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bartow Crag, at which point it has been much widened, - formerly it was a narrow path between the steep mountain and the water's edge. An ancestor of the Mounseys of Goldrill Cottage acquired the title of King of Patterdale, trom having successfully repulsed a body of Scotch moss-troopers at this place, with the aid of a few villagers. His residence was at that time Patterdale Hall, but a few years ago the patrimonial estate was sold to Mr Marshall of Leeds. The brook from Glenridding is then crossed. Helvellyn may be ascended from this valley, for which purpose a guide should be obtained at Patterdale. The path to the summit lies for a considerable distance by the side of Glenridding Beck. On the left is Glenridding House, Rev. Mr Askew ; Patterlale Hall is passed on the right, and the village of Patterdale is soon afterwards reached. Thu Churchyard, in which lie interred the remains of the unfortunate Charles Gough, contains a yew-tree of remarkable size. There is an excellent hotel (Gelderd's), where guides may be had to any of the mountains in the vicinity, and boats procured for excursions upon the lake. A few days might be pleasantly spent at this place, in investigating the hidden beauties of the neighbourhooch There are innumerable nooks and shy recesses in the dells and by the lake,
“Where flow'rets blow, and whispering Naiads dwell."* which the leisurely wanderer has only to see in order to admire. An afternoon might be advantageously employed in visiting the islands, of which there are four : House Holm, standing at the mouth of the highest reach, "Loss Holm, Middle Holm, and Cherry Holm. Place Fell Quarry, half a mile from the inn, is a good station for viewing the lake ; and the walk to Blowick, two farm-houses under Place Fell, affords many charming prospects. A ramble of five or six miles may be taken into the retired valley of Martindale ; nor would the hardy pedestrian have much difficulty in making his way over the Fells to Hawes Water. The summits of Helvellyn and High Street might be visited ; both of which will repay the visitor for the toil he must necessarily incur, by the extensive views they command. The latter stands at the head of Kentmere :-its name, a strange one for a mountain, it acquired from the road which the Ro mans constructed over it. The traces of this road are yet visible. Its height is 2700 feet.
Ambleside is ten miles from Patterdale, the road leading over the steep pass of Kirkstone. A small inn, bearing the sign of “ The Traveller's Rest,” has lately been erected on the highest part of the pass, breaking in, with its mean associations, upon the solemn feelings which the surrounding solitude is calculated to inspire. In descending, Winderinere and the valley of Ambleside are spread out like a map before the spectator.
HAWES WATER, three niles long by half a mile broad, lies embosomed in lufty mountains, leon and a half miles north of Penrith. It is the property of the Earl
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sale. The road best adapted for carriages is that by way of Shap; but the nearest and most picturesque road is that by way of Yanwath, Askham, Het ton, and Bampton. The latter road quits the Penrith and Pooley Bridge road at Yanwath ; after leaving that village, it crosses what was formerly Tirrel and Yanwath Moor, to Askham, five miles from Penrith. Helton is rather more than a mile beyond, and Bampton is nearly four miles further. The grammar school at this village has been long in great repute. Shap, a strag gling village on the mail road between Kendal and Penrith, is five miles dis tant. The road passes near the ruins of Shap Abbey, lying on the banks of the Lowther, now bare, but once occupied by a thick forest. This abbey, anciently called Heppe, was founded by Thomas, the son of Gospatrick, for monks of the Premonstratensian order, about the year 1150. It was dedicated to St Magdalen. Upon the dissolution, the abbey and manor were granted to Thomas Lord Wharton, from whose descendant, the Duke of Wharton, an ancestor of the Earl of Lonsdale, purchased them. The only part left standing is the church tower. From the vestiges of buildings yet visible, the abbey appears to have been extensive. In the vicinity of Shap are two of those rude structures to which no certain date can be assigned, and which are therefore usually referred to the primitive times of the Druids. Karl Lofts, the name of one, consists of two parallel lines of unhewn masses of granite, half a mile long by sixty or seventy feet broad, terminating at the south extremity in a small circle of similar blocks. Many of the granitic blocks have been barbarously carried off for building purposes, or some other“ base use." At a place called Gunnerskeld Bottom there is a circle of large stones, thought to be a sepulchra cairn.
Returning to Bampton, the foot of Hawes Water is reached, a mile and a half beyond that village. The wild wood of Naddle Forest beautifully feather the steeps of the east shore. Rather more than a mile from the foot of the lake, Fordendale brook is crossed near a few honses, called Measond Becks. Ti* brook makes some pretty falls on the mountain side. A broad promontory spters the lake at this place, and approaches within 200 or 300 yards of the otbe margin. The mountains surrounding the head of this lake present a magnificent contour. They consist of High Street and Kidsty Pike, with their nameless de pendencies. The little chapel of Mardale stands close to the road about a mire above the lake, and over against it is a neat white house, called Chapel Hill, the residence of a yeoman named Holme. The ancestor of this family came orig nally from Stockholm, and landed in England in the train of the Conquer He was rewarded with an estate in Northamptonshire, where the family me seated until the reign of King John, at which period, its head, flying from bei enemies, concealed himself in a cavity (to this day called Hugh's care) in a of the hill sides. The estate on which his descendant resides was purchased by the fugitive. Having wound round a rocky screen, a few houses, called collar
tively Mardale Green, (amongst which there is a small inn,) are seen thinly sown over the floor of the narrow valley. Harter Fell closes in this level area on the south--lofty mountains rise on the east and west, and contribute to make this as perfect a solitude as can well be conceived. The pedestrian will find a road over the pass of Gatescarth, which reaches Kendal by the vale of Longsieddale, fifteen miles from Mardale Green. From Mardale the rambler might ascend High Street, or cross the Martindale Fells to Patterdale, at the head of Ulleswater.
Təz mountains best known and most usually ascended by tourists are Scarfell, Helvellyn, Skiddaw, Coniston Old Man, and Langdale Pikes, Guides can be procured at any of the neighbouring inns, who, for a moderate compensation, will conduct strangers to the summit by the least circuitous path ; and being generally intelligent persons, will point out and name those objects most worthy of notice, which are visible on the ascent or from the highest point. Fine ciear days should be selected for an expedition of this kind, as well for the advantage of having an extensive prospect, as for safety. Mists and wreaths of vapour, capping the summits of mountains, or creeping along their sides, are beautiful objects when viewed from the lowly valley ; but when the wanderer becomes surrounded with them on the hills, they occasion anything but agreeable sensittions, and have not unfrequently led to serious accidents. A pocket compass will be found useful in discovering the tourist's position with reference to the surrounding scenery, and a telescope in bringing within view the more distar.: parts of it. A flask containing brandy, which may be diluted at the springs on the way, will be found no unnecessary burden. With these preliminary ob servations, we shall proceed to describe the mountains we have named above.
SCAWFELL. The aggregation of mountains called collectively Scawfell, which stand at the head of Wastdale, form four several summits bearing separate names. The most southerly of the four is Scawfell, (3100) feet ; the next is Scawfell Pikes, (3160 feet); Lingmell, of considerably inferior elevation, is more to the west, forming a sort of buttress for the support of the loftier heights ; and Great End is the advanced guard on the north, having its aspect towards Borrowdale. The whole mass is composed of a species of hard dark slate. The Pikes, being ihe highest summit in England, is most commonly the object of the stranger's som bition ; some confusion has, however, been caused by the similarity of names and the lower elevation of Scawfell been attained, where that of Scawfell Pikes was desired. Since the trigonometrical survey, a pile of stones, surmounted by a staff, has been placed on the latter mountain summit ; such mistakes, therefore, need not, except through carelessness, occur in future.
The ascent of the two higher mountains may be commenced from sereral valleys---from Langdale, Borrowdale, or Wastdale. Of these, the station from which the ascent may most readily be made is Strands, at the foot of Wast Water. A boat being taken up the lake, will land the pedestrian at the foot of Lingmell, which projects towards the water. The top of Lingmell being almost gained, a turn must be made to the right, and that direction persevered in for three-quarters of a mile. Deflections to the right and left in succession will place the hardy climber upon Scawfell Pikes. From Borrowdale the best course is to pursue the Wastdale road, until Sty Head Tarn is reached Leaving this tarn on the left, and bending your way towards Sprinkling Tarn, which must also be kept on the left, a turn to the right must shortly be made conducting to a pass called East Haws, having on the left, Hanging Knott, and on the right Wastdale Broad Crag. The summit of Scawfell Pikes is in view from this place, but much exertion will be required before either will be reached. Great End will have to be ascended, and continuing along the summit-ridge, some rocky eminences will be passed on the left. A considerable de scent must then be made, and two small hollows crossed, from the second of which the trigonometrical station on the Pikes will be reached. The two elerations of Scawfell and Scawfell Pikes, though not more than three-quarters of a mile distant from each other in a direct line, are separated by a fearful chasm, called Mickle-dore, which compels a'circuit to be made of two miles in passing from one to the other. The passage by Mickle-dore, though dangerous, is not impassable, as some of the adventurous dalesmen can testify. All vegetation but that of lichens has forsaken the summits of Scawfell Pikes and its rival; “ Cushions or tufts of moss parched and brown," says Wordsworth with his usual poetical feeling, “ appear between the huge blocks and stones that lie aan neaps on all sides to a great distance, like skeletons or bones of the earth not needed at the creation, and there left to be covered with never-dying lichens, which the clouds and dews nourish and adorn with colours of exquisite beauty, Flowers, the most brilliant feathers, and even gems, scarcely surpass in colouring some of those masses of stone."
The view from the Pikes is, of course, of a most extensive description, embracing such a “ tumultuous waste of huge hill tops" that the mind and eye Alike become confused in the endeavour to distinguish the various objects. The mountains having lost the shapes they possessed when viewed from beaneath, areor! to be recognized by those acquainted with the locality of each ; however, with the aid of his compass, map, and our directions, the enquaring gazer will be
abie to assign its name to most of them. Turning to the south, Morecambe Bay and the Lancashire coast to a great extent are seen, and on clear days the prospect comprehends a portion of the Welsh Highlands. Scawfell intercepts the view of Wast Water and part of the Screes. To the left Eskdale and Miterdale are seen contributing their waters to the ocean. Furness and the Isle of Walney are visible in the same direction, as well as Devoke Water, placed on an elevated moor, beyond which Black Combe is a prominent object. Still more to the east Wrynose, Wetherlam, Coniston Old Man, with the rest of the mountains at the head of Eskdale, Seathwaite and Little Langdale are conspicuous. Bowfell, obscuring Langdale, appears in the east, and beyond. part of the middle of Windermere. Far away, beyond, are the Yorkshire hills with Ingleborough, the monarch of them all, plaincy visible. To the left of Bowfell, Langdale Pikes are descried, and in the east the eye rests upon Hill Bell, High Street, Wansfell, Fairfield, Seat Sandal, and Helvellyn in succession. In the north Skiddaw and Saddleback cannot be mistaken, beyond which, the blue mountains of Scotland bound the prospect. Immediately beneath the spectator he will perceive Sty Head Tarn dwindled to a little spot. Great End conceals Borrowdale, and a little to the left rises the mighty mass of Great Gable. Castle Crag, Grange Crag, and Gate Crag, shut out the greater part of Derwentwater. In the north-west are a series of hills, the principal of which are, Cau sey Pike, Grizedale Pike, Maiden-mawr, Hindscarth and Robinson. Then come the Buttermere and Crummock mountains, with Grasmoor conspicuously visible. Nearer are the Pillar, Hay Cock, High Style, and Red Pike. Westward the eye sinks into the depths of Wastdale, round which are piled Kirkfell, Yewbarrow, Seatallan, and Buckbarrow. The Irish sea bounds the whole western horizon, and over the extremity of the vale of Wast Water the Isle of Man car he sometimes perceived.
HELVELLYN. This mountain is more widely known by name than any other, partly from its easiness of access, and its proximity to a turnpike road, over which a coach passes daily within a mile and a-half of the summit, and partly in connection with a melancholy accident which some years ago befel a stranger upon it, whose fate, the elegiac verses of Wordsworth and Scott have contributed to make universally lamented. It stands, the highest of a long chain of hills, at the angle formed by the vales of Grasmere, Legberthwaite, and Patterdale, about half way between Keswick and Ambleside. From its central position and its great altitude, it commands an extensive map-like view of the whole Lake district, no fewer than six lakes being visible from its summit, whilst the circumjacent mountains present themselves in fine arrangement. Its height is 3055 feet above the level of the sea, being something more than a hundred feet lower than Scawfell Pikes, and higher than Skiddaw by thirty-three feet. Its geo logical structure is slate in one part and in another a Alinty porphyry.