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the Galilee, one of the most curious and beautiful portions of the cathedral, m. sumptuous shrine for the relics of the venerable Bede, the restoration of the borough of Elvet, the building of Elvet bridge, and the completion of the citywall along the bank of the Wear. To him the citizens of Durham were indebted for their first charter. One of his successors, Anthony Beck, rivalled him in the greatness of his wealth and the magnificence of his public works. He is said to have been the adviser of Edward I. in his dishonest policy towards Scotland. Among many other distinguished men Durham has numbered among its prelates Bishop Hatfield, founder of Durham College, Oxford, now extinct, Bishops Langley and Cosin, Lord Crewe, the testator of the magnificent charity of Bamborough Castle and lands, Bishops Talbot, Butler, the author of the Analogy of Religion, Egerton, Thurlow, Shute Barrington, and Dr. Maltby, the present holder of this see (1853). The cathedral, a magnificent edifice, stands on the highest part of the eminence which is occupied by the city. It was founded in the year 1093, and the successive additions which have been made to it are not only a perfect specimen of the Norman architecture, but a striking illustration of the gradual changes in the English style to the beginning of the fifteenth century. It was repaired and restored in the end of last century. It contains the remains of St Cuthbert, brought to light in 1827, of the venerable Bede, several of whose MSS. are in the cathedral library, of Ralph Lord Neville, who commanded the English at the battle of Neville's Cross, &c. In the churchyard is a monument to Robert Dodsley, the bookseller, author of the Economy of Human Life. The cathedral library contains a number of curious and interesting works, MSS. and relics. The castle of Durham, which stands opposite the cathedral, was erected by William the Conqueror, and, till recently, was the residence of the Bishops of the Palatinate. A university was established at Durham during the Commonwealth, but, on the restoration of monarchy, it was dissolved. Another university was opened in 1833, and is now attended by numerous students. Its funds are drawn by act of Parliament from the property of the bishopric. The Norman chapel of the castle is appropriated to the use of the college. The dining-ball is used as the college-hall, and the keep has been restored in good taste, and fitted up as college-chambers. This university is allowed to grant degrees in the several faculties, and a royal charter was granted to it in 1837. Besides the cathedral, Durham possesses numerous churches, chapels, and meetinghouses, a Roman Catholic chapel, the court-houses, a new prison, erected in 1809, at the cost of £120,000; the Guildhall, erected by Bishop Tunstall in 1555; an infirmary, a theatre, the remains of Finchale Abbey in a vale near the river, a mechanics' institute, and numerous educational and charitable institutions. The walks round the city afford the most charming proinenades About three-quarters of a mile distant is the site of the Maiden Castle, a fortress ascribed to the Romans, as also some remains of the Icknield Street. Saline, chalybeate, and sulphurous springs are found in the neighbourhood. One mile west of the city is Neville's Cross, erected by Ralph Lord Neville in memory of
the defeat and capture of David JI. Two M.P. Pop. 1851, 13,188. Durham is connected by railways with all parts of the kingdom. It gives the title of Earl to the Lambton family.
To Sunderland, 13 miles ; Sedgefield, 11; Stockton, 21}; Witton Gilbert, 31; Lanchester, 8; Wolsingham, 15; Stanhope, 20}; St John Weardale, 27}; Bishop Auckland, 101; Staindrop, 19; Barnard Castle, 241.
Six miles from Durham is CHESTER LE STREET, built upon an old Roman road, and on or near a Roman station. It became, A. D. 882, the seat of the bishopric, which was removed hither from Lindisfarne. In 995, a Danish invasion drove away the bishop and his clergy, who afterwards settled at Durham. The church is an interesting building, with a fine tower 156 feet in height. It was formerly a collegiate church, and has been famous from the time of St Cuthbert, whose remains rested here 113 years before they were conveyed to Durham. This church contains a collection of stone effigies of the Lords of Lumley from Lyulph, the Saxon founder of the family, to the reign of Elizabeth. They are fourteen in number, each resting on its altar tomb, and the name, armorial bearings, and immediate connections of each knight or baron are displayed on a tablet on the wall above his tomb, Pop. 1851, 2580.
One mile distant is Lumley Castle, a seat of the Earl of Scarborough. This noble building stands on a fine gradual elevation above the Wear. It is a quadrangle of yellow freestone, having an open court or area in the centre, with four uniform towers. A noble gatehouse projects from the centre, with overhanging turrets. The castle is supposed to have been built in the latter part of the fourteenth century. The apartments are unfurnished, and the pictures are chiefly portraits of the ancient family of the Lumleys. The great hall is ninety feet long, and exbibits striking features of feudal customs and old English manners. About a mile distant is Lambton Castle, the seat of the Earl of Durham, which was built in 1797 on the site of the old house of Harraton, the former seat of the Hedworths. It occupies an elevated situation on the banks of the Wear, and is surrounded by extensive grounds.
NEWCASTLE-UPON-Tyne is supposed to have derived its origin from Pons Ælii, the second station from the eastern extremity of the Roman wall. Previous to the Conquest the place was called Monkchester, from the number of monastic institutions; its present name was derived from a castle erected here by Robert, eldest son of William the Conqueror, on his return from an expedition into Scotland. Newcastle was anciently the resort of numerous pilgrims, who came to visit the holy well of Jesus' Mount, now Jesmond, a mile north-east of the town. One of the principal streets in Newcastle is still called Pilgrim Street. Another ancient town, called Pampedon, appears to have been included in the limits of the modern Newcastle; its name may be traced in the modern Pandon Hall, Pandon Bank, &c. Newcastle lias been the seat of many most interesting events in the history of England. David I. of Scotland made himself master of the town in the reign of Stephen, and obliged the people to swear
allegiance to the Empress Maud. Here John of England and William the Lion of Scotland had a conference in the year 1209. Here again Alexander II. of Scotland and his Queen came, in 1235-36, and had a conference with Henry III. of England. Here John Balliol did homage to Edward I. for the crown of Scotland. In 1293, the famous Sir William Wallace, in one of his inroads into England, made several vehement but unsuccessful attacks upon the town. In 1318, during the reign of Edward II., an unsuccessful attempt at a permanent peace between the Scots and English was made hero-two nuncios from the Pope, and two envoys from Philip of France, besides the English and Scotch commissioners, being present. In 1342, David Bruce, King of Scotland, made an unsuccessful attack upon the town shortly before the battle of Neville's Cross; and, twelve years afterwards, commissioners met here to consult on his ransom, In 1644, Newcastle was besieged by the Scottish army under General Alexander Leslie, Earl of Leven, but Sir Thomas Glenham, for the Marquis of Newcastle, who was governor for the king, successfully defended the town against him. In the same year, however, the Scots under the Earl of Leven took it by storm; but Sir John Marley, then mayor, retired to the castle, with about 500 men, which he held till terms of capitulation were obtained. In 1636, above 5000 persons died of the plague at Newcastle. In 1646, Charles I. was brought hither from Newark by the Scots, to whom he had surrendered himself. Newcastle is supposed to have been incorporated by William Rufus; but the first mayor was appointed in the reign of Henry III.
The town, which has more than doubled its size during the present century, is situated on the summit and declivities of three lofty eminences, rising from the north bank of the Tyne, and ten miles from its mouth. The town of Gateshead occupies the opposite bank, and may be regarded as a sort of suburb of Newcastle. “A strange mixture of ancient and modern objects strikes your eye in the more lofty and prominent features of Newcastle. There stands, tall, and stalwart, and square, and black as ink, the old donjon-keep of Robert Curthose. the son of the Conqueror. To the left still higher towers over the town the fine steeple of St Nicholas, and to the right the new and lofty column in honour of the 2d Earl Grey. Here, along the banks of the river, you see ranges, one above another, of dim and dingy buildings, that have stood for centuries amid the smoke of the great capital of coal; and there, on its bold eminence, a Grecian fabric, standing proudly aloft, like the temple of Minerva in Athens. Beyond it, again, you catch the tops of houses, and ranges of streets, that indicate a degree of modern magnificence which at once astonishes you in the midst of so much that is different, and stimulates you to a nearer inspection."*
Newcastle has undergone a most wonderful change during the last few years. In the centre of the town the old and narrow streets have been swept away, and some of the noblest and most magnificent streets and squares in the kingdom erected in their room. The person by whose genius and industry this marvellous
• Howitr's Visits to Remarkable Places 2d Series, p. 287.
change bas been effected is Mr Grainger, a native of the town, who raised himself to great importance from the condition of a charity boy, and the apprentice to a carpenter and builder. The total cost of his improvements on Newcastle in the five years ended August 1839, amounted to £645,690; and the total value of the whole property created by him during the same period, to £935,000. Besides these magnificent operations, Mr Grainger's plan comprehends the erection of extensive quays, of ranges of manufactories, and also of villas and terraces on the high ground in the neighbourhood of the town.
The other objects of interest in Newcastle are St Nicholas' Church, large and cruciform, with a beautiful spire, the upper portion of the lantern assuming the form of an imperial crown, and a valuable library, containing, among other curious books, the illuminated Bible of Hexham Abbey; St Andrew's Church, a very ancient structure, part of it of Norman architecture ; St John the Baptist's Church, containing an ancient font and several ancient monuments; All Saints' Church, a modern edifice of Grecian architecture, with a steeple 202 feet high; St Ann's, St Thomas's, Mary Magdalene, &c.; the Infirmary, the Keelmen's Hospital, the monument erected to the 2d Earl Grey, surmounted by a statue of that nobleman; the Royal Arcade, 250 feet long, by 20 wide and 35 feet high, the Incorporated Company's Hall, &c. The new covered market is pronounced to be the finest in the kingdom. Its area is more than two acres. One of the most remarkable features of the town is Stephenson's double bridge, nearly 120 feet high, which on its higher level conveys the railway across the Tyne, and has an ordinary roadway underneath. Newcastle also possesses several meeting-houses, hospitals, schools, and other charitable institutions, a literary and scientific institution, containing a fine library and reading room, a museum of Egyptian, and a gallery of Roman antiquities, &c. The free grammar school was founded by Thomas Horsley, who was mayor of Newcastle in 1525. Here the late Earl of Eldon, and Lords Stowell and Collingwood, the poet Akenside, and other eminent persons received the earlier part of their education.
The principal business of Newcastle is the shipment of coals, the produce of the surrounding coal-pits. About three millions of tons of coals are shipped annually from the river Tyne. The other chief articles of export are lead, cast and wrought iron, glass and pottery, copperas and other chemical productions, soap, colours, grindstones, salt, and pickled salmon. The imports are wine, spirituous liquors, and fruit, corn, timber, flax, tallow, and hides from the Baltic, and tobacco and various other articles from North America. The customs revenue of this port in 1857 was £291,782. Newcastle possesses glass-houses, potteries, and manufactories of iron, steel, engines, and woollen cloths. A number of persons are engaged in ship-building, and the branches of trade connected with it. The shipping belonging to the port in 1851 amounted to 110 sailing vessels under 50, and 8G3 over 50 tons, besides 130 steamers under 50, and eight over 50 tons; total tonnage, 202,376 tons. Newcastle is connected by means of railways with all parts of the kingdom.
* Penny Magazi..e, March, April, and May, 19tu.
Newcastle returns two members to Parliament. Pop. 1851, 87,784.
GATESHEAD in Durham may be regarded as a suburb of Newcastle, to which it is united by a stone bridge. St Mary's church is a handsome building. There are several manufactories of glass and of wrought and cast-iron in the town, and in the vicinity are numerous coal-pits. One M.P. Pop. 1851, 25,568. CXXXIV. FROM NEWCASTLE TO BERWICK-UPON-TWEED THROUGH MORPETH
AND ALNWICK, 631 Miles.