Imatges de pàgina
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vevedam, veviddhi, vevettu, vevedava, veviltam, Sfc). Again, the base will vary in accordance with the rules of combination at p. 07-, as in budh (pres. bobodhmi, boblwtsi, boboddhi, bobudhwah, <Sfc). And in further analogy to the 2d conjugation (r. 92. c.) long l is often optionally inserted before the consonantal P terminations (pres. vevedimi, vevedishi, vevediti; dual, vevidwah, <Sfc. ,• 1st pret. avevedam, avevcdlh, avevedit, avevidwa, <Sfc.; imp. vevedani, veviddhi, veveditu.).

Lastly, when the root ends in a vowel, the usual changes take place of i and I to y or iy; of u and u to uv; and of ri to r: as in the roots bhl, bhu, kri (pres. 1 st sing. bebhemi, bobhomi, charkarmi; 3d plur. bebhyati, bobhuvati, charkrati).

Non-Conjugatixmal Tenses.

The second preterite follows the usual rule for polysyllabic bases (p.77. jr.), and affixes am with the auxiliaries. Thus from vid (1st pers. sing.), vevidamasa; from bhi, bebhyamasa. In the other tenses, excepting the bened., inserted i is invariably assumed, and before this inserted i a root ending in a vowel forbids the usual Guna change in the futures, but admits Vriddhi in the Sd pret. Thus, 1st fut. (1st sing.) vevtditasmi, Sps., bebhyitasmi, <Sfc.; 2d fut. vevedishyami, S[C, bebhyishydmi, Sfc.; 3d pret. avevedisham, S(C, abebhayisham, <Sfe. ,• bened. vevidyasam, fyr.., bebhlydsam; cond. avevedishyum, abebhyishyam. This rejection of Guna is taken from Forster, but admits of question, especially in the case of roots in u or fi.

NOMINALS, OR VERBS DERIVED FROM NOUNS.

122. These are formed by adding certain affixes to the crude of nouns. They are not in very common use, but, theoretically, there is no limit to their formation. They may be classed under three heads: 1st, transitive nominals, yielding the sense of performing, practising, making or using the thing or quality expressed by the noun; 2d, intransitive nominals, giving a sense of behaving like, becoming like, acting like the person or thing expressed by the noun; 3d, desiderative nominals, yielding the sense of wishing for the thing expressed by the noun. The latter are rarely found.

The Terminations.

a. All the nominal verbs make use of the regular scheme at p. 63.; but it should be observed that they are rarely found conjugated in any other tense than the present.

Formation of the Base of Transitive Nominals.

b. These are formed from nouns in the way that causals are formed from roots, by the addition of ay to the crude. But the final vowel or final consonant, and preceding vowel of the crude, must be rejected before this affix is annexed. Thus, from vastra, "cloth," is formed vastray, "to clothe " (3d sing, ^^rrfir vastrayati, "he clothes"); from varman, "armour," varmay, "to put on armour" (^jSnrfir varmay a ti); from WO", "authority," HsrraPT, "to propose as authority." Whatever modifications adjectives may undergo before the affixes tyas and ishtha (p. 47. +.), the same are required before this nominal affix: thus, from dirgha, "long," draghay, "to lengthen"; from antika, "near," neday, "to make near," &c.

In the Mitralabha (Prof. Johnson's edition, p. 97.) there is an instance of a nominal verb formed by adding the terminations directly to the noun; thus, ^3=rrftT> "I peck," from "a beak."

Formation of the Base of Intransitive Nominals.

c. The final of the crude of the noun is rejected, as in the last case, and ay affixed. Thus, from pandita, "wise," panditay, "to act the part of a wise man" (3d sing, qfiggffirait); from druma, "a tree," drumay, "to be like a tree" (gHWii); from rajan, "a king," rajay, "to act the king" (uSTPTfO- This nominal usually has a neuter or passive signification, and is generally restricted to the atm. It is found, however, in an active sense, especially when derived from nouns expressive of colour; as, from gran, "black," fm\\ , "to blacken" (<£UUI4r)).

Formation, of the Base of Desiderative Nominals.

d. These are formed by affixing y to the final vowel of a crude noun. The effect, however, of this affix is to change a final a or a to i, to lengthen a final i or a, and to change ^ ri to ^. Thus from putra, "a son," putriy, "to desire a son" (3d sing. Ipfhrfir); {rompati," a husband," patiy," to desire a husband" (Trjffarffr). So also from *rn|, TPrfh^', from rajan, rajly (r. 20. "j".).

A desiderative nominal verb may also be formed by adding hamy (derived from kam, "to desire ") to the crude of nouns: thus from putra, putrakamy, "to desire a son" (3d sing. mnRHfft); or by affixing sy; as from dhana, dhanasy, "to desire wealth" (vTPrfiO

CHAPTER VII.

PARTICIPLES.

This is a subject in some respects perhaps the most important that has hitherto engaged our attention. We have endeavoured in the last chapter to show, that however complex the structure of the Sanscrit verb, and however repulsive to the student at the commencement of his studies, this complexity is one rather of theory than practice, and one that hardly extends beyond the pages of the grammar, and is little felt, provided the attention be confined to the earlier and purer specimens of Hindu literature. The cause of this has been shown to be, that the difficulty of the verb expends itself on tenses that are rarely if ever used by the best writers. We are now to show that the necessity for these tenses is superseded by participles, the use of which prevails to an extent wholly unparalleled in any other language, even in the Greek. These participles often discharge the functions of the verb itself, and are constantly found occupying the place of past and future tenses, and more especially those of passive verbs; insomuch that an instance of a passive in any other tense than the present or imperative rarely occurs. The consideration, therefore, of this portion of our subject bears most closely upon the idiomatic structure of the language; and so prominent a position do these verbal derivatives hold in the construction of sentences and collocation of words, that an accurate knowledge of the mode of their formation and the nature of their duties affords the best insight into the peculiarities of Sanscrit syntax, and elucidates many of the difficulties of idiom in the cognate dialects of India.

It may be desirable to premise that the most important of these participles are not derived immediately from the verb, but from a common source with the verb, viz. the root. The subject, therefore, has not been mixed up with that of verbal inflection, although in the very first instance, and in others which follow, the participle is deducible directly from a tense.

PRESENT PARTICIPLES. Parasmaipada.

Formation of the Crude.

123. These are the only participles that have any affinity with the conjugational structure of the verb. The crude is formed by substituting at for anti, the termination of the 3d person plural of the present tense, so that the peculiarities of conjugation necessarily appear in the participle. Thus, from pachanti, " they cook" (3d plur. pres. of tj^, 1st conj.), comes x^n^ pachat, "cooking"; from ghnanti (3d plur. of han, 2d conj.), ghnat,• from xfa(, "they go," *n^, "going"; from Tirfcr. ITiT; from juhwati (3d plur. of hu, 3d conj.), sp^ juhwat; from nrityanti (4th conj.), nrityat; from chinwanti (5th conj.), fa«<H chinmat; from apnuvanli (5th conj.), apnuvat; from rundhanti (riidh, 7th conj.), rundhat; from kurvanti (^, 8th conj.), kurvat; from punanti (pu, 9th conj.), punat. So again from santi (3d plur. of as, "to be "), sat; from the causal darshayanti (p. 125.), darshayat; from the desiderative ditsanti (p. 130. c), ditsat.

a. It has been remarked (p. 62. and p. 89., note t.) that the passive verb may sometimes assume a parasmaipada inflection; and that all the neuter verbs placed under the 4th conjugation may be considered as so many examples of this form of the passive. This theory is corroborated by the fact of the existence of a parasmaipada present participle derivable from a passive base. Thus from y^Tt, £$JJri , "being seen "; from ^far, ^hnr , "being gathered."

Declension.

b. This in general conforms to r. 63. Thus, q^ir, nom. sing, du. pi. masc. Tj^^ pachan, iHifl pachantau, TC*(W. pachantah; fem. •Hid. T^j^, VM^:; neut. ir^, <Wifl. mfil.

c. But in irregular primitives of the 3d conj., and all verbs from polysyllabic roots, and all other verbs which reject the nasal from the plural of the parasmaipada (see p. 69. note), the nom. sing. masc. is identical with the crude, and ends in at instead of an; and the nasal is, moreover, rejected from the du. and pi. masc, and from the fem. Thus, bibhrat (from »j, "to bear," 3d conj.), nom. sing. du. pi. masc. bibhrat, bibhratau, bibhratah; fem. bibhrath bibhratyau, bibhratyah. So also jagrat (from sift) and shusat (from ^THf). They also drop the nasal in the dual neut.

d. It must also be taken as a general rule, that all other irregular primitives of the 2d, 5th, 7th, 8th, and 9th conjugations reject the nasal in the feminine, although they retain it in the masculine. Thus, adat (from ad, 2d conj.), nom. masc. adan, adantau, adantah; fem. adati, &c.; and rundhat (from rudh, 7th conj.), nom. masc. rundhan, rundhantau, &c, fem. rundhati, &c. But this rule is not universal, for kwvat (from ej, 8th conj.) is kurvanti in the nom. fem.

PRESENT PARTICIPLES. Atmanepada.
Formation of the Crude.

124. The crude is formed by substituting amana for ante, the termination of the 3d plur. pres. of regular primitive and passive verbs; and by substituting ana for ate, the termination of the 3d plur. pres. of irregular primitives. Causal verbs take either amana or ana, but more frequently the latter. Thus, from xf^^t pachante, M-*WM pachamana; from Pel8-if (ttha, 1st conj.), frf8HM I from ?pt&t (4th conj.), spmR; from (lip, 6th conj.), f$u{HM; from the causal darshayante (p. 126.), either darshayamana, or, more frequently, darshayana; from vedayante, vedayana; from the desiderative ditsanle, ditsamana.

a. But from bruvate (|T, 2d conj.), gTOO bruvana; from ^VTt (dha, 3d conj.), ^IH; from chinmate (5th conj.), chinmana; from gg^- (7th conj.), g^rrq; from (8th conj.), ^fw; from TpTTT (9th conj.), Uhh. The root ^Rf» "to sit" (2d conj.), makes vd«fl«i for vreftf.

Declension.

b. These participles are declined like nouns of the first class, p. 31. Thus, pachamana, nom. masc. pachamanah, fem. pachamana, neut. pachamanam.

PAST PARTICIPLES.
Passive Past Participle.Formation of the Crude.

125. This is the most useful derivative in the language, and is

T

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