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penitent sinners; but then, I say, that this fatisfaction was not of the first, but of the second kind. That it was not of the first kind, I prove by this single, but conclusive argument, viz. the Father's exercising
his mercy in the pardoning and forgiving of Gins. To exercise mercy in the pardoning and forgiving an offender, is to remit the punishment in whole, or in part, which is due for the offence ; but if the offender, or any other which is substituted to make satisfaction in is stead, shall do or suffer that which is, in the first and strict sense, a full and equal satisfaction to the demerit of the offence, then there is no room nor place for pardon or forgiveness to be exercis'd, because there is nothing to be pardon'd or forgiven. Yet that the Father doth exercise his mercy and grace in the forgiveness of sins, is what I have largely Thewn already. But then I say, secondly, that Christ did make a full and equal satisfaction to the demand of his Father. The truth of which will appear by what follows, viz. the Father did propose that his Son should thus suffer, and Christ voluntarily submitted to Death, to answer that proposal; this I have proved already, when I shew'd, that what Chrift died and suffer'd, was in obedience to his Father's will. I farther say, the Father was so highly pleas’d, and so fully satisfied with Chriít's undertaking this performance, that he hath there upon appointed him to be an interceffor for sinners, and pardons the believing penitent for his fake. For this, see Phil. ii. 8. 9. He bumbled bimself, and became obedient unto death, even the death of the cross: Wherefore God also hath highly exalted bim. Acts v. 31. Him hath God exalted with his right hand. Rom. viii. 34. Who is be that condemneth ? it is Christ that died, yea rather that is rijen again, who is even at the right band of God, who also maketh interceflion for us. Heb. vii. 25. Wherefore be is Q4
able also to save to the uttermost those that come unto God by him, seeing he ever liveth to make intercession for them. Chap. ix. 24. Christ is not entered into the holy place made with hands, but into heaven itself, now to appecr in the presence of God for us.
Rom. iii. 24. Being justified freely by bis grace, through the redemption that is in Jesus Christ. Eph. iv. 32. Forgiving one another, even as God, for Christ's Jake, hath forgiven you, 1 John ü. 1, 2. If any man fin, we have an advocate with the Father, JeJus Christ the righteous ; and he is the propitiation for cur fins, and not for ours only, but also for the fins of the whole world. Verse 12. I write unto you, liitle children, because your fins are forgiven you for his name's fake. Here we see that Christ's obedience unto death was so highly acceptable, and fo satisfactory to his Father, that he thereupon exalted him at his right-hand, to be a prevailing intercessor for sinners, and pardons the believing penitent upon his account, and for his fake ; and consequently his sufferings and death were full and equal to the demand, and his Father was fully satisfied therewith ; tho' :: ought to be remembered, that this is not to be understood fo * strictly, as that God would have been absolutely implacable to returning penitent finners, were it not for such intercession and satisfaction.
OBJECTIONS with their ANSWERS.
Oljeft. I, The sufferings and death of Christ are instrumental towards finners deliverance from condemnation ; but they could not be instrumental any other way than by merit, therefore they are so by merit. I answer, this is a mistake. The sufierings and death of Christ, are inítrumiental towards finners deliverance from con• Scc my discourse on jufifcation,
demnation three ways, and yet are not lo by me. rit ; namely, first, as they are a proper argument with the finner, to turn from his sins and return to his duty, and thereby he becomes the proper object of God's mercy ; secondly, as they are an argument with God, to pardon the finner upon his return to him ; and, thirdly, as they were a sacrifice of atonement of God's own appointment, and so are a sign and pledge of the sinner's repentance, and God's forgiveness. And,
First, The sufferings and death of Christ are instrumental towards the finner's deliverance from condemnation, as they are a proper argument to bring him to repentance and reformation. As our Lord came into the world to proclaim the glad tidings, viz. that God would pardon and receive to favour all believing penitent finners ; fo his fufferings and death had in them a two-fold argument to convince people of the truth of those tidings; and, consequently, were an instrumental caufe of that faith and repentance, which disposed them for God's mercy. For, first, they served to convince men that Christ was fincere in his pretensions, there being not any thing which could more effectually convince people, that he was in earnest, than his willingly foregoing all present enjoyments, and yielding up himself to lufferings and death, in maintaining the cause he undertook. And as he declared himself a beavenly messenger, fo, secondly, his foretelling his sufferings and death, together with the events answering the predictions, were an evidence of the divinity of his mission; and both these afford a proper argument with the sinner, to turn from his sins that he may be saved, Sinners, whilft under the prevailing power of their lufts, are set forth in scripture as servants and capiives to fin and satan. Rom. vi. 16, 17, 18, and Christ is represented as
rediening redeeming finners from that thraldom, by his fuf ferings and death, Tit. ii. 14. 1 Pet. i. 18. and, tho' Chrift did not pay down a price or valuable confideration to fin and fatan, to whom men were in bondage ; yet his sufferings and death were as effectual for the finner's deliverance, as if he had been redeemed by a price, inasmuch as they became a prevailing argument with the finner, to renounce subjection to his lusts, and to yield up himself a servant unto God. And this, in the language of the scripture, is called redemption, and being bought with a price ; the expressions being used not properly but figuratively, the finner being as effe&tually delivered from the thraldom he was under, as if he had been redeemed by a price. Thus, God is faid to redeem the children of Israel by a mighty hand, out of the house of bondmen, from the hand of Pharoah, King of Egypt, Deut. vii. 8. not that God had paid down a price, or valuable confideration to Pharaob, for the children of Israel's discharge, but he forced them out of Pharaoh's hand, by his judgments; and this is called redemption, inasmuch as the Israelites were as effectually delivered, as if they had been redeemed by a price. Again,
Secondly, The sufferings and death of Christ are inftrumental towards the delivering finners from condemnation, as they were an ałt of obedience to the Father's will, which so recommended him to "His Father's love, that he hath exalted him at his right-hand, to be a prevailing intercesor for finners; and so, those fufferings and death are an ergument with God, to pardon the believing penitent, for Christ's fake, This is what I have thewn above, in my discourse of justification, and therefore it needs not to be enlarged upon here. Again,
Thirdly, The sufferings and death of Christ are inftrumental towards the delivering finners from condemnation, as they were a facrifice of atonement of God's own appointing, and, fo, are at once å sign and pledge of the finner's repentance, and God's forgiveness. All sin is chiefly and primarily committed against God; and as God is at liberty to pardon, or punijh the finner, as he sees good, provided the punishment does not exceed the demerit of the crime ; lo; when he has been pleased to come to an accommodation with his creatures, he has, upon some occasions, appointed that a sacrifice of atonement should be offered up to him. Thus under the law, Lev. iv. 31. 2 Sam. xxiv. 18, 25. 2 Chron. xxix. 24. a peace offering, or sacrifice of atonement, was offered up ; and thus under the gospel, Christ was made a peace-offering, or sacrifice of atonement for sin, Rom. v. 11. Heb. vii. 26, 28. Chap. ix. II, 12. Verses 26, 28. Not that this facrifice of atonement, in either case, did, in its own nature, merit God's mercy, because there is not any thing which can be done, or suffered, which can repeir the damage done by sin, or which can be any way profitable to God, but as God had required it, in order to discharge the finner, then it became neceffary to that discharge, and the finner is said to obtain his pardon by it. From all which I think it appears, that the fufferings and death of Christ are instrumental towards the delivering finners from condemnation, cho' not by merit, in the original and strict sense of that word.
Obje£t. II. St. Paul faith, 1 Cor. vi. 19, 20. re are not your own, for ye are bought with a price, &c. And our Lord faith, Matt. xx. 28. That be came to give his life a rerfor for many. Here we see, that Christ did pay to God a price, or value able confideration for the breach of his law; and