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Liverpool at present is his chief residence, where he may be seen at times, walking with a book under his arm, without money, or speaking to any one.
“ If any gratuity be offered to him (for he never solicits it), he receives it with a degree of hesitation, generally using the words, • I am not worthy. To any ridicule to which his dress and appearance may give rise, he is totally insensible. At one time he chose to tie up his hair with a large piece of green ferret, which gave him the most ludicrous appearance possible. Some time since, one of his friends gave him a light-borseman's jacket, of blue and silver, which he immediately put on, and continued to wear, and which, contrasted with his hair and beard, gave him the appeara ance of a Jewish warrior, as represented in old prints, and consequently attracted after him a crowd of children. In his present appearance, he strongly resembles some of the Beggars of Rembrandt'; and if he had lived in the time of that great artist, might have afforded a good subject for his immortal pencil; yet there is some expression of dignity in his countenance, which is well marked in the excellent portrait of him, given as a frontispiece, and which cannot be observed without a feeling of respect.” P. 24.
He is particularly frugal in his habits, addicted to no vice, and temperate in his mode of living, drinking only water with the occasional indulgence of milk. His disposition is gentle, and his manners civil and respectful. To truth he is scrupulously adherent; and in return for kindness, or as a mark of good will, he frequently gives, or offers to give, not only bis books, but even the MSS. which he has compiled with infinite labour.
But the most remarkable feature of his mind is, that it embraces the words of the language which he has acquired, more as being in themselves the ultimate objects of his study, than as keys to information : so that with a thorough comprehension of the grammatical construction of every sentence in any work which
he has been reading, he is nearly ignorant of the facts which it contains.
" A distinguished member of the University of Oxford hap pening to call on one of Richard's friends, at a time when Richard himself happened to be near at hand, it occurred to his friend, that the literary curiosity of the learned visitor might be gratified by a short interview with a character of such a description. Richard wag Accordingly introduced ; and, after the first surprise occasioned by his appearance had subsided, and some explanations had been given as to the nature of his acquirements, he was asked several ques. tions, both in the French and Italian languages, to which he replied with that readiness and simplicity for which he is remarkable. He was then asked, whether he understood Latin and Greek; and þar-s ing answered in the affirniative, was desired to read a passage in Homer. Richard accordingly thrust his hand into his bosom, and
diving down to the residence of the great poet, dragged him from his depths, and offered him to the visitor to select a passage, who, declining a more intimate acquaintance, desired Richard would open the book, and read such passage as might first occur to him. He accordingly began with some lines in the Iliad with great deliberation and accuracy, commenting on them as he proceeded, with many judicious critical remarks, which shewed a thorough knowledge of the language, and surprised the gentleman to whom they were addressed. Being then requested to translate what he had read, he gave it in such English as he usually employs; slowly and cautiously, but with sufficient accuracy to shew that, as far as grammatical construction went, he perfectly understood the sense. The following dialogue then took place:
« Q. Very well, Richard ; you have translated this passage very well. Pray have you read the Iliad ?
“ A. Yes, I have. * Q. And what do you think of the character of Andromachę? " A. (After a pause) Andro-mache ? “ Q. Yes. What do you think of the character of Andronache ? “ A. (After another pause) It is a fight of men *. “ Yes, yes; that is certainly the derivation of the name: but what do you think of Andromache, the wife of Hector?
“ A. I know nothing about that." P. 28.
Yet as to his wethod of study, he answers very rationally, as the following dialogue will prove.
“ Q. As you seem to have made no little proficiency in lana guages, pray tell me what method you take in acquiring a language?
“ A. It is according to what the nature of the language is. “ Q. How would you set about acquiring a modern language?
“ A. If it was the Spanish, for instance, I would take a vocabu. lary of the language, and examine what words corresponded with or resembled the words in any other language, with which I was acquainted; as, for instance, the Latin, French, or Italian ; and those words I would strike out of the vocabulary, leaving only such as were the original or peculiar words of the Spanish tongue; and then, by the assistance of a grammar, I should soon be able to attain a knowledge of that language.” P. 31.
His compilations consist of a Hebrew Grammar, a Greek and English Lexicon, a Collection of Hebrew Extracts, followed by a Vocabulary in Hebrew and English, and a brief Latin treatise on the music and accents of the Jews, and a Lexicon in Hebrew, Greek and English, in which he has made considerable progress. This last was intended to include the Latin and Welsh; but tbe want of books hitherto bas prevented him from interweaving them. We sincerely
'Ανδρών μαχη. 2 . 34, 1.ί.
trust that the little publication, to which we have directed the attention of our readers, will assist in removing the poverty against whicb he has continued to struggle with such unbroken perseverance. His wants appear to be few; and both as a man of desert, and as a singular phenomenon in the history of the human mind, he has a claim upon the purses of those who have the ability and the inclination to give. The profits derived from his Memoir, are to be expended in secur, ing him a provision; and the following bighly respectable Committee, in Liverpool, has undertaken to receive subscrip: tions, and direct their application. Messrs. W. W. Currie, A. Lace, S. Parkes, W. Ratbbone, W. S. Roscoe, H. Taylor, J. Ashton Yates. It will be no small satisfaction to us, if we shall in any way have contributed to the furtherance of their benevolent design.
ART. IV. A Statistical, Historical, and Political Descrip
tion of the Colony of New South Wales, and its dependent Settlements in Van Diemen's Land: with a particular Enumeration of the Advantages which these Colonies offer for Emigration, and their Superiority in many Respects over those possessed by the United States of America, By W. C. Wentworth, Esq. a Native of the Colony,
8vo. 476 pp. 12s. Whittakers. 1819. ART. V. Journals of two Expeditions into the Interior of
New South Wales, undertaken by order of the British Government in the Years 1817-18. By John Oxley, Sur. veyor-General of the Territory, and Lieutenant of the Royal Navy. With Maps and Views of the Interior, or newly Discovered Country. 4to. 424 pp. 2. 10s. Murray. 1820. We by 'no means feel assured that the majority of our readers, if the question were fairly proposed, could give as accurate an account of Port Jackson and Botany Bay, as they possibly could of their more notorious classical prototypes, the “ brief Gyaræ,” or the Erythræan islands to which the Great King was used to transport τους ανάσπασους καλεσμένους. With this feeling we shall prepare to tell them all the little which we ourselves have been able to learn on this subject from the books now before us, and one or two other authorities which have come in our way.
The Spaniards, soon after the commencement of the seventeenth century, lay claim to the discovery of the great island of the southern hemisphere. In the year 1609, Don Pedro Fernando de Quiros memorialized the court of Madrid on the advantages of planting settlements on this new conti nent, as it was at that time supposed to be; and represented its probable extent to be not less than that of Europe and Asia Minor taken jointly: a conjecture for which it is not easy to assign the excellent Don's reasons, as it is plain that he knew no more than a small tract of coast. The maritime enterprize of the Dutch, within six years of the first disco. very, laid open more than four degrees of latitude on the west; and during the remainder of the century large additions were made to their information by successive voyagers, so that the country with much justice assumed the name of New Holland. It does not appear to have attracted the attention of the English till the
close of the century, when it was twice visited by Captain Dampier: the first time in 1688, the second by especial commission from William III. eleven years afterwards.
The eastern coast was explored by Captain Cook, in the year 1770, when that celebrated navigator ascertained, beyond doubt, that New Holland was an island. The profusion of curious plants, which he discovered on a spacious inlet on tbiş coast, induced him to name it Botany Bay; and on his return he represented it to government as an advantageous spot for a settlement. It was not however till 1786, that his suggestion attracted the serious attention of the Bri. tish ministry, and they then resolved to take possession of this part of the island with a particular view to the transportation of convicts. Two armed brigs, six transports, and three store-ships were accordingly fitted out for this service: on board them was embarked a force of less than 200 men to guard 564 male and 192 female convicts ; and the command of the expedition and of the colony when founded, was intrusted to Captain Arthur Phillip, an active and enterprizing officer. After a voyage of eight months the fleet cast anchor in Botany Bay, on the 20th of January, 1787 ; and so healthy had been the passage, that the number of deaths, including casualties, amounted only to thirty-two.
It was soon perceived that Botany Bay was ill calculated for colonial settlement. Its extent is great, but it has little depth of water, and moreover is exposed to heavy swells from south-easterly winds. A bar, about three miles from its mouth, is not more than fifteen feet deep; and the streams of fresh water on its coast are scanty and impare. About three leagues and a half to the north a completely land-locked har
VOL. XVII. MAY, 1822.
bour, of an irregular form, the soundings of which were of sufficient depib for ships of the heaviest barden, and its extent large enough to contain all the navies in the world, presented a far more eligible spot.
This noble barbour had been named Port Jackson by Captain Cook, but it had been viewed only at a distance, and the height of tbe capes and the sinuosities of its channel precluded him from accurate examination. An inlet, between five and six miles from the mouth, was selected by Governor Pbillip for his new capital, and distinguished by the name of Sydney Cove. The water drew four fathoms cluse to shore. It had neither rocks nor sballows. Its dimensions were well adapted for building, about a quarter of a mile in depth, and twice as mucb in breadth, and a considerable stream of fresh water discharged itself at its upper end.
The number of persons who were first landed at this set. tlement amounted to 1030. The projected town grew with speed under their labours ; and the chief difficulties to which the colonizers were likely to be exposed, arose from a possible failare of supplies. The live stock, public and private, was by no means sufficiently large to make such fears upreasopable, in case of any accidental interruption of communication with the mother country. We subjoin a list of it as a curiosity--2 bulls; 5 cows; 1 horse ; 3 mares ; 3 colts; 29 sheep; 19 goats; 74 pigs ; 5 rabbits ; 18 turkies; 29 geese; 33 ducks; 210 fowls; and out of these the balls and four cows at an early period were lost in the woods.
In the summer of 1790 great apprehensions of famine' were entertained. A ship of war proceeding from England, with abundant supplies, had been wrecked in her passage, and a large increase to the population had been received by fresh drafts of convicts; but after a reduction of the daily rations, and an anxiety of some months, these fears were effectually relieved. In 1792 Governor Phillip departed for Europe, and the command of the colony was held by commission till the arrival of Governor Hunter, in 1793. Soon after the succession of this officer to the command, it was discovered that the stray cattle bad bred largely in the forests, and under proper management the wild herds furnished hopes of most abundant supply. The population at the close of 1797 amounted to 3,960 persons; and the live stock had gained upon the scanty numbers given above in the following proportion horses and mares 57 ; horned cattle 227 ; sheep 1631 ; goats 1427 ; hogs 1869. The mother settlement had established several branches, particularly one in Norfolk island, already containing near nine hundred inhabitants; and a