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OX RIGHT YROX LOND.
ON LEFT FRON LOND.
cr. Kennet and Bromham, Sloperton
Melksham 96 Seend.
Seend Lodge, W. II. Between Melksham & and the houses are chiefly
Ludlow Bruges, Esq. Chippenham is Lacock constructed of freestone.
To Bradford, 6 m.
neral springs, whose wa-
103 Monkton Farleigh Ho. Box. Shockerwick.
John Long, Esq.
Warleigh House, H. 31 Bathförd, Somerset. 104 Skrine, Esq. A little further on right,
Bathford House. the Roman road to Ciren
Claverton, and ClaverSwainswick. cester.
ton Ho., G. Vivian, Esq. Charlcombe.
Bath, a city in Somersetshire, is noted for the beauty of its buildings. These, consisting almost entirely of stone, present a finer appearance than those of any other city in England. The river Avon runs through the midst of it. There is an elegant bridge over the river, and it has been made navigable as far as Bristol. Bath owes its celebrity to its medicinal springs. These must have been discovered very early, as we find that the Romans had fixed a station, and erected baths here A.D. 43. Many of these have been discovered in a very perfect state. Their reputation has continually increased since the middle of the 16th century, and invalids now resort to them from all quarters. The principal springs are those called the King's and Queen's. The temperature of the coolest is 97°, of the warmest, 1174 of Fahrenheit. The medicinal properties in all are nearly the same. Bath is also frequented by great numbers for pleasure as well as health. For these the numerous public buildings and hotels afford ample accommodation. Of the former the pump-room, beside the King's Bath, and the Assembly Rooms, said to be the best adapted for the purpose of any in the kingdom, are the most conspicuous. The Abbey Church, or Cathedral, is a fine building. It was founded by Bishop King in 1495, but not finished till 1582. It suffered much on the dissolution of religious houses, but was restored by Bishop Montague in 1606. It has lately been repaired. In the east end of the church Prior Birde's chapel presents a beautiful specimen of tracery. Amongst the numerous monuments, with which in fact the church is encumbered, are those of Sir W. Walle
* Pepys, with all his peculiar quaintness, describes a visit he paid to Bath in 18 Diary, vol. iv, pp. 468-474. Ed. 1851.
the Parliamentary General, and his wife; Quin the actor; Beav Nash, styled king of Bath in his day, and the great improver of the place;' and Dr. Haweis, one of the founders of the Church Missionary Society, claim attention. In a cemetery formed out of his own grounds, lies William Beckford, the author of Vathek. The Guildhall, situated in the High Street, is a noble building. Close to it is the market, which is abundantly supplied with provisions of every kind, but especially with fish. In Bath there are twenty-four churches and chapels, belonging to the Established Church, and sixteen Dissenting chapels. There are several hospitals, alms-houses, and charity schools. There is a well managed theatre also. Four newspapers are published here. The city is divided for municipal purposes into seven wards, and is governed by a mayor, fourteen aldermen, and forty-one councillors. It returns two members to Parliament. Bath and Wells form a diocese extending over the county of Somerset, and containing 388 parishes. The Thames and Severn are united by a canal called the Kennet and Avon, which passes from Bath to Newburgh. The population in 1851 was 54,240.
About 8; miles from Bath is Bradford, the inhabitants of which are chiefly engaged in the manufacture of fine broad cloths. The church is an ancient edifice containing several handsome monuments. Pop. 1851, 4240. About three miles farther is Trowbridge, of which Crabbe the poet was rector. There is a monu. ment to his memory in the church. It is celebrated for the manufacture of the best kerseymeres in the kingdom. Population 1851, 10,157.
Five miles from Trowbridge, and 141 from Bath, is Westbury, a town of considerable antiquity, with a venerable church containing monuments. Pop. of Parl. bor. 1851, 7029. Some distance beyond Westbury is Erle Stoke Park, the seat of Lord Broughton. Nine miles from Trowbridge, in another direction, and 13 from Bath, is the large and populous town of Frome, situated on the river of the same name. It is noted for its ale. The inhabitants are chiefly employed in the woollen manufacture. It returns one member to Parliament. Near Frome is Marston Hall, the seat of the Earl of Cork and Orrery. Pop. of town 1851, 10,148.
Nearly 12 miles from Frome, and 184 from Bath, is Shepton Mallet, which carries on an extensive manufacture of knit-stockings, and woollen goods. The market cross, erected in 1500, is a curious structure, consisting of five arches supported by pentagonal columns, and adorned with sculpture. Population 1851, 3885.
About 45 miles from Shepton Mallet, 18 from Bath, and 17 from Bristol, is the ancient city of Wells, forming a bishop's see jointly with Bath. It derived its origin from a collegiate church erected in 704. The cathedral is a spacious Gothic structure, and is reckoned one of the most splendid specimens of this order of architecture in England. The west front, in particular, is much admired. The Cathedral is open to the public. In the Episcopal palace Bishop Kidder and his lady were killed by a portion of the building falling in during the great storm in 1703. The chapter house and St Cuthbert's Church are also worth notice. Wells turns two members to Parliament. Annual races are held here. Pop. 1851, 47:36
See Oliver Goldsmith's Life of Nash.
About 54 miles from Wells is the town of Glastonbury, where stood the famous Abbey of that name, one of the richest and most powerful monastic institutions in England. The last abbot was hanged on account of his refusal to surrender the abbey to Henry VIII. The ruins of the monastery contain the ashes of King, Arthur, King Edgar, and many illustrious nobles and prelates, but their monuments are now defaced or demolished. The only parts of the monastery in to lerable preservation are the chapel of St. Joseph, and the abbot's kitchen. The old cross in the centre of the town has been replaced by an elegant structure. The church of St John is a handsome building, surmounted by a beautiful tower, and that of St Benedict is a venerable edifice erected by Abbot Beer. On a hill northy east of the town is the Tor or St Michael's Tower, the only remaining portion of a church and monastery which formerly stood there. The George Inn was formerly an hospital for pilgrims to the shrine of St Joseph Population 1851, 3125.
XLIV. GREAT WESTERN RAILWAY TO BATH AND BBISTOL, 1184 Miles.