding one, that India regard the lands inherited by is addressed to all time. What folthem from their ancestors; and we lows has especial relation to the predesire to protect them in all their sent. In the six next paragraphs the rights connected therewith, subject existing rebellion is considered, and to the equitable demands of the the terms of the amnesty are declared. State ; and we will that generally, We give them seriatim as they stand in framing and administering the in the copy before us :

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“We deeply lament the evils and intended that any very literal intermisery which have been brought upon pretation should be given to these India by the acts of ambitious men, who orders, or that the terms should be have deceived their countrymen by false

There reports and led them into open rebellion.

very stringently enforced. Our power has been shown by the sup

are so many different shades of guilt, pression of that rebellion in the field;

even when the offences committed we desire to show our mercy, by pardon may be described by the same words, ing the offences of those who have been that considerable discretion must be thus misled, but who desire to return to given to the local officers. Extenuthe path of duty.

ating circumstances will, doubtless, Already in one province, with a view be taken into consideration; and á to stop the further effusion of blood, and strong line of demarcation drawn to hasten the pacification of our Indian between those who have been bedominions, our viceroy and governor. trayed into hostility, or complicity in general has held out the expectation of hostile acts, and those who have been pardon, on certain terms, to the great moved to deeds of violence by their majority of those who, in the late unhappy disturbances, have been guilty of

own active malignity. The mere offences against our Government, and harbouring, of murderers may in has declared the punishment which will

some cases indicate a very minor debe inflicted on those whose crimes place gree of guilt. Many have, perhaps, them beyond the reach of forgiveness. had no choice between harbouriný We approve and confirm the said act of murderers and being murdered themour viceroy and governor-general, and selves. Others may have been comdo further announce and proclaim as pelled by ties of kindred to receive follows:

the worst offenders into their houses, “ Our clemency wlll be extended to

not knowing, perhaps, the extent to all offenders, save and except those who have been, or shall be, convicted of hav.

which their guests have committed ing directly taken part in the murder of themselves. You may give shelter British subjects. With regard to such, and succour to a murderer, not knowthe demands of justice forbid the exer? ing him to be a murderer; and it cise of mercy.

may be difficult to prove the absence “ To those who have willingly given of all guilty knowledge. The degree asylum to murderers, knowing them to be of guilt, it is true, may, in some such, or who may have acted as leaders cases, be ascertained by judicial inor instigators in revolt, their lives alone vestigation. But we do not see how can be guaranteed : but in apportioning the solemnity of a judicial trial can the penalty due to such persons, full be accorded to any but the principal consideration will be given to the circumstances under which they have been

We cannot try culprits

offenders. induced to throw off their allegiance, and

by thousands. In practice, therefore, large indulgence will be shown to those although the spirit of the Proclamawhose crimes may appear to have origin

tion will doubtless animate all the ated in too credulous acceptance of the measures of the local government, false reports circulated by designing its terms cannot be acted upon with men.

much precision; and this, doubtless, “To all others in arms against the

was expected and desired. A wide Government, we hereby promise uncon- discretion, indeed, must be vested in ditional pardon, amnesty, and oblivion the Executive. We are not afraid of all offence against ourselves, our

that it will be misused. To all but crown and dignity, on their return to their homes and peaceful pursuits.

actual murderers, whom it would be “ It is our royal pleasure that these a crime to forgive, the utmost clemterms of grace and amnesty should be

ency will, we doubt not, be extended. extended to all those who comply with All that we have now to pray for is, their conditions before the first day of that the message may be suffered to January next.”

be in fact, as in spirit, a message of

peace and love; and that the misIn all of this we entirely concur. guided men who have so long defied The terms of the amnesty are sub- the British Government, may be stantially those which have already moved by the appeal to lay down been laid down and acted upon, with their arms and become peaceful subthe exception of the specification at jects of the Queen. the close. It is not, wo presume,

Peaceful subjects of the Queen

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and with the promise of a happy the spot) is now dying out. It may future before them. “When, by the be long before the old feeling of conblessing of Providence,” says the fidence is restored. Confidence, under Queen, in the concluding passage of any circumstances, is “ a plant of the Proclamation, “ internal tran- slow growth.” Very slow its revival quillity shall be restored, it is our when it has once been torn up by the earnest desire to stimulate the peace- roots. But, with God's help, forgiveful industry of India, to promote ness may come quickly-and with works of public utility and improve forgiveness, compassion. We may ment, and to administer its govern- think profitably whether we have ment for the benefit of all our sube done all that we might have done to jects resident therein. In their pro- dispose the hearts of the natives of sperity will be our strength; in their India towards us—whether we have contentment our security, and in in all respects treated them as men their gratitude our best reward : And and brethren, and fairly entitled ourmay the God of all power grant to selves to their gratitude and affecus, and to those in authority under tion. We must look humbly at the us, strength to carry out these our past — hopefully into the future ; wishes for the good of our people.” turning the terrible lessons of the Right noble sentiments right nobly last two years to profitable account. uttered. This, then, is the future of If individual men will not now look, India. What that country may be in a spirit of toleration and forbearcome if strength is given to Christian ance, at their responsibilities, Parmen to carry out these royal aspira- liament will have legislated in vaintions, the imagination can scarcely the Queen will have proclaimed in conjecture. The strength that is vain—the new Imperial Government most needed at the outset is "the will labour in vain. Truly was it strength of love." "Happy," it has said the other day by Lord Stanley been said, are they who have not at Addiscombe, that our rule in India the blood of kindred to avenge.” depends more upon the personal We feel, when we counsel forgive character of the few Europeans ness-nay, indeed, compassion for our who constitute the dominant race enemies--that too many who read there, than on anything in the world these pages will ask us if we have the beside. If in that personal chablood of kindred to avenge. We racter, hatred and pride-not love know that it is very hard to forgive and reverence—are principal ingrethose who have dyed their hands in dients, alas for the reign of Victoria the blood of our kindred-nay, in- Beatrix ! The people of India are not deed, of our countrymen and our fiends, or wild beasts, or men devoid countrywomen, and the little ones of noble feelings and generous emoof whom God's kingdom is made- tions. Even these recent miserable very hard to love the comrades and events, which have filled so many countrymen of those who have done homes with mourning, have promi. such things ; we know that it needs nently elicited the good qualities of such strength as can only be derived the Indian races, and the good deeds from above. But there can be no of which they are capable. They happy future for India if Victoria's who have risen against us are but noble message of peace does not find the few; they who have disgraced an echo in every English heart. There their manhood by foul deeds are very was a time when we were filled with few. They have been signally chasapprehension lest a common feeling tised-fearfully punished. Already of unextinguishable hatred should the white man has had his revenge. take possession of the white man's Let us think no more, then, of that breast, and every dark face be regard- part of the story, but with one great ed for ever as the of a foe. We hymn of forgiveness inaugurate the hope- we believe indeed--that this new era—“ Glory to God in the bighanimosity (only rightly, perhaps, to est ; on earth peace and good-will tobe understood and appreciated on wards men.”

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No one of Mr Carlyle's disciples, the oscillations a firm stand-point, we should think, ever became a from whence to survey the History of Carlylist at once. The singularity Frederick—a History marked in its of style at first puzzles or repels – outward aspect by all the strongest the persevering reader then finds peculiarities of the writer. some suggestive idea which leads At the root of all Carlyle's works him on-till finally the obscurity lies a main idea in a particular aspect. clears up, the images and ideas The idea, he tells us, he derived from shine through, and, in the natural the transcendental philosophy, as exrevulsion of opinion which ensues, pounded by Fichte : it is this what was at first distasteful grows to be admirable, and the dubious

“ That all things which we see or work

with in this earth, especially we ourstudent, no longer perplexed by the cipher of which he flatters himself selves and all persons, are as a kind of he has discovered the key, becomes under all these lies, as the essence of

vesture or sensuous Appearance : that the uncompromising champion. them, what he calls the Divine Idea of

But a great number of readers the World ;' this is the Reality which lies turn back on the threshold, repelled at the bottom of all Appearance. To the by the startling aspect of that sin- mass of men no such Divine Idea is recoggular phraseology. To them he is nisable in the world ; they live merely, merely affected and obscure-even if says Fichte, among the superficialities, they have gone far enough to disen- practicalities, and shows of the world, tangle a leading idea, they perhaps not dreaming that there is anything recognise it as a truism in masque

divine under them.”Hero Worship. rade, and set him down as a char- As the idea of music may exist latan. His writing appears to them independent of sound, yet, to be comto be as Sir Hugh Evans says, “prib- municable, demands some voice or bles and prabbles—it is affectations." instrument, so all earthly things

Between these two classes, the are as the tones of music, or under knights who see only the golden side another figure, Vestures, making of the shield, and the knights oppo- manifest to our faculties the undersite who are blind to all but the brass, lying idea. So what we call rationally we should like to strike some sort of Society, is to the transcendentalist balance of opinion, and find between the embodied idea of a communion VOL. LXXXV.-NO. DXX.

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