Imatges de pàgina

The invariable rule for the formation of the base of both future tenses is, that the Guna be substituted for the vowel of the root : thus, from ji, " to conquer," the base je (jetasmi, jeshyami); from shru, "to hear," the base shro fofanflw. ^ffanfi?). And the general rule, moreover, is, that if the root end in a consonant, the vowel i be inserted between the base and terminations. Thus, from budh comes the base bodhi (^tftlrilfw bodhitasmi, &c.; ^ftl'mfa bodhishyami, &c). This insertion of *', the manifest object of which is to prevent the coalition of consonants, is unfortunately, however, forbidden in about one hundred roots, some of which are of very common occurrence; and the combination of the radical consonant with the initial t and s of the terminations, will require an acquaintance with the rules already laid down at p. 67. When these rules are acquired, there will be no difficulty in the formation of these tenses. The only question is, how are we to distinguish between those roots which insert i, and those which do not?

The laws about to be laid down will determine this point, and it is of the utmost importance that the attention of the student be directed towards them, as the assumption or rejection of this inserted vowel is not confined to the two futures, but extends to many other parts of the verb; insomuch, that if the first future reject i, it is, as a necessary consequence, rejected in the third preterite, the atm. of the benedictive, the conditional, the infinitive mood, the passive past participle, the indeclinable past participle, the future participle formed with the affix tavya, and the noun of agency formed with the affix tri; and is, moreover, optionally rejected in the 2d pers. sing, of the 2d pret., and decides the formation of the desiderative form of the root by s instead of ish. So that the learner, if he know the first future, will pass on with great ease to the formation of these other parts of the verb, and should always look to this tense as his guide. For example, taking the root kship, " to throw," and finding the 1st fut. to be ksheptasmi, he knows that i is rejected. Therefore he knows the

* Unless such substitution be forbidden according to r. 88. a.

2d future to be kshepsyami; the 3d pret. to be akshaipsam; the atm. of the benedictive, kshipsiya; the conditional, akshepsyam; the infinitive, ksheptum; the passive past participle, kshipta; the indeclinable part, ksheptwd; the future part, ksheptavya; the noun of agency, ksheptri; the 2d pers. sing, of the 2d pret. optionally chiksheptha; the desiderative, chikshipsami. On the other hand, taking the root yach, "to ask," and finding the 1st future to be yachita, he knows that i is inserted, and therefore the same parts of the verb will be yachishyami, ayachisham, yachishlya, ayachishyam, yachitum, yachita, yachitma, yachitavya, yachitri, yayachitha, yayachishami, respectively.

It is evident that roots ending in vowels do not require i, and it may be taken as a general rule that they do not insert it: there are only a few exceptions, as follows:

101. Boots ending in Vowels, inserting i in the Primitive. Obs. In the following lists the 3d pers. sing, of the 1st and 2d future is given after each root.

a. Roots ending in u; as, bhu, "to be" (bhavita, bhavishyati).

b. Roots ending in re; as, i^trt, "to pass" (tarita, tarishyati): and in these, inserted i is optionally lengthened (tarita, tarishyati).

c. Roots ending in ri short insert i in the 2d future, although rejecting it in the first; as, ^ (karishyami), % (harishyami).

Boots ending in Consonants, inserting i in the Primitive.

d. All roots, without exception, ending in kh, g, gh, t, th, d, n, t, th, b, y, r, I, v, insert i; in k there is one exception; in ch, four; in chh, one; in j, ten common exceptions; in d, eight; in dh, eleven; in n, two; in p, twelve; in bh, three; in m, five; in ^ sh, seven; in ^ sh, nine; in s, one; in ^ h, twelve.

Boots ending in Vowels, rejecting i in the Primitive.

e. All roots in 5 reject i; as, da (data, dasyati): all common roots in i and I; as, je (jeta, jeshyati).

f. All common roots in u; as, shru (shrota, shroshyati): all in ri reject i in the 1st future; as, 5 hri (harta, harishyati).

[ocr errors]

* In certain roots containing the vowel ri, the vowel passes into ra and r«, instead of the Guna ar or Vriddhi ar. Thus, the 1st future of srij is ■$&[ for 5tr?T; and the 3d pret. wn| for ^nHTSF

t All these roots may optionally take i in the futures.

[merged small][table]

103. Formation of the Base of the Third Preterite.

This complex and "multiform" tense, the most troublesome and intricate in the whole Sanscrit verb, is not so much one tense, as an aggregation of several tenses, all more or less allied to each other, all bearing a manifest resemblance to the first preterite, but none of them exactly assignable to that tense, and none of them so distinct in its character or so universal in its application as to admit of segregation from the general group, under any separate title of its own.

Fortunately for the study of Sanscrit, the third preterite very rarely occurs in the earlier and better specimens of Hindu composition; and the student who contents himself with the Ramayana, Mahabharata, Hitopadesha, and Laws of Manu, and avoids the grammatical Poem of Bhatti, and the extravagant writings of more modern authors, will lose nothing by an almost total ignorance of this tense, or, at least, may satisfy himself with a very cursory survey of its character and functions.


All the varieties of this tense are reducible to three distinct forms, adapted to the three schemes of terminations given in the table above. The first form is that which belongs to those roots which insert i before the terminations of the non-conjugational tenses: the second belongs to those which reject *: and the third, which most nearly approximates to the 1st pret., belongs, in the first place, to certain roots, whose bases in the first pret. present some important variation from the root; in the second, to certain roots ending in $1 sh, ^ sh, or ^ h, which have i, u, or ri for their radical vowel; and, in the third, to cansals, or verbs of the 10th conjugation.

In all the modifications of this tense, the first step in the formation of the base is the prefixing of the augment a, a further indication of its community of character with the first preterite. But besides this there are changes of the base peculiar to each form.

Form 1. Formation of the Base.

a. In the first form, if a root end in a vowel, the base must be formed in the par. by the Vriddhi change, and in the atm. by the Guna: thus, from pu, "to purify," come the two bases apau and apo (vMMlfcIM apdvisham, <Sfc. r. 8., vqfcftl apamshi, &jc, r. 10.T)- Very few roots ending in vowels take the inserted t, and therefore very few follow this form.

6. If a root end in a single consonant, Guna is required in both par. and atm. (r.88. b.). Thus,frombudh,abodh (^r^tftfRabodhisham,fyc, VH^fliVfa abodhishi,S;c.). Almost all roots ending in consonants, which insert i, follow this form.

c. A medial a is sometimes lengthened; as, from vad, avad (avadisham, &;c.).

d. A few roots in a, e, o, and ai, with three in m, viz. yam, ram, nam, insert * before the terminations of this form, the final e, o, and ai, being changed to a. Thus, from ya, ayds (aydsisham, $$c.); from so, ascis (asdsisham, <5fe.); from yam, ayans (ayansixham, <S(C.). In the atm. they follow form 2. {ayasi, &;c., aransi, <^c).

Form 2. Formation of the Base.

e. The greater number of roots rejecting i follow this form.

Observe that the initial s may often be rejected from those terminations in which it is compounded with t, th. This takes place when the base ends in any consonant except a nasal or a semi-vowel, or in any short vowel; and dhwam (£) takes the place of dhwam when the base ends in any other vowel than a.

f. If a root end in either a consonant or a vowel, Vriddhi takes place in the par.; as, from kri, akar (il4>l% aharsham, <5fc), from yuj, ayauj (^iqhij ayauksham, S;c, dual ayaukshwa, ayauktam, Sfc.); from rudh (arautsam, $c, dual arautswa,

« AnteriorContinua »