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the inn, was transferred during his absence on classical investigations, to the use of a company of strolling players. Scarron himself could not have taken the invasion more easily. Mr. Kelsall retreated, all houseless and supperless to a truss of hay in the adjoining stable; and employed himself, without a murmur, in catching fleas till the next morning.
All travellers, however, may not possess equal meekness; and as there is but one room, in one inn, in the whole town of Arpino, it is not improbable that the same circumstances may frequently recur. To bear with them is the part of a philosopher; to ameliorate them is the part of a philanthropist; and Mr. Kelsall whose fortitude is well matched by his benevolence, has shewn not only that he can submit to be flea-bitten himself, but that he will do all in his power to prevent the flea-bites of others.
When a projector has once fairly got a plan into his head, it is his own fault if he does not provide motives which shall secure its completion. Many a man who cares not a straw about fleas, will be persuaded that it is a point of honor “ to develope art in an interesting and satisfactory manner,” and to build a monument to Cicero in his own country; and it is for these ostensible reasons that Mr. Kelsall makes the following propositions for erecting a Ciceronian Caravansary at Arpino.
“1. That subscription-books be opened in the houses of the principal bankers in Europe.
“ 2. That the sum described shall not exceed 30,0001.
“ 3. That the house of Torlonia at Rome, be the central communicating, and finally receiving bank.
“ 4. That a committee of three of the first antiquaries, or connoisseurs in Rome, be appointed to name the artists, who shall send in designs for the frescoes about to be described.” P. 215.
This Tullian Tontine when built, is to be dedicated “ to the memory of Conyers Middleton, Ernestus and all the Biographers and Commentators of Cicero." The elevation consists of a central rotunda supported by wings; and the architectural details are very minutely filled up by the proposer. Fourteen frescoes (the subjects from Cicero's life,) will adorn the inner walls. In one the great orator is to be shewn “pelted with mud and stones by the populace,” and in another," he arrives at Agrigentum covered with dust and sweat." This selection is not a little creditable to the taste of the designer, and must be particularly stimulant to the exertions of the fortunate artist who shall be called upon for its execution.
If this plan be approved, future travellers will find that there is a something beyond modern Rome worth visiting ; something full as satisfactory as cross keys and tiaras in the Amalthea at Arpinum.” Whether the plan will be approved, is perhaps somewhat doubtful : in the mean time we shall state in brief, what Mr. Kelsall bas found already, to put bim, who, in other respects, seems a mild spirited gentleman, so much out of humour with “ cross keys and tiaras.”
On arriving at the Ponte Molle in Rome, he saw a dead beggar; and by a very natural deduction condemned all hierarchical governments. Among the busts in the Campidoglio he paid particular reverence to one of the Emperor Julian:
a man of such rare endowments as to neutralize even the criticism of bigots; and who, had he lived another ten years, might have left effects on the religious and political systems of Europe, felt peradventure at this very hour.” What effects the survival of the arch apostate might have had on the congress of Vienna, or the relations of Russia with the Porte, we leave diplomatists to resolve ; but we cannot think that the Commissioners for enlarging Churches would have had their functions much diminished by it. But Julian is a fair catchword, and we looked for some such remark as the one we found.
The view of St. Peter's, suggested two reflections to Mr. Kelsall. One that “ Voltaire was the first individual in modern Europe, who had the magnanimity to 'erect a temple to the Deity;" the other, that “the spirit of the catholic doctrine is too contracted to allow paying due respect to the first cause.” From the difference between Mohammedanism and Christianity in this respect he drew the following consequences.
“ Friendship of a devoted kind is not uncommon in Turkey ; in Rome it is certainly rare.
The testimonies of numerous travellers concur in stating that a low shop-keeper in Turkey scorns to ask even of a Christian, a greater sum than he would of a Turk. Most of the Roman shop-keepers turn foreigners to the best account they can. The Turk will sometimes rob by open force; but he scornş pilfering, as common at Rome as in London and Paris.” P. 14.
Arpino is naturally proud of its distinguished townsmen. Several of the modern inhabitants have borne the prænomina, Marco Tullio. In the sack of Rome by Charles V., , Marvo Tullio Cicerone kimself, a distinguished officer of the town, cut off the hand of the governor of the castle of St. Angelo, by a single stroke of his sabre. In the wars between Ferdinand of Arragon and the House of Anjou, for the Neapolitan throne, Pins II. gave orders to his general to spare the Arpinates. “ Parce Arpinatibus ob Caii Marii, et Marci Tullii memoriam. At present the municipal insignia are the three ietters M. T. C.
Mr. Kelsall found the men of Arpino prompt in intellect, and fluent in discourse, and the wonien beautiful and fasci. nating. He read the tract de Legibus on the site of the Arpine Villa ; and encouraged the following train of thought much, no doubt, to his edification.
“ It is incontestable that many individuals in modern times, have taken incredible pains with their minds; but we search in vain, in the productions of thoes reputed the most successful, for the supported argumentative powers of Demosthenes, or the grandeur, variety, and rotundity of the Ciceronian periods. To what are we to attribute the failure? To our love of daintier food, and more luxurious habits, than the great men of antiquity ? To our physical and mental inferiority ? Or to the crippling that the mind suffers, from its more multiplied ramifications: It is not easy to determine. ! ended the above reflections with the conviction, that a great and honest lawyer is of inestimable value, and forms the briglitest ornament of every civilized state.” P. 103.
We cannot follow Mr. Kelsall through his separate criti, cisms, bowever laconically they are given, on the works of Tully. It seems that we ought to consider the De Natura Deorun, as one of the fair havens resorted to by those, whose minds are buffeted by the contemplation of the obscurity, that broods on our condition here below.” As Mr. Kelsall's mind appears to be not unfrequently buffeted by obscurity, we doubt not that the De Natura Deorum is often consulted by him. It is a favourite treatise with us also : not indeed as a “ fair haven ;" for miserable indeed is he who hopes to find shelter from the storm of doubt in so fallacious an anchorage : but because it shows the “ folly of the wise," and the imbecility of the most gigantie intellect, when it is applied to subjects which must ever lie in hopeless darkness, without " light from heaven."
Mr. Kelsall having exhausted Cicero's birth-place, made a voyage to Capri. llere he was better treated by his landlord tlian at Arpino. A jolly vintner accosted him on his landing with “ Signore, roba di Tiberio Cesare," and leading the way to his cellars, tapped a cask or two of his own wine. This reception was so much to the visitor's satisfaction, that we hear no proposal of a subscription for the Spintriæ and Sellarii, which the traveller otherwise might have been tempted to restore as fit monuments of the imperial recluse.
ART. VII. Memoirs of a Life, chiefly passed in Pennsylvania,
within the last Sixty Years. 8vo. pp. 440. Is. 6d. Black
wood. Edinburgh. 1822. ART. VIII. A Visit to North America, and the English
Settlements in Illinois, with a ll'inter Residence at Philadelphia ; solely to ascertain the actual Prospects of the Emigrating Agriculturist, Mechanic, and Commercial Speculator. By Adlard Welby, Esq. South Rauceb?, Lincolnshire. 8vo. 14 plates. pp. 236. 10s. Od. Drury.
1821. The first of these books may, perhaps, bold a distinguished rank among the products of the Trans-atlantic press: and we doubt not, it is a fair specimen of the average state of American Literature. Mr. Galt, however, perhaps, overrates it a little, in stating it to be “rich in the various excellencies of style, description, and impartiality," and in feeling assured that it'" will" obtain for its author no mean place among those who have added permanent lustre to the English language.” This is not exactly the impression it has left upon our minds; but it is idle to quarrel about differences of taste ; and, if Mr. Galt really ihinks thus, he is, no doubt, quite right, in having republished the volume in Edinburgh ; and we hope he has secured himself from the possibility of being undeceived by the unanswerable argumentum ad crumenam.
Be this as it may, we do not think we should have paid much attention to the Sexagenarian of Pennsylvania, if Mr. Welby's little volume had not fallen into our hands. But, lest Mr. Welby should imagine this avowal to be more complimentary to himself
, than, in common honesty, we can allow that it is intended to be, we will fairly state once for all, that we take each of these two publications in hand solely on account of the comparison which they enable us to institute between America as it was, and America as it is. We shall not pretend to draw the contrast ourselves; but we shall leave our readers to do so, by placing before them a few extracts from the pages of one who was an actor during the season of
hope, and one who has been a spectator during that of realization.
The Pennsylvanian must allow us to run hastily over the anecdotes of his youth. Auto-biography is, perhaps, more amusing to the writer than to the reader; and we can easily understand the difficulty of blotting when self is the theme; but if an author forgets to erase, the critic may apply a safe remedy, by remembering not to transcribe.
We shall content ourselves, therefore, with briefly noticing, that the Pennsylvanian is of right American lineage. His father was an Irish settler, and his mother was born in Barbadoes, of a cross breed, between a German trader, and a Scotch body from Glasgow. His mother having been left a widow early, superintended a boarding-house in Philadelphia; and among the other guests of her table, once numbered Sir William Draper. The son was bred to the law, and seems to have been a bit of a rake in his time; for he tells us that he lived with players and metaphysicians, and aped the style of Lovelace, in his correspondence with the ladies. On the assembly of Congress at Philadelphia, in 1775,
preparatory to decided hostilities with the mother country, our autbor received a commission as Captain ; and as great anxiety was manifested that the new regiment should be particalarly well officered, he selected an apothecary's apprentice as his second lieutenant: taking good care to unite in the same person, the attributes of that god, who was at once iatric and ecebolic ; skilled (if we may be permitted such a pun) in the pestle as well as the mortar.
But, however easy it was to obtain those who should command, there was some scarcity of such as were to obey : and a battalion, as every body knows, looks but scanty without rank and file. The patriotic rabble were well content to drink at the noble captain's expence; but his party for a long time, drew no more rations than supplied himself, his second lieutenant, a corporal, and a drummer. Towards Spring, however, his complement was made up ; and showed itself“ comparatively well armed, uniformed, and equipped.” Its positive merits may be estimated, by the following account of the troops assembled at New York,
“ A considerable portion of our motley army had already assem. bled in New York and its vicinity. The troops were chiefly from the eastern provinces ; those from the southern, with the exception of Hand's, Magaw's, and our regiment had not yet come on. The appearance of things was not much calculated to excite sanguine expectations in the mind of a sober observer. Great numbers of people were indeed to be seen, and those who are not