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it arises, when the light has attracted exactly as much oxygen as was required by the hydrogen and carbon which remained."

The second division of the Phytotomy, "Phytochemy," contains an account of the chemical components of vegetables, and introduces much useful practical matter, particularly relating to agriculture. However the author does not in every instance display the most correct chemical knowledge, especially when he supposes that the fixed alkalies like ammonia, are composed of hydrogen and azote, perhaps with a certain portion of oxygen.

The geography, as well as the malformations and diseases of plants, forms an extremely interesting portion of the work. The history of botany contains a concise account of the principal botanical authors, with a sufficiently copious list of their works.

The concluding part of the work, "the practical part," cannot be too highly praised. Examples are given of one or more plants, from each class of the Linnæan system, treated of at length under the following heads: first, the systematic name is given from the most approved authority, with the familiar appellation in several modern languages: secondly, a detailed description of the form and structure of the plant throughout: thirdly, the "Diagnosis and affinity:" fourthly, "Synonymes and figures:" fifthly, "Geographical distribution:" lastly, "Uses." This plan may be recommended as an excellent model for the formation of a Flora or Synopsis of plants.

In speaking of this work, as a whole, it is impossible to add any thing in the way of encomium, to that which has been so unsparingly applied by the translator. It is not the kind of work exactly suited for a beginner, but is certainly admirably adapted for a person who has made some progress in the science; for one already acquainted with the language of botany, and the system of Linnæus, who is about to extend his views to a larger and more philosophical knowledge of the vegetable kingdom.

In the absence of better treatises, it will no doubt become of much weight and authority, especially when we consider the great reputation of the authors. It is therefore of more importance, that its errors should be pointed out, and that the inquiring student should be on his guard, against impli citly adopting the opinions contained in it, with out proper

examination.

Dr. Bilderdyk, of Amsterdam, who wrote a view of the opinions of the French and German Vegetable Physiologists

(prefixed to Mirbel's work) speaking of Sprengel, has the following trite remarks.

"Je rends hommage au merite eminent de M. Sprengel; mais s'il s'est trompé, il faut bien le dire. Les erreurs des hommes vulgaires, n'ont pas besoin d'etre relevées: elles sont sans consequence: il n'en est pas ainsi des erreurs des hommes distingués, elles seduisent la multitude, et il faut les attaquer avec vigueur, pour les detruire.”

ART. IX. A List of Editions of the Bible and Parts thereof in English, from the Year MDV. to MDCCCXX.: with an Appendix containing Specimens of Translations, and Bibliographical Descriptions. By the Rev, Henry Cotton, D.C.L. late Student of Christ Church, Oxford. Octavo. 180 pp. Oxford, at the Clarendon Press. 1821.

THE increasing attention which, of late years, has been given to whatever is connected with the critical study and literary history of the Scriptures, may certainly be considered as a pleasing sign of the times; and though a mere catalogue of editions of the Bible may appear to be valuable to a limited class of persons, yet, when executed (as it is in the present instance) with not " a little diligence," ability, and research, it is calculated to afford much and various information of a highly interesting nature.

The present work, though not the first of the kind, is by far the most complete in our language. The lists similar to the present, which have already appeared, and of which Dr. Cotton has availed himself, where actual inspection was not within his reach, are the following, viz.

1. "A List of various Editions of the Bible and of Parts thereof in English, from the year 1526 to 1776, from a MS. (No.1140,) in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, much enlarged and improved.' Of this list, which consists of a single sheet in octavo without a title page, two hundred and fifty copies only were privately printed at the expense of the late Archbishop of Canterbury, in 1776, at the press of Mr. Bowyer. In it the editions of the Psalms are intermixed with those of the Bible.

2. "A List of various Editions of the Bible and Parts thereof in English, from the year 1526 to 1776. A Manu

script List of English Bibles, copied from one compiled by the late Mr. Joseph Ames, presented to the Lambeth Library by Dr. Gifford, hath furnished some part of this publication: later discoveries of several learned Gentlemen have supplied the rest, London, 1778."

This list (a copy of which is before us) was also printed for presents only: it is in 8vo. on thirty-seven leaves, printed on one side. The Psalms are here placed in chronological order by themselves; which arrangement, being more distinct, has very properly been followed by the compiler of the volume now under consideration. These two lists, though generally imagined to have been made by Dr. Ducarel, (whose name they usually bear) were really drawn up by the late Mr. Mark Cephas Tutet, an eminent bibliographer and antiquarian of the last century. The second list, enlarged and improved by the Rev. Clement Crutwell, was prefixed to his edition of the Bible with Bishop Wilson's notes, printed at Bath in 1785; from which it was copied by Mr. Hewlett in the Introduction to his Commentary, published at London in 1811. Several editions, which appear in the former lists, are omitted in this, probably (Dr. Cotton conjectures) because the editor was not satisfied of their existence: Dr. Cotton, however, has not considered himself justified in adhering to Mr. Crutwell's omissions; since it may well happen, that others may be fortunate enough to meet with editions, which may have escaped their

united researches.

4. Mr. Tutet's List, No. 2, continued to the year 1792, with a notice of two Manuscript Versions, was annexed to Archbishop Newcome's Historical View of the English Biblical Translations, printed at Dublin, in 8vo., 1792: and this list was reprinted and appended.

5. To a republication of Lewis's History of the English Translations of the Bible, 8vo., London, 1818, with a very scanty Supplement brought down to the year 1816. The editors of the two last noticed lists do not appear to have seen that of Mr. Crutwell.

In all of these the editions are arranged chronologically, and in the four last the Psalms form a separate class. The tabular form in which they were printed has been judiciously rejected by Dr. Cotton, who has thus gained additional room. The lists in question were, moreover, destitute of notes or descriptions, and were by no means complete to the several periods when they were respectively published: but he has enlarged and brought his list down to the year 1820, with but few omissions, and has enriched his pages with

various brief and highly interesting annotations, both biblio graphical and critical. His publication consists of two parts, viz.

1. A List of the various Editions of the English Bible and of Parts thereof, from 1505 to 1820. In this Dr. Cotton has retained whatever was set down in the former lists, unless upon examination he discovered it to be erroneous: he has also specified the possessors of the earlier editions, and has given the name of every society or person with whom he found the more rare and curious articles-citing public repositories, such as the Bodleian and other libraries, in preference to the collections of private individuals. For it is interesting, (he justly remarks) and in many cases useful, to know where a particular translation or remarkable edition can be found, and also to know where a second or a third copy is to be met with, either for supplying defects or for instituting a collection of copies. This part of his volume must have cost him no small labour: for, though the treasures of the British Museum are now well-known by means of its ample printed catalogues, we were utter strangers to the rich stores contained in the Bodleian Library, in that of his Grace the Archbishop of Canterbury, and also in that of the Dean and Chapter of Saint Paul's Cathedral, until Dr. Cotton explored them, and communicated to the public the benefit of his researches.

2. The second part of this tract contains editions of the Psalms, the translations of which are for the most part in metre. In one of the articles of the Appendix he has given specimens of the various readings introduced in the wellknown version of Sterneholde; but of the versions by Brady and Tate, Patrick, Barton, Merrick, and others, a few of the earlier editions alone are mentioned, or those which presented any new variety of rendering.

The Appendix consists of numerous bibliographical descriptions, and specimens of versions of different parts of the Old and New Testament, which could not very conveniently be thrown into the shape of notes, without overloading the page and interrupting the facility of reference. These will be perused with much interest, especially the specimens of translations; for, by thus bringing together, and exhibiting in one view various renderings of any the same portion of Scripture, a tolerable idea may be formed of the style and character of each translation. Their points of resemblance as well as of difference are at once seen, and the gradual progress towards the formation of our present authorized version may be traced without difficulty. A further advant

age resulting from the very curious specimens of translations, which are given in the Appendix, is, that any person possessing an imperfect version of the Bible, may here at once ascertain of what translation it forms a part.

From the preceding remarks, our readers will easily perceive that the main design of Dr. Cotton's work is, to shew what has been done in the way of translating the Sacred Volume into English, and to trace the various steps by which we have arrived at our present authorized version. It would, as the author very justly observes, be a curious and pleasing task to trace the gradual change and improvement which took place, as new light broke in upon the minds of the translators; pleasing also to observe how many of the earliest expressions have withstood repeated revisals of the translation, and are retained and approved at the present day.

"This last is a circumstance which cannot fail to strike forcibly any one who has been led to examine our earlier printed Bibles. Let any person take up the first edition of Coverdale's Bible, printed in 1535, and read from it one of the Psalms; besides the general similarity which pervades the whole, how many verses will he find of which every word is the same with those which he reads in the Prayer Book as now printed and used! Surely that rendering must have been near the truth, which repeated examination has not thought fit to alter; that language must have been well chosen, which could not only maintain its ground amidst so many changes of style and of taste, but could continue to be generally intelligible after nearly three centuries had elapsed, and when almost every other composition of the same age had become enveloped in considerable obscurity." Introduction, p. xiv.

Besides exhibiting the steps by which we have thus arrived at our present admirable version, this publication will serve to give a tolerable idea of the degree of estimation in which the different versions were held, by shewing the multitude or paucity of their impressions.

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The number of editions of the English Bible, entire and partial, which are contained in Dr. Cotton's List,' amounts to considerably more than six hundred; and that of the Psalms to nearly four hundred. We shall transcribe a few of his notes and descriptions, that our readers may be enabled to form some idea of the nature of his work, and of the labour with which the compilation of it must have been attended.

"1526. New Testament*, translated by Wm. Tyndale; printed

* "Of this valuable and highly interesting volume, the first fruits of an attempt to print the Scriptures in the English tongue, and the chief cause of the

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