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148

Castle Priory, W. & Brightwell House, W.F.12

Blackstone, Esq.
Bensington

46 Lowndes Stone, Esq.

Wallingford, formerly of Chalgrove, where Hamp

Igreat importance, is situated) den feil.

on the Thames, over which

there is a bridge of 19! Warborough.

Shillingford.

arches. It returns 1 M.P. cross the Thames.

Pop. of par, bor. 1851, 8064. Drayton.

Dorchester.

Little Wittenham,

Clifton Hampden. Chiselhampton.

Nuneham Park, G. G March Baldon, and Baldon House, Sir. H.P. n illough a Nuneham Courtenay. 529 Harcourt, Esq. The house by, Bart.

is handsome, and contains Balden Toot, and beyond

a choice collection of picCuddesden Palace, Bishop

Sandford.

tures. of Oxford.

Littlemoor.

Radley House, Sir G. 211 Cowley.

155) Bowyer, Bart. Horsepath.

OXFORD. 58 Suuth Hinksey. Oxford, the capital of the county to which it gives its name, and the seat of one of the most celebrated universities of Europe, is pleasantly situate upon a gentle eminence in a valley at the confluence of two small rivers, the Isis and Cherwell. It is a place of very remote antiquity, but the first fact connected with it that is known with certainty is, that in the reign of Alfred, who at one time resided at Oxford with his three sons, the place was noted for a monastery which was founded in the year 727. Oxford was twice set on fire, and otherwise suffered severely from the Danes. Edmund Ironside was murdered there. Canute frequently resided at Oxford, and Harold Harefoot, his son and successor, was crowned and died there. In the year 1067, the town was stormed by William the Conqueror, and a castle was built by him, now partly occupied by the county gaol and the house of correction. During her contest with Stephen, the Empress Maude was closely besieged in Oxford Castle by her rival, but escaped in the night with only three attendants; and the castle surrendered next morning. In the reign of Richard II. the lectures of Dr John Wycliffe, the warden of Canterbury College, occasioned a great excitement, and afterwards produced very important results. Henry II. resided at Oxford during the greater part of his reign, and here his valiant son Richard Ceur de Lion was born. In the reign of Edward III, the university and town suffered much from a pestilence which carried off a fourth part of the students. In the martyrdoms of Mary's reign, Latimer, Ridley, and Cranmer were burnt at Oxford in front of Balliol College. During the civil wars, Oxford, after once or twice changing masters, became the head-quarters of the King. After the battle of Naseby, it surrendered to the parliamentary army under Fairfax. During the reign of James II. the university firmly resisted an illegal command of that prince to elect a Roman Catholic to the presidency of Mag. dalen College. James proceeded thither in person and expelled the contuma

cious members, whom, however, when alarmed by the preparations of the Prince of Orange, he afterwards restored. The origin of the University of Oxford, like that of the town, is involved in obscurity. The first places of education here appear to have been schools for the instruction of youth. The earliest charter of privileges to the University as a corporate body is of the 28th Henry III. In 1603, the University obtained from James I. the privilege of sending two representatives to Parliament. Oxford University contains nineteen colleges and five halls.

UNIVERSITY COLLEGE is said to have been founded by Alfred; but this is believed on good grounds to be a mistake. The college, as such, was erected from funds bequeathed by William of Durham, Rector of Wearmouth, who died in 1249. The funds of this college have been augmented by different benefactorsand especially by Dr. Radcliffe. The chapel contains a fine monument, by Flaxman, to the memory of Sir W. Jones, the distinguished Orientalist, a curious altar-piece after Carlo Dolce, burnt in wood, &c. The common room contains Wilton's fine bust of King Alfred.

BallioL COLLEGE received its foundation about the year 1263 from Sir John Balliol of Barnard Castle (father of John Balliol, King of Scotland), and his wife Devorgilla. The library was formerly considered one of the best in the University, and previously to the Reformation was particularly rich in manuscripts. Wycliffe was of this College.

MERTON COLLEGE was founded about the year 1264 by Walter de Merton, Lord Chancellor, and afterwards Bishop of Rochester. Its chapel, rebuilt about the beginning of the fifteenth century, is a remarkably fine specimen of Gothic workmanship, and contains an altar-piece of the Crucifixion, supposed to be by Tintoretto, and monuments to Sir Thomas Bodley and Sir Henry Saville. The Library is the oldest in the kingdom.

EXETER COLLEGE was founded in 1314 by Walter de Stapledon, Bishop of Exeter, Lord Treasurer of England, and Secretary of State to Edward II. It has a handsome hall and chapel, and a good library.

ORIEL COLLEGE was founded about the year 1326, nominally by Edward II. but really by Adam de Brome, his almoner. The architectural beauty of the library is striking. Among the plate are two cups, one given by Edward II. and the other by Bishop Carpenter.

QUEEN'S COLLEGE derived its name from Philippa, Queen of Edward III. by whose confessor, Robert de Eglesfield, it was founded in 1340. This college has been particularly patronized by the Queens of England. The existing buildings, with the exception of the library, were chiefly erected during the last century. The chapel has a painted ceiling of the Ascension by Sir James Thornhill, and for an altar-piece a copy by Cranke of Correggio's “ Night." The library contains about 20,000 volumes, and, among other curiosities, a very ancient portrait on glass of Henry V., and another of Cardinal Beaufort.

New COLLEGE owes its establishment in 1380, to William of Wykeham, Bishop of Winchester, and Lord High Chancellor, in the reign of Edward III, The buildings were completed in 1387, the same year in which Wykeham gan his collegiate establishment at Winchester. This is one of the wealthies

leges in Oxford, and possesses the most beautiful chapel in the university. Among the curiosities preserved in this chapel is the superb and costly crosier of the founder.

LINCOLN COLLEGE was founded about the year 1427, by Richard Flemmyng, Bishop of Lincoln. John Wesley, founder of the Methodists, was of this college.

ALL SOUL's COLLEGE was founded in the year 1437, by Henry Chichelé, Archbishop of Canterbury. The library of this college, the foundation stone of which was laid by Dr. Young, author of the “ Night Thoughts," was erected by Colonel Codrington, and contains perhaps the largest room appropriated to the purpose in England.' In the chapel is a fine statue of Judge Blackstone by Bacon, and the college hall contains numerous paintings; among others, one of the Finding of the Law, by Sir J. Thornhill.

MAGDALEN COLLEGE was founded by William of Waynflete, Bishop of Winchester, in the year 1457. It is bound by its statutes to entertain the Kings of England, and their sons, when at Oxford. The chapel contains a picture of Christ bearing the cross, said to be by Guido, the Last Judgment painted on glass, &c.

BRAZEN Nose COLLEGE was founded in the year 1509, by William Smytis, Bishop of Lincoln, in conjunction with his friend, Sir Richard Sutton, Knight. Its singular name is said to have arisen from the circumstance of its having been erected on the site of two ancient halls, one of which was called Brazen Nose Hall, on account of an iron ring fixed in a nose of brass, and serving as a knocker to the gate. The chapel is fine, and the hall is embellished with portraits.

Corpus CHRISTI COLLEGE was founded in 1516, by Richard Fox, Bishop of Winchester. The library, which is particularly rich in printed books and manuscripts, contains a statue of the founder in his pontifical robes. In the hall are a few portraits, and in the chapel an altar-piece by Rubens.

CHRIST CHURCH COLLEGE, the largest and most magnificent foundation at Oxford, owes its origin in 1524 to Cardinal Wolsey. Its chapel is the cathedral church of the bishopric of Oxford. The hall is one of the finest in the kingdom, and boasts a very extensive collection of portraits. The library is very rich in manuscripts, prints, and coins. In Peckwater Quadrangle there is a collection of pictures bequeathed to the college by General Guise in 1765, and since enlarged. The bell called Great Tom weighs nearly 17,000 lbs.

TRINITY COLLEGE was originally founded and endowed by Edward III., Richard II., and the priors and bishops of Durham. Being classed with religious houses at the Reformation, it was suppressed, and Sir Thomas Pope, having purchased the site and buildings, endowed a new foundation in 1554.

St. John's COLLEGE was founded in 1555, by Sir Thomas White, Alderman und Lord Mayor of London. Its gardens are much admired; the library is one of the largest and best furnished in the university, and possesses a curious piece of tapestry representing our Saviour and disciples at Emmaus.

JESUS COLLEGE was founded in 1571, by Queen Elizabeth at the suggestion of Hugb ap Rice D.C.L., for the more especial benefit of his countrymen, tha natives of Wales. This was the first college founded by a Protestant. The library has a good collection of books and some curiosities, among which is a silver bowl capable of containing ten gallons, a metal watch, given by Charles I., and a huge stirrup said to have been used by Queen Elizabeth. In the hall there is a portrait of Charles I. by Vandyke, and in the chapel a copy of Guido's "Michael triumphing over Satan.”

WADHAM COLLEGE, founded in 1613, by Nicholas and Dorothy Wadham, is remarkable as having given rise to the Royal Society, the first meeting of which was held in a room over the gateway. The chapel and hall are fine.

PEMBROKE COLLEGE, originally Broadgate Hall, was in 1624 converted into a college by the joint munificence of Thomas Tesdale and the Rev. Richard Wightwick. Dr. Samuel Johnson was of this college, and in the hall there is a bast of him by Bacon, a portrait of Charles I., and other paintings.

WORCESTER COLLEGE was founded in 1714, from funds bequeathed by Sir Thomas Cookes, Bart. It possesses handsome gardens, chapel, and a library containing a valuable collection of architectural books and manuscripts.

Besides the colleges, there are five halls at Oxford-that is, establishments not endowed with estates, but simply under the government of a principal for the education and residence of students. These are, St Alban Hall, which derived its name from Robert de Sancto Albano, a burgess of Oxford, in the reign of King John; St Edmund Hall, said to be so called from St Edmund, Archbishop of Canterbury, in the reign of Henry III.; New Inn Hall, founded by William of Wykeham; St Mary Hall, founded by Edward II.; and St Mary Magdalen Hall, the most considerable of the whole number, originally founded as a grammar school in 1480, by William Waynflete, the founder of Magdalen College.

The chief public establishments connected with the University are-
THE SCHOOLS containing the Pomfret statues and the Arundelian marbles,

THE BODLEIAN LIBRARY, founded by Sir Thomas Bodley at the close of tho sixteenth century, on the remains of one established by Humphrey, Duke of Glovrester. This library contains, perhaps, the most valuable collection of books and manuscripts in Europe.

THE PICTURE GALLERY.

THE THEATRE, built by Gilbert Sheldon, Archbishop of Canterbury, and Chancellor of the University in 1664-1669, at the expense of L.15,000. It was designed and completed by Sir Christopher Wren.

CLARENDON Rooms, erected in 1711, with the profits of the sale of ClarenHon's "History of the Rebellion," the copyright of which was presented to the University by his Lordship's son. They are used for offices and lecture rooms.

THE ASHMOLEAN MUSEUM, built at the charge of the University in 1682, by Sir C. Wren, for the reception of the collections of Ashmole, the antiquary.

RADCLIFFE'S LIBRARY, one of the most imposing architectural ornaments of Oxford, founded by Dr. Radcliffe, who, besides other sums, bequeathed L.40,000 for the erection of the building. The building was designed and executed beiween 1737 and 1749 by Gibbs of Aberdeen.

The RADCLIFFE OBSERVATORY, erected out of the funds of Dr Radcliffe, by the trustees of his will, at an expense of L.30,000. Besides these buildings there is a botanic gardei, containing about five acres.

TAE NEW UNIVERSITY PRINTING OFFICE erected 1826-7.

The total number of electors (doctors and masters of arts) upon the books of the different colleges and halls of Oxford is above 3450.

Oxford contains fifteen parish churches. The other buildings most worthy of notice are, the town-hall, the city bridewell, where is preserved the door of the prison in which Cranmer, Ridley, and Latimer were confined, the county gaol, the Radcliffe Infirmary, &c. There are several meeting houses belonging to dissenting bodies. Races are held annually in Port Meadow, a short distance from the city. Oxford returns two M.P. Pop. in 1851, 27,943.

At Stanton Harcourt, 41 miles distant, are some remains of a mansion that belonged to the Earls Harcourt, now extinct. In one of the rooms, Pope passed a portion of two summers in translating Homer. The church contains several monuments of the Harcourt family. In the vicinity are three large monumental stones called the Devil's Quoits.

LXV. LONDON TO GLOUCESTER THROUGH OXFORD AND CHELTEN.

HAM, 103 Miles.

ON LEFT FROM LOND.

From
London.

From
Glo'ster.

ON RIGHT FROM LOND.

From Hyde Pa. Corner 49 to Oxford, (see p. 188.) 54

y cross river Isis.
Wytham Abbey, Earl of
| Abingdon.
47Botley Hill, (Berks.) 1553

Cumper.
AS cross river Isis.
Ensham Hall (Earl of 43}| Ensham, (Oxon). 594
Macclesfield), and beyond
Blenheim (Duke of Marl-

We cr. riv. Windrush. borough), see p. 189.

381 WITNEY. 643 Cockthorpe Park

famous for its blankets and
other thick woollens. The
principal buildings are, the
church, a spacious Gothic
structure, with several an-
cient monuments; the town-
hall, and the Staple or

Blanket-Hall. Pop. 1861,
The Priory, W J. Len- 3099.

27 miles distant, Broadthall, Esq. 31 BURFORD 72

well Grove, and near it is To Chipping Norton, 10m. formerly carried on a large

Filkins Hall. To Stow on the Wold, 10 manufacture of

linen miles.

cloths and malt. The

church contains a monn. Barrington Grove, C. ment to the memory of To Faringdon, 10 miles. Treenaway, Esq.

Chief Baron Sir L. Tan.
Barrington Park, Lord

Ifield.
mnevor
Sherborne Castle, Lord

Enter Gloucestershire. Eastington Park
erborne.

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