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general, are numerous and accurate, and often from works little known or with difficulty procured. '
Among the coleoptera,—we follow the system of Linnrus, which still continues to be our favourite,-we find eight species of scarabæus ; the cetonia Chinensis and the melolontha viridis, two new genera from Fabricius; seven species of curculio; three of cerambyx; two of buprestis, the tenebrio femoratus, and the meloë cichorei, the true cantharis of the ancients. Of the hemiplera we find various species, of the mantis, gryllus, cicada nepa, and cimex, with one only of the fulgora, F. candelaria. The papilios are grouped according to the fanciful analogy of the Swedish naturalist; and thirty-two species are enumerated, with some of the sphinges and phalenæ. Of the neuropteræ we have only one genus, libeliula ; and of the apterz, aranea maculata, cancer mamillaris and mantis, and the scolopendra morsitans. The plates, we have already said, are executed with peculiar beauty ; and in many, as in Mr. Abbott's work, a branch is added either of curiosity or of the tree on which they feed. We cannot notice every design, but shall mention some of the insects which either are rare or merit some remark.
It may be in general observed that these insects are not exclusively Chinese, and that indeed they are seldom so. To many of the descriptions miscellaneous remarks are added, which, though they break the chain of scientific delineations, are to us often pleasing and interesting. Those on the scarabæus sacer show no inconsiderable knowledge of the ancient Egyptian superstitions. The cetonia and curculio Chinensis are particularly rare, and the latter probably a non-descript. The c. perlatus and pulverulentus are equally uncommon, and have not yet been engraved. The buprestides are well figured ; and our author has cleared some of the difficulties arising from the inaccuracy of Fabricius, who has confounded the B. vittata and ignita ; but the whole is still somewhat obscure.
The observations subjoined to the description of the mantis Habellicornis are very pleasing ; but in these auxiliary remarks, or rather in the references, we meet with some striking errors, as if the original authors were not understood by Mr. Donovan. The peculiar ferocity of the mantes, and their battles, in which the weaker sex is not spared, and their fcar of the ani, are singular circumstances. It has been called the animal plant, and is supposed to have changed its animal to a vegetable nature. Our author seems to think that it may conceal the secd of a clayaria, or some other cryptogamic plant; and he thus explains rationally what has appeared wonderful or incredible. Other authors have however offered similar explanations. It is styled the soothsayer, from its immovable posture, supposed to be the position of study or adoration ; but is only designed,
by its resemblance to a leaf, to mislead the incautious insect on which it preys.
· The account of the fulgora candelaria is also entertaining, but too long. The author is not aware that the emission of light is voluntary; and, strange as the expression may appear, that light is separated by its motions or in its secretions. A branch of the chrysanthemuin Indicum is added to the figure of the insect. The additions to the description of the cicada are also too extensive : it was thought to approach the divinitics, because its supposed food, viz. dew', is less gross than that of other insects. The veneration of the Athenians for this little animal is not explained very satisfactorily; and the inquiry would lead us too far. A branch of the laurus camphora is added. The tettigonia splendidula of Fabricius is a cicada, and singularly curious. It has not before been engraved.
The cicada limbata is the white-wax insect of China, and a branch of the tallow-tree is added. A copious account of these very singular substances is annexed. The animal figured by sir George Staunton seems to be the pupa only, and what is properly the perfect animal is represented from Stoll.
Several of the cimices are peculiarly curious, as the C. dispar, Stockerus, crucifer, Phasianus, Slanbuschii, and bisidus. These seem to have formed no part of any other collection.
The butterflies are known to be singularly beautiful; and we must pass over those of common elegance, and notice only such as are highly so, or peculiarly curious. The first of these is the papilio crino, which is represented on a branch of the flowers of the renealmia exaltata--a plant and animal, so far as our knowledge extends, which have not been engraver, and each possessing a brilliancy of colour almost unexampled. The papilio peranthus of Fabricius is peculiarly scarce : it is represented on a branch of the arundo bambos. No figure of the P. Laomedon of Fabricius has been published, except in the present collection. The P. Telamon is a new and undescribed species, taken during the late embassy to China. The P. rhetenor is a Chinese insect; and our author would make it a distinct species from the P. Meneiaüs, did not the authority of Fabricius oppose the separation. Its colour is of a beautiful blue ; and it is represented on a branch of the thea laxa, the broad-leaved or bohea tea. The P. Vesta is peculiarly rare ; and the P. pyranthe has never been figured. It is represented on the melastoma Chinensis : the colour is a bright yellow. The P. Hesperia and alymnus are very uncommon: the latter is exhibited on a flower of the hemerocallis Japonica. The P. Jacintha and Gambricius, Jairus Antiochus, Bernardus, and Erymanthis, are also rare : many of these have never been engravci.
Of the genus sphinx there are few Chinese species. The sphinx thallo is described. Mr. Donovan adds, with great pro
priety, that the papilio thallo of Fabricius has probably no existence: it is taken from an imperfect representation in one of Edwards's plates, where the engraver seems to have completed from fancy a mutilated insect, which, after all, is not a papilio. ' The sphinx pecticornis is taken from the same insect. We may here add, that Fabricius, in many parts of this volume, is freely criticised, and often with justice; yet his entomology, on the whole, is the most correct and extensive that we possess. His merit consists in the accurate discrimination of the genera, and the very clear distinction and definition of the species; but, in the general distribution and arrangement, Linnæus is probably preferable.
The phalænas, with great reason, are supposed to be more numerous than the papilios. Very few are mentioned in the present volume. Under the phalana Atlas, the family to which the silk-worm belongs, Mr. Donovan inquires into the origin of silk, and falls into the usual error of considering the Seres as Chinese. The silk of Cos was not the production of an insect, but the tuft of a marine animal. Some little, though not very satisfactory, information is added, respecting some other insects that produce silk. The phalæna militaris and lectrix are peculiarly scarce. The phalæna Zonaria is a non-descript. P. Zonaria . alis viridibus, margine posteriore lato, rufescente, singulis macula marginali viridi.'
There are several new species of libellula. These animals are divided into three genera--the libellula, æstina, and agrion. The libellula Chinensis of Fabricius is, according to Mr. Donovan's account, truly a species of agrion.
The aranea maculata is not one of the largest spiders. It has been described by Fabricius only, and has never been before engraven. The cancer mamillaris is the only crab mentioned by Fabricius as a Chinese insect. The cancer mantis and the scolopendra morsitans scarcely merit any particular observation.
On the whole, this volume is very properly styled an Epitoine of Chinese Insects; yet, as a work of natural history, it is beautiful, correct, and pleasing. The information is more extensive and more varied than is usual in publications of this kind; and, though the compilations be sometimes too long, and the remarks less connected with the chief subject of the work than might be expected, yet they relieve the mind from the dryness of mere description, and the eye from a succession of splendid representations. We may perhaps regret that these supplementary observations are not more original.
ART. VI.-The History of Helvetia, containing the Rise and Prom
gress of the Federative Republics, to the Middle of the Fifteenth Century. By Francis Hare Naylor, Esq. 2 Vols. 8vo. 16s. Boards. Mawman. 1801.
OF Mr. Planta's History of Switzerland we lately gave ani account so ample as to render it unnecessary that we should můch enlarge on the present work, which displays considerable industry and ability. The reasons of its appearance, after the recent publication of Mr. Planta's work, are best explained by the author in his preface, which, in justice to him, shall be tranç scribed entire.
. I never was a friend to dedications, for I never was a friend to flattery. Nor am I an admirer of long and elaborate prefaces, because I consider the reader's judgement to be the best comment that any literary production can receive. Yet in my own case I feel myself called upon for some explanation, and as briefly as possible I will give it.
• The greater part of this publication was ready for the press before I was apprised of Mr. Planta's intention of treating the same subject. Nor is this extraordinary, since it was written during my residence in Italy. But no sooner did I see his Helvetic Coniederacy advertised, than I laid down my pen, determined to wait for the appearance of that work before I finally decided upon the destiny of my own. Finding, however, that Mr. Planta's view of things differed materially from mine, and that we frequently considered the same object in an opposite light, I saw no reason to abandon my plan. How far I may have acted with prudence it remains with the public to determine.
A word or two more may possibly be expected with regard to the conduct of the present work. In confining myself to the period which I have chosen, I have undoubtedly selected the most brilliant æra of Helvetic listory. For, from the commencement of the Zuric war, the character of the Swiss underwent a material change. The confederacy was aug mented in point of numbers, but its strength was evidently impaired.
Much, I allow, remains to be said. The Burgundian and Italian wars, the progress of the reformation, the triumph of truth, and the decay of patriotism, afford an ample field for the historian, even should he decline to enter upon that awful period when the Alpine valleys ceased, perhaps for ever, to be the abode of freedom and of happiness.
With respect to my future intentions, the public may possibly look for some information : but as yet I am unable to give it. By their decision I shall regulate my own. Thus much, however, I will venture to add that should I discontinue my pursuit, it will not be from want of materials. ·
• A long residence upon the continent afforded me an opportunity of following the revolutions, both of Switzerland and Italy, through all their maze of borrors. - Papers too of the utmost importance are picbably within my reach.-Yet I scarce know how to trust my feel
Sec Crit. Rev. Vol. 29, New Arr. p. 241,
ings; nor do I think the present moment the most proper to treat so delicate a subject. I should wish to be thought impartial : but in whatever I undertake, I am resolved to be just. P.i.
From the egotic tone of this preface, the intelligent reader would have observed, without Mr. Naylor's information, that he had not only resided a considerable time upon the continent, but had somewhat adopted the self-importance of a French republican author. The new philosophy is in many instances in opposition to the old : a philosopher of modern times wishes to make a world for himself, whereas his predecessors were con.. tent to bear with it as they found it; and, what is more to the present point, the latter spoke of themselves with diffidence and humility, while the former often assumes a presumptuous and disgusting vanity.
In his first volume, Mr. Naylor begins the history of Switzerland with a retrospect of that country in the time of Julius Cæsar, and proceeds to the year 1343. The second volume closes with the council of Basle, and a view of manners in the fifteenth century. It is probable the ingenious author intends to dedicate two other volumes to a continuation of the work, which shall include the recent subjugation of this country by the French : and we must confess, from the advantages in his possession referred to in the preface, that we should be inclined to prefer such additional volumes to those now before the public.
After the valuable models of modern history which have been furnished by Hume, Gibbon, and Robertson, we are surprised that the author before us has not assumed a similar forin, by marking on the margin of the page its chronology and general contents, which so much contribute to perspicuity and reference. We could also wish for a more acute spirit of criticism; nor can we, for instance, blindly assent to Cæsar's position, that 257,000 Helvetians disappeared before his arms. The calculations of the ancients concerning large numbers are so vague and exaggerated, that modern accuracy may subtract at least one half. In his authorities for the subsequent period, it would have gratified us morcover if Mr. Naylor had specified his origi. nal authors, instead of satisfying himself with Swiss compilations. The history of the Burgundians is too general; while that of Switzerland, under their authority, ought nearly to have concentrated his sole attention. The writer's remark, p. 38, that the worship of images arose only from their being symbols of divine power, is too hypothetical, too much in the style of those who would reduce all mythology to one universal basis; while we know, on the contrary, that it originated from many concurrent causes. Among the Hindu idols, for example, several are symbolic, while others are confessediy only those of deified philosophers or eminent warriors.
CRIT. Rey. Vol. 34. Jan. 1302.