Imatges de pàgina

the one should take the atmanepada; the other, the parasmaipada inflection. At any rate this fact is clear that the par. of the 4th conjugation is the form used in numerous roots to yield a neuter signification; and that the atm. is identical with the form used to yield a passive sense. Hence it arises, that many roots appear in the 4th conjugation as neuter verbs, which also appear in some one of the other nine as transitive. For example, yuj, "to join," when used in an active sense is conjugated either in the 7th conjugation, or in the causal; when in a neuter, in the 4th. So also, push, "to nourish"; hshnbh, "to agitate"; klish, "to vex"; sidh, " to accomplish."


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88. Obs., that it is an universal rule in every conjugation that the augment a is prefixed to the base of the first pret.; and that when this is prefixed to bases beginning with the vowels i, u, and rt, short or long, it blends with them into ai, au, ar (instead of e, o, ar, by r. 5.). Thus the base ^«3t becomes in the first pret. aichchham, and ridhno, ardhnot.

First Conjugation.

a. If a root be of the 1st conjugation, the rule for the formation of the base in the conjugational tenses is, that the Guna be substituted for the vowel of the root throughout every person of every tense. Thus, from ^e^ budh, "to know," is formed the base ^t^ bodh (*ftatf»T> bodhami, &c). From bhu, "to be," bho (bhavami, &c, r. 10.f). From ni, "to lead," ne (nayamt, &c, r. 10/j"). From srip, sarp; from klrip, kalp (p. 2.\). In the first preterite the only difference in the base will be that a is prefixed; thus, abodh, abho, ane (abodham, &c, abhavam, &c, anayam, &c). In the potential and imperative the base is exactly the same as in the present (bodheyam, &c, bodhani, &c).

b. Since there is no Guna of a, roots like ^ pack," to cook," do not change (pac/tami, &c). Nor does any change take place if the root ends in two consonants; as, nind, "to blame": nor if the root contain a long vowel, not final; as, fiv, "to live." Obs. It will be hereafter seen that this prohibition of Guna extends to the other tenses as well as to the conjugationalJ

c. Some roots of the 1st conjugation form their bases in the first four tenses by a change peculiar to themselves, which change is of course discarded in the other tenses. Thus, from 5g!n sthd, "to stand," comes the base fin? tishth (tishthdmi, SjC.); from ire gam, "to go," JT55 gachchh; from ^nj sad, atm. "to sink," rid; from

* Bopp has shewn that an analogous change takes place in Greek. Thus, the root ^7 {eipvyov) becomes ^etrym in the present.

t Thus, nind is in the 2d pret. nininda; in the 1st fut. nindita; in the 3d pret. anindit; in the causal, nindayati.

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Fourth Conjugation. 89. If a root be of the 4th conjugation, no Guna takes place, but the base is formed by the simple addition of y to the root. Thus, from ftp^ sidh, "to succeed,11 is formed the base sidhy (sidhyami, &c.); from ^jjr nrit, "to dance," the base nrity.

a. The following are anomalous changes. From "to grow old," is formed the base,jlry; from div, "to sport," dlvy; from kram, "to go," kramy; from bhram, "to whirl," bhrdmy; from bhransh, "to fall," >nrjx bhrashy; from jan, atm. "to be born," jay; from vyadh, par. "to pierce," vidhy. See the remarks, p. 62."t".

Sixth Conjugation.

90. If a root be of the 6th conjugation, the general rule is, that no change at all takes place, and that the root stands also for the base. Thus, the root kship, "to throw,11 is also the base (kshipami, &c). So also dish, "to point out11 (dishami, &c.).*

o. Some roots, however, take a change peculiar to themselves; as, from ^ ish, "to wish," the base ^5BT; from TT3J, "to ask," Tir^g; ; and a final u or u is changed to Mu, and ri to riy; and ri to ir. As, from dliu, "to shake," dhuv; from JJ mri, atm. "to die," mriy (faifr, &c); from ^ dhri, atm. "to exist," dhriy; from ofi kri, "to scatter," kir (kirami, <Sfc).

b. Some insert a nasal; as, from much," to let go," the base munch (jg^Tfa. &C.); from lip, "to anoint," limp; from sich, "to sprinkle," sihch; from cRiT, "to cut,"

Having thus explained the formation of the base in the conjugational tenses of the regular primitive, it will be necessary to exhibit the irregularities presented in these same tenses by about

* Roots ending in consonants in the 6th conj. generally contain either i, u, or ri; and these vowels would have taken Guna had the root fallen under the 1st.


fifty common roots belonging to the 2d, 3d, 5th, 7th, 8th, and 9th conjugations, before we proceed to the remaining six tenses of the verb, the rules for the formation of which are common to all. The student, however, who wishes for a continuous survey of all the tenses of the verb will pass over the next section, and proceed at once to Sect. III.



Obs. The terminations read downwards; thus, mi is the 1st pers. sing., si the 2d sing., ti the 3d. The mark P placed after certain terminations indicates that certain peculiar changes, to be afterwards explained, take place in the root before these terminations.

* This irregular scheme of terminations corresponds to the technical scheme given hy native Grammarians, as applicable to all verbs. Let the reader compare


These irregular primitives cause the chief difficulty of Sanscrit conjugation; for they not only present an ever-varying form of base throughout the different persons of each tense, but also require a scheme of terminations which differs, in many important points from the regular scheme, and more especially in this, that the terminations begin generally with consonants instead of vowels.

In this last respect the above scheme resembles that of the first and second future, p. 73, and all the other non-conjugational tenses, p. 81. Hence the combination of the final consonants of a base with the initial s or t of these terminations, and of those of the non-conjugational tenses, requires an acquaintance with the following rules.

Combination of final ch and j, with t, th, and s.

91. Final ch and j, before t, th, and s, are changed to k, the k blending with s into ^ ksh (r. 30. note): thus, vach with ti, vakti; with thah, vakthah; with si, vakshi: moch with si/ami, mokshyami; much with ta, mukta: tyaj with ta, tyakta; with syumi, tyakshyami. But a final palatal is, in a few cases, changed to Tt sh before t, th; and t, th then become Z, ^: thus, marj with ti, »nff; ^ with thah, ;^ with ta, ^p; H«5 with ta, TTCT

Combination of final dh and bh, with t, th, and s.

a. Final >^ dh and »^ bh, before t and th, are changed, the one to d, the other to b, and both t and th then become dh. Thus,

this with the regular scheme at p. 63, and observe how essentially they differ. Let him also bear in mind that the total number of verbs, primitive and derivative (exclusive of Intensives and innumerable Nominals), that follow the regular scheme, would amount to about eight thovisand, whilst the total number that follow this irregular scheme would hardly exceed two hundred; he will then understand that if any general scheme is to be propounded at all, it should rather be that at p. 63. This is another proof that native Grammarians are altogether wanting in clear logical arrangement of their subject.

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