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the one should take the ātmanepada ; the other, the parasmaipada inflection. At any rate this fact is clear that the par. of the 4th conjugation is the form used in numerous roots to yield a neuter signification; and that the ātm. is identical with the form used to yield a passive sense. Hence it arises, that many roots appear in the 4th conjugation as neuter verbs, which also appear in some one of the other nine as transitive. For example, yuj, “ to join,” when used in an active sense is conjugated either in the 7th conjugation, or in the causal ; when in a neuter, in the 4th. So also, push, “to nourish"; kshubh, “to agitate"; klish,“ to vex”; sidh, “ to accomplish.”
Sect. I.-REGULAR PRIMITIVES, OR VERBS OF THE
1st, 4th, AND 6th CONJUGATIONS.
FORMATION OF THE BASE OF THE CONJUGATIONAL TENSES OF
REGULAR PRIMITIVE VERBS. 88. Obs., that it is an universal rule in every conjugation that the augment a is prefixed to the base of the first pret.; and that when this is prefixed to bases beginning with the vowels i, u, and ri, short or long, it blends with them into ai, au, ār (instead of e, o, ar, by r. 5.). Thus the base gas becomes in the first pret. aichchham, and ridhno, ārdhnot.
First Conjugation. a. If a root be of the 1st conjugation, the rule for the formation of the base in the conjugational tenses is, that the Guna be substituted for the vowel of the root throughout every person of every tense. Thus, from a budh, “to know,” is formed the base aty bodh* (Tuna, bodhāmi, &c.). From bhū, “to be,” bho (bhavāmi, &c., r. 10.). From nī, “to lead," ne (nayāmi, &c., r. 10.1). From srip, sarp ; from klrip, kalp (p. 2.1). In the first preterite the only difference in the base will be that a is prefixed; thus, abodh, abho, ane (abodham, &c., abhavam, &c., anayam, &c.). In the potential and imperative the base is exactly the same as in the present (bodheyam, &c., bodhāni, &c.).
b. Since there is no Guna of a, roots like ra pach,“ to cook,” do not change (pachāmi, &c.). Nor does any change take place if the root ends in two consonants ; as, nind,“ to blame ": nor if the root contain a long vowel, not final; as, jāv, “to live." OBS. It will be hereafter seen that this prohibition of Guna extends to the other tenses as well as to the conjugational.
c. Some roots of the 1st conjugation form their bases in the first four tenses by a change peculiar to themselves, which change is of course discarded in the other tenses. Thus, from FTT sthā, “ to stand," comes the base fag tishth (tishthūmi, fc.); from th gam, “ to go," To gachchh ; from HĘ sad, ātm. “to sink,” sīd; from
* Bopp has shewn that an analogous change takes place in Greek. Thus, the root φυγ (έφυγον) becomes φεύγω in the present.
† Thus, nind is in the 2d pret. nininda ; in the 1st fut. ninditā; in the 3d pret. anindīt ; in the causal, nindayati.
Fourth Conjugation. 89. If a root be of the 4th conjugation, no Guna takes place, but the base is formed by the simple addition of y to the root. Thus, from fĦy sidh, “to succeed,” is formed the base sidhy (sidhyāmi, &c.); from go nrit, “ to dance,” the base nrity.
Sixth Conjugation. 90. If a root be of the 6th conjugation, the general rule is, that no change at all takes place, and that the root stands also for the base. Thus, the root kship,“ to throw," is also the base (kshipāmi, &c.). So also feat dish, “to point out” (dishāmi, &c.).*
* Roots ending in consonants in the 6th conj. generally contain either i, u, or ội; and these vowels would have taken Guna had the root fallen under the 1st.
fifty common roots belonging to the 2d, 3d, 5th, 7th, 8th, and 9th conjugations, before we proceed to the remaining six tenses of the verb, the rules for the formation of which are common to all.
The student, however, who wishes for a continuous survey of all the tenses of the verb will pass over the next section, and proceed at once to Sect. III.
Sect. II.–CERTAIN IRREGULAR PRIMITIVES, OR VERBS
OF THE 2d, 3d, 5th, 7th, 8th, AND 9th CONJUGATIONS.
* This irregular scheme of terminations corresponds to the technical scheme given by native Grammarians, as applicable to all verbs. Let the reader compare FORMATION OF THE BASE OF THE CONJUGATIONAL TENSES. These irregular primitives cause the chief difficulty of Sanscrit conjugation ; for they not only present an ever-varying form of base throughout the different persons of each tense, but also require a scheme of terminations which differs, in many important points from the regular scheme, and more especially in this, that the terminations begin generally with consonants instead of vowels.
In this last respect the above scheme resembles that of the first and second future, p. 73, and all the other non-conjugational tenses, p. 81. Hence the combination of the final consonants of a base with the initial s ort of these terminations, and of those of the non-conjugational tenses, requires an acquaintance with the following rules.
Combination of final ch and j, with t, th, and s. 91. Final ch and j, before t, th, and s, are changed to k, the k blending with s into w ksh (r. 30. note): thus, vach with ti, vakti ; with thah, vakthah ; with si, vakshi : moch with syāmi, mokshyāmi ; much with ta, mukta : tyaj with ta, tyakta ; with syāmi, tyakshyāmi. But a final palatal is, in a few cases, changed to q sh before t, th; and t, th then become , 8: thus, mārj with ti, Arfe; with thah, 78:; is with ta, e; ass with tā, uet.
Combination of final dh and bh, with t, th, and s. a. Final y dh and 4 bh, before t and th, are changed, the one to d, the other to b, and both t and th then become dh. Thus,
this with the regular scheme at p. 63, and observe how essentially they differ. Let him also bear in mind that the total number of verbs, primitive and derivative (exclusive of Intensives and innumerable Nominals), that follow the regular scheme, would amount to about eight thousand, whilst the total number that follow this irregular scheme would hardly exceed two hundred; he will then understand that if any general scheme is to be propounded at all, it should rather be that at p. 63. This is another proof that native Grammarians are altogether wanting in clear logical arrangement of their subject.