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Earths and alkalies hold the first place in the third table. The most decidedly earthy bodies are placed first, and then those which approach to an alkaline nature; thus, silex, alumine, glucine, and zircone. Magnesia and lime are sub-alkaline earths. Barytes, pot-ash, soda, strontian, and ammonia, follow. Barytes and strontian are thus taken from the earths, on account of their decided alkaline qualities. In the remainder of the third, in the fourth, and fifth tables, are the salts, classed from their most distinguished chemical qualities. The species now amount to more than one hundred. It is justly remarked, that their classification and relative disposition comprehend their most useful properties, and, with their nomenclature, furnish the greater part of their chemical history.
The sixth table exhibits the general properties of metallic substances. The seventh, eighth, ninth, and tenth, give an account of particular metals, under the distinct heads of physical properties,-natural history, assay and metallurgy, oxydability by air, union with combustibles, action upon water, the oxyde and the acids, action on the salifiable bases and the salts--uses. The acid metals are first mentioned; next the titanite, uranite, and cobalt. In the next table are comprised nickel, manganese, bisinuth, antimony, tellurium, and mercury. In the ninth, zinc, tin, lead, and iron. In the tenth, copper, silver, gold, and platina.
The two last tables relate to vegetable and animal chemistry; but it is only an outline, and many deficiencies are observable in each. These we should point out, could we present the table in its proper form; but our remarks are so much connected with the arrangement, that they would not be otherwise understood. As the author seems aware also of their imperfections, and has promised to supply them in additional tables, any pointed animadversions would be improper.
On the whole, we think these tables highly valuable and important to the student of chemistry, and useful, as a work of reference, to the more experienced artist. Mr. Nicholson has conferred a considerable obligation on English philosophers by this translation, and if we recollect that he might have done more, we should still be grateful that he has done so much.
Art. XI.-- Bread; or, The Poor': a Poem. With Notes and
Illustrations. By /!r. Pratt, Author of Sympathy, &c. 4to. 75. · served. Longman and Recs. 1801. .
'A SUDDEN revolution, the most dire, perhaps, of any in this revolutionary age, has taken place in the state of the poor.--Progressive improvements have been made in agriculture, the benefits of which are almost entirely lost to the most numerous and useful part of the community, while individuals only have been enriched. The poor-rates have in the mcan time increased, to the dissatisfaction of the rich, and nearly to the ruin of the middle classes; while the wants and miseries of the peasantry, with some few exceptions, which will be particularised, have accumulated in the proportion that plans have been formed for their relief. This argues a very wrong policy and management somewhere.- In the midst of a long and a Mictive illness, the author has spared no pains to trace the effects of this deep national grievance to its sources, and he is told by those who, by their situation and circumstances, are allowed to be most competent to the subject, that he has so done in the following pages, in which, however, there is no one passage founded upon a fiction ;-of course the poem is excluded from one of the grand privileges of poesy.
Yet, in lieu of this, the author is but too strong in facts. He has taken the country for the last and present summers, in almost every direction of the island, as well for the purposes of health as of investigation. According to his usual habits of travel, he has en. tered the field, the farm, and the cottage ; not hastily, but to pause, to inquire, and to contemplate the general plenty of the one and the general poverty of the other. He has sat himself down amongst the peasantry, not to augment their sufferings nor to foment their discords, but to discover, by diligent research and silent reHexion, what could be the causes, and what were the real effects of famine in the land.' P. i.
The poem which Mr. Pratt has produced upon this subject is divided into three parts. In the first he describes the situation of the cottage-poor previous to the causes of their decay. We are often here reminded of Goldmith, an author whom it is dangerous to follow
• All day they toil'd; at eve new labours press'd,
For then their little garden grounds were dress'd;
Scanty and narrow scraps of earth, 'tis true,
Yet there their comforts, there their treasures grew:
The white rose and the red, and pink so sweet,
Herbs for each day, and fruit for sabbath treat :. .
The currant-bush, and gooseberry so fine,
Affording summer fruit, and winter wines
The cooling apple, too, and grateful pear,
And pea, for beauty and for use, were there;
And formal box, and bloomy thrift were scen,
Bord’ring the flow'r-bed and the path-way green ;
And elder-iowers, to make fair maids more fair,
The glossy berry, still the matron's care,
In dark drear nights to give, when spirits fail,
A cheerful drop to thaw the gossip's talc,
When ghosts have ic'd'the blood of youth and age,
Who with a thousand goblins would engage,
Crit. Rev. Vol. 34. Jan. 1802.
And boldly bid them stalk from where they lurk,
When once the charmed cup begins to work ;
'Till those who had aver'd the flame glar'd blue,
Close huddled round it as the terrors grew,
Wish'd that some sneaking spectre dar'd appear,
And on each other flung the coward's fear.
• Beside their garden dwelt their living stock;
The petted lambkin from the smiling fock,
The peasant youngling's joy to see its race,
Its antic gambols, or its saunt'ring pace,
Or mount its back, or smooth its woolly coat,
Or twine a garland round its fleecy throat,
Or pat its visage fair, that seem'd so mild,
Though, in the frolic mood, so archly wild,
That oft the sulky dog, and cat demure,
Betray'd to romps, have fall'n into the lure.
• The rich man's pastimes are the poor man's wealtii, And yield him plenty, happiness, and health,
The fattening porker, and prolific sow,
· The brooding hen, and balmy-breathing cow,
The proud, vain turkey, tyrant of the green,
The good old market mare, and sheep serene ;
These fill'd the home-stall spare with life and glee,
These gave enough-enough 's prosperity!
These rais'd the hind, and lifted him to man,
And these were his till traitors chang’d the plan,
Their country's traitors ! who with dire design-
But check awhile, my heart, th' indignant line.' P.4,
The following passage brings Burns to our recollection.
. And when a neighbour chanc'd to wend that way,
What time the sun-set clos'd the cares of day,
Or sweet-heart guest, to woo the damsel fair,
How blithe with such the cottage meal to share !
No sense of morn or noon-tide toils remain,
But pleasure beats renew'd in every vein!
Round goes the home-brew'd, with the light regale,
And mirthful thoughts and artless jests prevail ;
The peasant sire and matron, as they quaff
Good luck to lovers, mingle many a laugh
With winks and nods, the bashful maid to cheer,
While the flush'd youth in whispers wins her ear;
And as the time to bid farewell drew nigh,
The pitying father heard the lover's sigh, .
And at the warning click to strike, he strove
With generous haste the hour-hand back to move;
And still the tender respite to prolong
The matron kind would claim the maiden's song;
And still, in fond return, the grateful swain
Would pour his passion in some artless strain,
Some soothing ditty that might hope inspire,
Or, in his turn, might call upon the sire,
Who in his age, rememb'ring days of youth,
Would troll his ballad fill'd with love and truth,
That very ballad which declar'd his flame,
When 'to the matron be a wooing came;
She, pleas’d to hear the recollected lay,
Prolong'd the parting hour by fresh delay,
Trili'd her own madrigal with joyous sound,
'Till all the cottage took the chorus round ;-
At length, with promise of returning soon,
The swain hied home beneath the fav'ring moon.
. And when the fair return’d, how blithe to see
This from the plough, and that the wheel set free ;
To hear how echo sent the mingled sound.
O'er hill and vale, to woods and streams around.
Lo! in gay groups the harmless people go,
Prepard for ev'ry prank and every show;
All up betimes, and like the morning drest,
In nature's vermeil robe and lillied vest.
How sweet for earlier passenger to trace
Th' anticipated day in every face!
In every honest countenance reveal'd,
To read whate'er the light-wing'd hours might yield;
The hallow'd keep-sake, ever-sacred thing!
The motto'd garter, and the posied ring;
The bloomy ribbon, and the bonnet gay,
And hose, with figur'd clock, for holy-day;
The father's duffel stout, and matron's gown
Of goodly grey, or sober-seeming brown;
The jovial feasting, and the foaming ale,
The loud-sung roundelay, the merry tale ;
The feats of merryman, the furious strife,
Warning, I ween, to maids : of punch and wife !
The bridal day pronounc'd, the banns arrang'd,
The vow repeated, and the kiss exchang'd;
Then to their cots, unmindful of the dews,
Pockets with fairings, and heads cramm'd with news,
For kin-folk dear at home, who pining there
Haply sit up to hear about the fair!
And then for grandsire old, and granny grey,
Came forth the soft memorials of the day;
The polish'd snuff-box, with its pungent store,
The sweetmeats rare, and bravely gilded o'er;
While those too young, like those too old to rove,
Receive their tokens of remember'd love;
The shrilly whistle, and more manly toy,
For the weak infant and the sturdy boy ;
These, lightly slumb'ring, or their little eyes
By hope unclos'd, beheld with glad surprise
Those tokens gay, and half asleep, would take
The lascious lozenge or the tempting cake,
The orange sweet, or golden gingerbread,
And strew with many a crumb the tiny bed :
Small gifts! yet, ah, how priz'd! and brought to view,
As treasures promis'd, and expected too!
For still from youth to nature's latest hour
The little cares preserve their magic power.' P. 4. It is unfortunate that Mr. Pratt's poem should so frequently remind us of better writers; not because he has imitated them, but from the necessity of his subject. There remains for him, however, a high praise. He has felt for the miseries of the poor, and expressed good feelings upon an important topic in a well-timed season. We could wish that he had not joined in the common and dangerous outcry against monopolisers.
• As the deep warehouse opes its massy doors,
Far from pale famine plenty sends its stores ;
Roll'd to the busy wharfs, the ready barge
Upon the smooth canal receives the charge ;
The fraudful hoards deep-laden to the brim,
Sacks pil'd on sacks, as heavily they swim
Far from the starving town—the thronging poor
In dire dismay stand gazing on the shore :
With ragged garinents, and with haggard mien,
From alleys dark and foul, and lanes obseene,
In squallid groups they eager press around,
Silent awhile from horror too profound.
For words or voice ; but as the freight moves by,
And wealth observes it with triumphant eye,
A growing murmur gathers on the strand,
And mingled anguish stirs the meagre band;
The ruffian dealers see the tempest near,
And, as the thunders of the mob they hear
Begin to burst, the conscious cowards Ay
With all the speed of trembling infamy.' P. 51.
• But soft, 'tis midnight! and while sleep the swains,
By magic moves the produce of the plains ;
Deep groan the waggons with their pond'rous loads,
As their dark course they bend along the roads;
Wheel following wheel, in dread procession slow,
With half a harvest to their points they go,
Their magic points by water and by land
Known to the tyrants and their hireling band.
The secret expedition, like the night
That covers its intents, still shuns the light;
And, e'er the morning blushes on the deed,
The teams return, and all the plots succeed ;