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of its vaulted roof. The prospect from the top of the tower commands a rich and magnificent view of the wooded valley of the Tees. Upon the forfeiture of Jobn Balliol, the first King of Scotland of that family, this fortress was seized by Edward I. It subsequently passed into the possession of the Beauchamps, Earls of Warwick, the Staffords, Dukes of Buckingham, and ultimately of the Nevills, Earls of Westmorland. During the insurrection, in which the last representative of the last-mentioned family engaged with the Earl of Northumberland, against Queen Elizabeth, for the purpose of restoring the Roman Catholic faith, Barnard Castle was seized by Sir George Bowes, and held out for ten days against all the forces of the insurgents. (See Wordsworth's White Doe of Rylstone.) On the forfeiture of the Earl of Westmoreland, Barnard Castle reverted to the Crown, and was sold or leased to Car, Earl of Somerset, the guilty favourite of James I. It was afterwards granted to Sir Harry Vane the elder, and is now the property of his descendant, the Duke of Cleveland.* Barnard Castle is the scene of part of Sir Walter Scott's poem of Rokeby. The town of Barnard Castle bas one of the largest corn-markets in the north of England. The inhabitants are chiefly employed in tanning, and in the manufacture of carpets, plaids, and stockings. Pop. 1851, 4357. Two miles from the town is a chalybeate spring.
Between two and three miles from Barnard Castle is Streatlam Castle (John Bowes, Esq.), situated in a secluded but romantic vale encircled by lofty and irregular hills. The park displays some rich natural scenery.
About five miles and a quarter from Barnard Castle is Staindrop, about a mile from which is Raby CASTLE, the fine old baronial mansion of the Duke of Cleveland. Raby Castle was the ancient seat of the Nevills, formerly one of the most powerful families in the kingdom. Camden states, that from this house sprung six Earls of Westmorland, two Earls of Salisbury and Warwick, an Earl of Kent, a Marquis of Montagut a Baron Ferrers of Oversley, Barons Latimer, Barons (now Earls of) Abergavenny, one Queen, five Duchesses, besides Countesses and Baronesses, an Archbishop of York, and a great number of inferior gentlernen. The famous Earl of Warwick, the “King-maker," was of this house. The origin of the family of the Nevills is to be found in Saxon times. Canute gave Staindropshire to the church of Durham, and the prior and convent granted the same district to Dolphin, son of Uchtred, and Raby soon became the seat of the honocr. The grandson of Dolphin married Isabel, sister and heiress of Henry de Nevill, and heiress of the castles and lordships of Sheriff Hutton and Brancepeth, and a whole train of estates and manors dependent on those two great fees. The family adopted thenceforth the surname of Nevill. Raby is said to have been built by John Lord Nevill, son of Ralph Lord Nevill, who was one of the leaders at the
• See Appendix to Rokeby, Note A.
+ Camden might have added a Duke of Bedford to the list. The son of the Marquis oli Montagu was created a Duke by this title, but was deprived by Edward IV. of his dukedon en account of his poverty and inability to maintain the dignity.
IlowItt's Vist : Remarkable Places, 20 Series, p. 531-961.
battle of Nevill's Cross. His successor was created Earl of Westmorland ts Richard II., and became brother-in-law to Heary IV. This mighty line was de stroyed in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, in consequence of the part which the sixth and last Earl took in the disastrous "Rising of the North.” Their immense estates were confiscated, and the Earl was forced to flee into Scotland, where he found a safe retreat with Kerr of Ferniherst. He afterwards escaped into Flanders, where he entered as a colonel into the Spanish service, and protracte i a life of unavailing regret to extreme old age. Brancepeth was sold by the Crown in the reign of Charles I., and, after passing through several bands, is now the property of Viscount Boyne. Raby Castle and estates were sold to Sir Harry Vane, and have descended from him in a direct line to their present possessor, the Duke of Cleveland. The first view of this fine old mansion impresses the spectator with a strong feeling of the old feudal grandeur. Pennant says of it, “ It is a noble massy building of its kind, uninjured by any modern strokes inconsistent with the general taste of the edifice, but simply magnificent it strikes by its magnitude and that idea of strength and command naturally annexed to the view of vast walls, losty towers, battlements, and the surrounding outworks of an old baron's residence. The building itself, besides the courts, covers an acre of land." The interior is fitted up with all the conveniences and elegancies of modern refinement. The old baronial hall, which forms one side of the square of the inner area, is of the grandest proportions, 90 feet in length, 36 in breadth, and 34 in height. The roof is flat and made of wood : the joints ornamented with escutcheons of the family of the Nevills. Here, it is said, assembled in their time 700 knights who held of that family. The kitchen, which forms a lofty square of 30 feet, is a singular relic of the ancient baronial time. The old tower of Bertram Bulmer and Clifford tower command extensive and splendid prospects. The park is noble.
BISHOP AUCKLAND is a small but neat town on an eminence, bounded on the south-east by the river Gaunless, and on the north by the Wear. Auckland Castle, the palace of the Bishop of Durham, stands on a hill above the town, and is a splendid but irregular pile, erected at different periods. Its situation, amidst hills and green sloping lawns, rocks, woods, and water, is very beautiful, and was selected by the celebrated Bishop Anthony Beck, who built here a fine castellated manor house, which, at the time of the Commonwealth, fell into the hands of Sir Arthur Haselrigge. He destroyed the old buildings, and erected a splendid house here, which, however, on the Restoration, was again pulle! down by Bishop Cosin. The present edifice has been raised by his successors to its present condition and greatness. It contains some noble rooms, adorned with several fine paintings; and in the chapel is a monument by Nollekens, in memory of Bishop Trevor, and a picture of the resurrection by Sir Joshua Reynolds. The town has several mines in its neighbourhood, and is connected by railways witb all parts of the kingdom. It has also severa! chapels, free schools, &c. Pona 1871. 4400,
BRASCEPETA CASTLE, the property of Viscount Boyne in right of his wife, is situated between Bishop Auckland and Durham, at the distance of about four miles from the latter. This stately building was erected by the family of the Bulmers, most probably during the early part of Stephen's reign. It is supposed to have derived its name, The Brawn's path, from a huge brawn or boar, said to have once haunted this spot, and to have been killed by one of its lords. The castle was restored or rebuilt by the grandfather of the present possessor's wife, but still retains much of its original appearance and massive strength, and is one of the noblest mansions in the country. In the entrance-hall there is a suit of armour, richly inlaid with gold, said to be that of David Bruce, King of Scotland, taken at Nevill's Cross, The baron's hall contains a fine collection of armour and arms of all sorts. The rooms are very fine, and adorned with some good paintings. The country around is rich and pleasant. In the church are various monuments of the Nevills. CXXXIX. LONDON TO ALSTON THROUGH WOLSINGHAM, STANHOPE, AND
ST. JOHN'S WEARDALE, 2823 Milcs.
X BIGHT FROM LOND
ON LEFT FROM LOND.
From Hicks's Hall to To Bishop Auckland, 377 WEST AUCKLAND (p 401.) 24571 To Barnard Castle, 1:4 13 miles.
miles. cr. the river Wear.
Witton Castle, Sir Wil- 324 liam R. C. Chavtor, Bart.
1203 vol prospect. One mile
romi Wolsingham is 18 Bishopoak, and, farther tu the right, Fawnlees.
L'arperley Lane Head. 253 | Harperley Park, G.H.
on the Wear, chiefly inhabited by miners. Near it, to the west, on an eminence called Castle Hill, are the remains ot an ancient fortress; and on the north is a caveru
abounding with stalacSTANIIOPE. 2622 tites. In the vicinity is
Stanhope Castle. The East Gate. 12641
Stauhope and Tyne RailWest Gate.
58 way connects this towni St. John's Weardale. with South Shields, &c. Enter Cumberland.
The living is a very rich
ALSTOx stan is on an eminence near the Tyoc, over which is an ancient
bridge. The surrounding country is bleak and desolate. In the vicinity are rich and extensive lead mines, belonging to Greenwich hospital. Eleven and a quarter miles from Alston is Haltwhistle (Northumberland), on the Newcastle and Carlisle Railway (see p. 266), an ancient town containing two old border towers,-a church, adorned with old monuments, and a remarkable oval mound. called Castle Banks, in the centre of which is a fine spring. Two and a half miles from Haltwhistle is Fetherston Castle, a noble edifice belonging to J. G. F. Wallace, Esq.; and about three miles north-west of the town are the remains of Thirlwall Castle, formerly one of the boundary fortresses between England and Scotland.
* Guigborough was the first place in England where alum-works were erected. Here are the ruins of an abbey whick was once the burial-place of the nobility of the surrounding country. One mile south-east is a mineral spring. Four miles north-west is a lofty hill, commanding a very extensive prospect; and four miles south-west is Roseberry Topping, a peaked mountain, 1022 feet high, which also commands fine views. The country around Guisborough is very beautiful. Three miles distant are Wilton Castle (Sir John H. Lowther, Bart.) and Skeltou Castle, near which is Upleatham Hall. Five miles distant is Kirk. leatham Hall, surrounded by tasteful grounds. Near the hall is Turner's Hospital, founded, in 1676, by Sir W. Turner for 40 poor people. In Kirkleatham church is a splendid mausoleum. Beyond, is Marsk Hall, Earl of Zetland. Seven miles from Guisborough are Redcar and Coathanı, two small villages much frequented for sea-bathing. The sands extend eight miles.