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UNIVERSAL GAZETTE ER,

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DICTIONARY,

GEOGRAPHICAL, STATISTICAL, AND HISTORICAL.

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IBARRA.

ICELAND. IBARRA, a town of Ecuador, Columbia, in a delightful and about 30 m. inland. It is more remarkable for the freplain, on the Taguando, at the foot of the volcano Imburu, quency and violence of its eruptions than for its elevation, 50 m. N.E. Quito, and on the high road between that city which is only about 5200 ft. (See HECLA.) and Popayan. Lat. 00 21' N., long. 78° 18' 34" W. Pop. The bays and harbours along the coast are numerous and unknown, but formerly estimated at 12,000. It was found secure, but little known or frequented; the most so are ed in 1597, is well built, and has a large and well built those of Eyafiords on the N., Eyrarbacka on the S., and church, several convents, a college, formerly belonging to Reikiavik on the W. coast. The rivers, which are nuche Jesuits, a hospital, and many good private residences. merous and comparatively large, have mostly a N. or S. Without the city are some suburbs, inhabited by the Indian course. Although sufficiently wide, they are generally obpopulation. It manufactures fine cotton and other fabrics. structed by rocks and shallows, and are too rapid to admit of The district of which it is the capital produces sugar and navigation. There are several large lakes, of which Mywheat of the finest quality, and a good deal of cotton, the vatn lake, in the N.E., is the most considerable: it is estiwearing of which and other materials into stockings, caps, mated at about 40 m. in circumference, and has upwards of gloves, diags, coverlets. &e., employs many of its inhabitants. 30 islands composed of lava. In no country have volcanic (Thompson's Alcedo, &c.)

eruptions been so numerous as in Iceland, or spread over a IBBERVILLE, an outlet of Mississippi r., which it leaves larger surface. Besides more than 30 volcanic mountains, 14 m. below Baton Rouge, and 20 m. below it is joined by there exists an immense number of small cones and crater, and lost in Amile r. It receives water from the Mississippi from which streams of melted substances have been poured only at high flood, and is of no importance to navigation forth over the surrounding regions; nine volcanoes were until its jonction with Amite river.

active during the last century, four in the N., and the rest IBBERVILLE, parish, La. Centrally situated in the S. part lying nearly in a direct line along the S. coast. Twentyof the state, and contains 350 sq. m. The borders of the three eruptions of Hecla are recorded since the occupation streams only are sufficiently elevated for cultivation, where of the island by Europeans: the first of these occurred in the soil is very fertile. It contained in 1840, 4901 neat cal 1004. The most extensive and devastating eruption ever lle, 3928 sheep, 4688 swine; and produced 209,240 bushels experienced in the island happened in 1783 : it proceeded of Indian corn, 30,924 of potatoes, 3,552,000 pounds of cotton, from the Skaptar Yökul, a volcano (or rather volcanic tract 3,738,000 of sugar. It had seventeen stores; one academy, having several cones) near the centre of the country. This 12 students, five schools, 133 scholars. Pop.: whites, 2523 ; eruption did not entirely cease for about two years. It deslaves, 5887; free coloured, 85; total, 8495. ' Capital, Plaque- stroyed no fewer than 20 villages and 9000 human beings, mine.

or more than one fifth part of the then population of the ICELAND, a large island under the dominion of Den island! On the S. and W. coasts, numerous islands have mark, in the N. Atlantic ocean, on the confines of the polar been from time to time thrown up; some of which cirele, generally considered as belonging to Europe, but muin, while others have receded beneath the surface of the which should rather, perhaps, be reckoned in America: ocean, forming dangerous rocks and shoals. The Vestbetween lat. 630 30' and 66° 40' N., and long. 160 and 230 manna islands, which lie about 15 m. from the E. coast, are W. It is of a very irregular triangular shape, and is esti a group consisting almost entirely of barren vitrified rocks : mated to contain about 30,000 sq. m. Pop. (1834) 56,000, only one of them is inhabited. supposed to be spread over about two thirds of the island, Tracts of lava traverse the island in almost every directhe central portion being totally uninhabited, and imper- tion. This substance chiefly occurs in isolated streams, feetly explored. Iceland appears to owe its existence to having apparently flowed from the mountains ; but in some submarine volcanic agency, and to have been upheaved at parts there are continuous tracts, and along the 8.coast, for intervals from the bottom of the sea. It is traversed in 100 m. inland, the lavas that spread over the country have every direction by vast ranges of mountains: the principal been ejected from small cones rising immediately from the ridges run chiefly E. and W., and, from these, inferior surface. The ground in this part is frequently broken by mountains branch off towards the coast, often terminating fissures and chasms, some of which are more than 3 m. in in rocky and bold headlands. All the coasts, but more length, and upwards of 100 ft. in width. Besides the comespecially the N. and W. are deeply indented with fiords, mon lavas, Iceland abounds in other mineral masses indicasimilar to those of Norway. The most extensive tract of tive of an igneous origin; of these the most prevalent are level country is in the S.E. It is estimated that about a tufa and submarine lava, obsidian, sulphur, &c. Whole third part of the surface is covered with vegetation of some mountains of tufa exist in every part. Sir G. Mackenzie kind, while the other two thirds are occupied by snowy observes, that the instance of tufa excepted, he saw no mountains or fields of lava. The general aspect of the marks of stratification in any rock in the island, all the subcountry is the most desolate and dreary imaginable. The stances appearing to have been subjected to a degree of heat height of very few of the mountains has been correctly as. sufficient to reduce them to fusion; and that some, if not certained, and those said to attain an elevation of 7000 ft. all, the Icelandic masses, which are not the produce of exare not the most lofty. The Yökuls, or enormous ice. ternal eruptions, are really submarine lavas. The rocks mountains, are among the greatest elevations: the most ex not bearing external marks of heat, are mostly of trap, and tensive of these is the Klofa Yökul in the E.; il lies behind contain all the varieties of zeolite, chalcedony, greenstone, the heights which line the S.E. coast, and forms, with little porphyry, slate, &c.; the celebrated double refracting calor no interruption, a vast chain of ice and snow mountains careous spar is found chiefly on the E. coast. Basaluc covering a surface of perhaps 3000 sq. m. The W. quarter columns occur in many parts, especially on the W. coast, contains, among other lofty heights, the Snarel Yökul, 4.580 where they forin several grottos; and that of Stappen bears ft. high. In the N. the mountains are not very high; but a great resemblance to the cave of Fingal, in the island of in the E. the Oreefa Yökul, 6280 ft. in elevation, is the most Staffa. lafty of which any accurate measurement has be obta ew metals are met with: iron and copper have been ed. The celebrated volcano Hecla is in the S.W. quarter, I found; but the mines are not wrought. The supply of

ICELAND. sulphur is inexhaustible; large mountains are incrusted No grain is now cultivated, though traces exist of its with this substance, which, when removed, is again formed having been formerly raised. Agriculture is limited to the in crystals by the agency of the hot steam from below. rearing of various grasses for cattle, and haymaking is conLarge quantities were formerly shipped; but latterly the sup- sequently the most important branch of rural industry. Poplies sent to foreign markets have been comparatively small. tatoes have been introduced with some success; and seve

By far the most remarkable phenomena of Iceland are ral kinds of culinary vegetables are raised, but, with the the intermitting hot springs met with in several parts, and exception of red cabbage, few attain perfection. The grasses of all degrees of temperature. The water in some of these are of the sorts common in other N. climates, and keep springs is at intervals violently thrown into the air to a horses and other cattle in good condition during the sumgreat height. They have thence received the name of mer. Many of the low mountains are covered with a geysers, from the Icelandic verb geysa, to rage. The most coarse grass, which yields pretty good summer pasturuge; celebrated of these springs are situated in a plain, about 16 and the meadows and valleys through which the rivers m. N. from the village of Skalholt. The great geyser, or flow produce grass in tolerable abundance, which, when the principal fountain of this kind, rises from a tube or funnel, weather allows of its being harvested, is made into hay. 78 n. in perpendicular depth, and from 8 to 10 ft. in diame Seaweed and moss are eagerly devoured by the cattle in ter at the bottom, but gradually widening till it terminates winter, when other good food fails, which is often the case. in a capacious basin. After an emission, the basin and In 1834 It was estimated that there were about 500,000 head funnel are empty. The jets take place at intervals of about of sheep; from 36,000 to 40,000 head of black cattle; and from six hours; and when the water, in a violent state of ebul- 50,000 to 60,000 horses in Iceland: goats are kept only in the lition, begins to rise in the pipe or funnel, and to fill the N. The number of sheep appears to be increasing; they have basin, subterraneous noises are heard, like the distant roar remarkably fine fleeces, which are not shorn, but cast oft of cannon, the earth is slightly shaken, and the agitation in- entirely in the spring. The horses are hardy and small, creases till at length a column of water is suddenly thrown seldom standing more than 14 hands high. There being no up, with vast force and loud explosions, to the height of 100 carriages of any description, they are principally used for or 200 ft. And playing for a time like an artificial fountain, carrying burdens; and the poorest peasant has generally and giving off great clouds of vapour, the funnel is emptied, four or five of these animals. Rents are paid mostly in and a column of steam rushing up with great violence and produce; on the coasts in fish, in the interior in butter, a thundering noise, terminates the eruption. Such is the sheep, &c. Tenants who are in easy circumstances gene explosive force, that large stones thrown into the funnel are rally employ one or more labourers, who, besides board and instantly ejected, and sometimes shivered into small frag. lodging, have from 10 to 12 specie dollars a year as wages. ments. (for an explanation of this phenomenon, see The whole population is employed either in fishing or feedLyell's Geology, ii., 309, 3d ed.). Some of the hot springs, ing cattle, or both; those who breed cattle being, as comnear the inhabited parts of the island, are used for econom- pared with those who live by fishing, nearly as three to one. ical purposes ; food is dressed over them; and in some No manufactures, of any kind, are carried on for the purplaces huls are built over small fountains, to form steam pose of trade. Every branch of industry is domestic, and baths. In other parts of the island vast cauldrons of boiling confined chiefly to articles of clothing, such as coarse cloth, mud are seen in a constant state of activity, sending up im- gloves, mittens, stockings, &c. The peasantry supply themmense columns of dense vapour, which obscure the atmo- selves with such furniture as their cottages require, and sphere a great way round.

some manufacture silver trinkets, and snuff-boxes, and forge That Iceland had formerly some extensive forests is ap- implements of iron. Every man can shoe his own horse; parent from authentic records, but they no longer exist: in and in this land of primitive simplicity, even the bishop and fact, the climate seems to be now unsuitable for the growth chief justice are sometimes employed in this necessary ocof trees, those that are found at present being stunted and cupation! The greater part of the trade is carried on by diminutive, and little better than underwood. Vast quanti- means of barter; the quantity of money in circulation is ties of surturbrand, or fossil wood, are frequently found very small, few of the peasants possessing any. The merburied at a great depth beneath the surface.

chants receive the articles for exportation at regulated prices, of the wild animals, foxes are the most numerous. Rein- according to the state of the market, and pay for them in deer, which were introduced from Norway in 1770, in the such foreign commodities as the inhabitants may require. intention of being domesticated, have increased very rapid- The peasantry of the neighbourhood assemble annually at ly; but they are entirely wild, and are very difficuli to kill. Reikiavik and the other principal settlements, and bring Bears are frequently brought down from the arctic regions down with them wool, woollen manufactured goods, butter, on masses of floating ice; they sometimes commit great skins, tallow, Iceland moss (Lichen Icelandicus), and some devastations, but are generally destroyed almost immediate times a few cattle. In return for these they take back cof!y after making the land. Nearly all kinds of seafowl in ree, sugar, tobacco, snuff, a little brandy, rye, rye bread, habit the coasts and islands; and plovers, curlews, snipes, / wheaten flour, salt, soap, &c. The better class purchase and a variety of game, are found in the interior. The eider linens and cotton goods, which have latterly come more duck is very plentiful; and the down taken from the nest is into use. Those who live near the coasts bring to market an important article of export. The birds are so familiar as dried cod and stock fish, dried salmon, whale, shark, and to build their nests all round the roofs, and even inside the seal oils, seal skins, &c. The domestic produce has of late huts. A severe penalty is inflicted on those who kill them. years, been considerable, and the export of wool amounts The peasantry entertain a superstitious reverence, mingled to from 3000 to 4000 skippunds annually: with aversion, for the seal. The coasts, rivers, and lakes The Icelanders are of Norwegian origin; they are tall, produce an abundance of fine fish; and it is from the sea have a frank open countenance, a florid complexion, and that the Icelanders derive great part of their subsistence. flaxen hair. They seldom attain to an advanced age, but Their fisheries are prosecuted with great activity; and at the females generally live longer than the men. They are Niardivik, one of the fishing stations on the E. coast of the hospitable; devotedly attached to their native land; reisland, there are said to be 300 boats. Cod and haddock markably grave and serious; and, indeed, apparently are plentiful on the coasts: of these, as well as of the other phlegmatic, but extremely animated on subjects which inseafish, part is salted for exportation, but by far the greater terest them. They have retained, with few innovations, part is dried for winter provision. The herring fishery is the ancient modes of life and the costume of their race. much neglected, as well as the inland fishery on the lakes Their principal articles of food are fish, fresh and dried, and rivers.

bread, made of imported corn, great quantities of rancid The climate is more variable than that of the same lati- butter, game, and, in some parts, a porridge made of Icetudes on the continent. Great and sudden changes of tem- landic moss. They sometimes use the flesh of the shark or perature often occur; and it has frequently happened that sea-fish, when it has become tender from putrescence. after a night of frost, the thermometer during the day has Their huts, though larger, are not unlike those of the Irish: risen to 700 Fahr. The intensity of the cold is much in their dampness, with the darkness, filth, and stench of the creased by the immense quantities of floating ice, which, fish, render them uninhabitable by strangers. The Icelandbeing drifted from the polar regions, accumulate upon the ic, or original Scandinavian tongue, has been here preserve coast. Fogs are frequent; but the air, on the whole, is ed in all its ancient purity. The Icelanders are extremely reckoned wholesome. Thunder is seldom heard, but storms attentive to their religious and domestic duties, and display of wind and rain are frequent; and the aurora borealis and in their dealings a scrupulous integrity. Perhaps there is other meteors are much more common and brilliant here no country in which the lower orders are so well informed. than in countries further to the 8. The sun is visible at Domestic education is universal ; and there are very few midnight at the summer solstice, from the hills in the N. among them who cannot read and write, and many among parts of the island. There is a prevalent opinion in Iceland, the better class would be distinguished by their taste and that the seasons in former ages were less unfavourable: learning in the most cultivated society of Europe. Even but, there is probably no good foundation for this belief. many of the peasantry are well versed in the classics; and The summers are necessarily short; but Dr. Henderson the traveller is not unfrequently attended by guides who states that the cold is rarely more intense than in the S. of converse with him in Latin ! În winter nights it is cusScandinavia, and the winter he passed in the island was as tomary for a whole family to take their places in the prinmild as any he had experienced in Denmark or Sweden. cipal apartment, where they proceed to their respective

IDA.

ILCHESTER. tasks, while one, selected for the purpose, reads aloud some cent. of quicksilver, and is then ustially abandoned in of their sagas (ancient tales), or such other historical nar search of a better vein. The richest ore yields from 50 to rative as can be found. Their stock of books is not large. 70 per cent. of metal. From 600 to 700 workmen are einbat they lend to each other, and frequently copy what they ployed, of whom about 500 are miners. These are enborrow

rolled in a corps, and have a regular uniform. They are The island was formerly divided into four amts, or prov- divided into three sections, which relieve each other, each inces, answering to the four cardinal points. The N. and working below for eight hours in the twenty-four, and the E. are now merged into one, and the W. is presided over by work incessantly going on. Within his eight hours, the lathe governor in person. This officer has the title of slif- bourer is required to perform a certain measurement of tamtrar; he is sometimes a native, but more frequently a work, for which he receives 17 kreutzers (nearly 7d.). If Dane. Under him are the amtmen, or provincial governors, he performs less or more than this measured extent, his who possess a similar jurisdiction over their quarters. pay is proportionally reduced or increased; but the number Each province is divided into syssels or shires, presided of those who gain less than the fixed sum is greater than over by sysselmen, with authority similar to that of sher- of those who gain more. Besides their money pay, the ifls; these collect taxes, hold petty courts, regulate as miners get an allowance of corn sufficient for themselves sessments, &c. Under the sysselinen are wepetiores, who and their families; and in illness, gratuitous medical aid. are overseers of the poor, constables, &c. The tatsroed, No lodging is found them; but they may purchase at a govor chief justice, holds, with two assistants, a criminal court ernment store a number of articles of prime necessity, at at Reikjavik, but very few cases are tried in the island, and fixed charges, generally below the ordinary market prices. all eapital punishments are inflicted at Copenhagen. Crimes The miners usually enter the service at fifteen years of age. are rare, petty theft and drunkenness are the most com Aner forty years' service, or earlier, if ill health overtake mon; the latter has been introduced chiefly by the crews them, they are allowed to retire on full pay, and enjoy vaof the Danish vessels that visit the coasts.

rious privileges. The widows and orphans of miners are The island constitutes one bishopric; the bishop's salary entitled to a pension, and about 35,000 florins are thus exdoes not exceed £500 per annum. There are about 194 pended annually. The process of mining is said to be very pars. ; but the clergy amount to upward of 300: their in unhealthy; the heat of the mine, varying from 800 up to comes are very small, and they are frequently among the 860 Fah., impregnates the atmosphere with volatilised mer. poorest of the community. The only charitable institu- cury, which soon exerts all ite characteristic effects on the tons are, four hospitals, for the reception of those afflicted constitutions of the niiners. In some parts, the heat is so with leprosy, which, in the form of elephantiasis, was for great, and the atmosphere so vitiated, that the workmen merly very prevalent. Small-pox was formerly also very are obliged to relieve each other every two hours. The destructive. There are no workhouses, the sick and poor mine is very clean, and in its lower parts remarkably dry. In beiog almost universally supported by their own families. 1803, a violent conflagration broke out in the mine, destroyThe principal school at Bessestadt, near the W.coast, has ing the whole of the works, with several of the worknem. three masters, who teach classics, theology, and the Danish of the mercury produced at Idria, a small part goes to language; and several young men, after attending this Trieste, whence it is exported chiefly to America; but by school, go to Copenhagen to finish their studies. Reikia- far the largest portion is sent to Vienna, partly for the plavik, the cap., on the S.W. coast, has little more than 500 ung of mirrors, but principally for the use of the gold and resident inhab. chiefly Danes. Most of the villages are silver mines of Hungary and Transylvania. situated on the coasts, at convenient spots for the receipt Fifty years ago, Idria was notoriously a place of banishand transport of merchandise.

ment for state prisoners and criminals, who were conThe early and successful application of the Icelanders to demned to work in the mines. It is so no longer; no coerthe cultivation of literature is an anomaly in the history of cion is used, and no convicts are sent thither; the supply learning. When most parts of continental Europe were in of labourers petitioning to be admitted is considerably greaia state of rude ignorance, the inhab. of this remote island er than can be received into the service. The town and were well acquainted with poetry and history. The most disrict of Idria is a mining intendency, with its own govflourishing period of Icelandic literature appears to have ernment; consisting of a director general, an imperial compbeen from the 19h to the end of the 14th cenury. During troller of accounts, a secretary-general, and four councilthe last three centuries, however, Iceland has produced lors, wbo superintend all the departments of the public sermany learned men, some of whom have risen to great em vice, under the Council of Mines in Vienna. Idria has idence. The literature of the island in the present day may some German, primary, and other schools, and a small perhaps be said rather to have changed its character than theatre It had a school for instruction in mining, but it deelined from its ancient fame; the inhab. now attend was abolished on the restoration of the Illyrian provinces more to solid branches of learning than to the poetical and to Austria. The aspect of the place is thus described by historical romances of the ancient Icelandic sages. Do | Turnbull: "We perceived the white church with its little Inestie education is carefully attended to; there is no want steeple, perched on a small green knoll, and not far from of modern books in Icelandic; and a printing press is active it another insulated height, crowned with an antique-lookly employed in the island of Vidoe.

ing castle, erected by the Venetians during the time that The discovery of Iceland by Europeans is attributed to they possessed Illyria, and which now serves as a resia Norwegian pirate, about the year 860; but the earliest dence for the bergrath, or director of the mines, and for the permanent settlement was effecied by the Norwegians in government offices connected therewith. Between these 874. In little more than half a century, all the coasts were two heights, the town struggles along on very unequal occupied by settlers; and about the year 928 the inhab. ground; with a stream rushing through it, a second church formed themselves into a republic, and established the in a sort of open market-place, some large buildings conAlthing, or General Assembly of the nation, which was nected with the public adminstration, but scarcely any good held annually at Thingvalla, in the S.W. and not abol- shops or private houses." Mendicancy, or abject poverty, is, ished till 1800. The Icelanders maintained their independ- however, unknown. The mine was discovered by accident ence for nearly 400 years; but during the 13th century be- in 1497 ; it was afterward wrought by a company of Venecame subject to Norway, and on the annexation of that king-tian merchants, and purchased by the house of Austria, dom to Denmark, Iceland was transferred along with it. who accorded the miners considerable privileges in 1575, (Bce Sir G. Mackenzie's Travels ; Hooker's Trav. in Ice- since which the prosperity of Idria has been generally on land; Barrow's Visit to Iceland, 1834-5; Gaimard's Voy the increase. (See the elaborate accounts of Francke, in age en Island et Groenland, 1838; Henderson's Journal, &c.) | the Revue du Nord, vol. v., pt. il. ; Turninull's Trav., 1.,

IDA, t., Monroe co., Mich. It has two schools, 52 schol- 285-296 : Berghaus, Oesterr. Nat. Encyc., &c.). ars. Pop. 251.

IGUALADA (an. Aqua lata), a town of Spain, prov. IDRIA, a town of the Austrian empire, k. Illyria, duchy Catalonia, 37 m. N.W. Barcelona, and 286 m. E.N.E. MaCarniola, circle Adelsberg, in a valley of the Carnic Alps, drid; lat. 410 40.' N, long. 10 31' E. Pop. 7731. It stands 23 m. W. by S. Laybach. Pop. (1838), 4185. The inhabs. on the Noya, a trib, of the Joui, in a rich plain, abounding are principally engaged in mining; the quicksilver mines with corn-fields and olive-grounds. It has some wellof Idria belonging to the Austrian government being, after built streets, and a handsome suburb, the chief buildings those of Almaden in Spain, the richest and most celebra- being a par. church, two convents, a clerical college, hosted in Europe. They yield annually from 3200 to 3500 pital, and cavalry barracks. The inhab. are among the cwt. of metal, about a sixth part of which is converted on wealthiest and most industrious in Spain; and their manuthe spot into vermilion, corrosive sublimate, and other prep factures, by wbich they are almost wholly supported, comarations of mercury. The mine is rather more than 1000 prise cotton and woollen yarns and cloths, hats, and fireft. in depth. The formation in which it is situated is tran arms, the last of which are highly esteemed. In the sition limestone, alternating with clay-slate, in which latter neighbourheod are several considerable paper-mills. Fairs, rock the quicksilver is found. It exists partly pure in glob- well attended, for manufactured produce, are held here in ules among the slate ; but it is mostly found in combination the beginning of Jan. and at the end of August. (Miñano.) with sulphur, forming veins of cinnabar, &c., which vary ILCHESTER, a bor, market town, and par. of England, greatly in thickness. The cinnabar ore is considered too co., Somerset, hund. Tintin hull, on the Yeo or Ivil (whence poor to be wrought when it contains only from 15 to 18 per its name is derived), 18 m. E. Taunton, and 116 m. W.s.W.

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ILDEFONSI (ST.).

ILLE-ET-VILAINE. London. Area of bor. and par., 690 acres : pop. in 1831, | The town, consisting of one long street and a noble ter. (including 120 prisoners in the jail), 1095. The town com race facing the sea, extende W. from the harbour along the prises four indifferently-built streets, and has but few pub shore. The church, which stands at its upper end, is a lic buildings. The church is remarkable for its octangular large plain building containing some tine monuments: the lower. A national school, and almshouses for sixteen wom- living is attached to a prebend in Salisbury Cathedral. en, are the only public charities. The county courthouse There are places of worship for Independents and Wesis handsoine, and conveniently arranged. The jail, built leyan Methodists, a large national school, and a girls' school on Howard's plan, is large, and well-regulated, and capable of industry. The harbour is a natural basin formed by the of accommodating upward of 200 prisoners, and was often curve of a very rocky shore, and a bold mass of rocks quite full, when employed, as formerly, for a state prison stretching nearly half way across the entrance of the reand house of correction : it is now chiefly used for untried cess shelters it from the northern storms. A battery and prisoners and debtors, the number of inmates averaging lighthouse stand on the top of this rocky mass, and the fifty. (Pris. Inspect. Rep.) The town, which has no harbour is further defended by a pler 850 ft. in length, manufactures, and little trade, derives its chief importance which has been låtely put in excellent repair. There is from the fact that a large portion of the county business is safe anchorage for vessels of 230 tons, and ships can easily transacted here, the assizes being held at lichester alter enter here when they cannot get up the Taw to Barnstanately with Taunton, Wells, and Bridgewater. It is alto- ple; the consequence of which is, that Ilfracombe has taken gether, however, in a low, declining state, and pauperism away a great part of its coasting trade. The trade with is on the increase. Ilchester is a bor. by prescription, and Bristol, Swansea, and other ports in the Bristol channel is sent two mems. to the H. of C. from the 26th of Edw. I. considerable; and many vessels are employed in the herdown to the passing of the Refonin Act, when it was dis- ring fishery. This port, in 1838, had 63 ships, of the burden franchised : it was a mere nomination bor., in the patron of 3897 tons. Oats, barley, and fish are the chief articles age of the Duke of Cleveland. Markets on Wednesdays. of export. The town, however, depends in a great measDistinct traces of a Roman station, and the discovery of ure for its support on the numerous wealthy families that numerous Roman coins and antiquities, have led to the be resort thither in summer since it has attained celebrity lief that this town occupies the site of the Ischalis of Ptol as a watering-place. The bathing is excellent, and the emy, the principal military station of the Romans in the neighbourhood abounds with romantic scenery. SteamWest of England. It had 108 burgesses at the time of the packets run daily to and from Bristol, and at less frequent Norman conquest. Sull later, it was a place of consider- | intervals, to and from Swansea, Tenby and Milford. The able consequence, and was made, by patent of Edw. III., town is governed by a portreeve appointed by the lord of the the assize town of Somerset.

manor. Markets, well supplied with fish, on Saturdays: ILDEFONSO (ST.), or LA GRANJA, a celebrated pal- fairs, April 14, and the first Saturday after Aug. ". ace of the sovereigns of Spain, Old Castile, prov. Segovia, ILLE-ET-VILAINE, a marit. dep. of France, in the 42 m. N.N.W. Madrid, and 5 m. 8.E. Segovia, on the N. de- N.W. part of the kingdom, formerly included in the prov. clivity of the Sierra Guadarrama, built by Philip V. as a of Brittany; between lat. 470 38' and 480 42 30" N. and place of retirement during the hottest months of summer. long. 10 and 20 15' W., having W. Côtes-du-Nord and Mor* It is placed in a spot where the mountains fall back, leav- bihan, S. Loire Inférieure, E. Mayenne, and N. La Manche ing a recess sheltered from the hot air of the S. and from and the English channel. Length, N. to s., about 70 m. much of its sun, but exposed to whatever breeze may be Area, 668,697 hectares. Pop. (1836), 517,250. The Menez wafted from the N.; the immediate acclivity towards the mountains run through this dep. from E. to W.; but they S. being occupied by the garden, which, though soinewhat rise to no great height, and the surface elsewhere is not hilly. formal, is full of shade and coolness." (Inglis, 1., 283.) The chief river is the Vilaine, which has mostly a S.W. The palace, which is of brick, plastered and painted, occu course, and falls into the Atlantic in the dep. Morbihan : pies three sides of a square, in the centre of which is the the Ille is one of its affluents. The Rance, which has its royal chapel. The principal front, looking towards the mouth in this dep., is connected with the Ille by a canal, garden, is 530 ft. long, having two stories, with twelve extending from Dinan to Rennes, 52 m. in length, and wide rooms in a suite; the great entry, with its iron palisade, and deep enough for vessels of 70 tons. Climate tempervery much resembling that of Versailles. The interior is ate, but very damp; fogs are frequent, and from 36 to 38 in. in everything regal; the ceilings of the apartments are rain fall annually. Soil thin, and not generally fertile. In painted in fresco, the walls decorated with noble mirrors, 1834, 397.496 hectares of land were arable, and 73,349 in and the floors chequered with black and white marble, pasture ; forests, heaths, and waste lands occupying 146,077. while the furniture, though somewhat antiquated, is highly Agriculture is in a backward state. Throughout the greatenriched with jasper, verd-antique, and rare marbles. The er part of the dep. the land is parcelled out into small upper rooms are adorned with the works of the first mas farms, one of 30 hectares being considered large. In 1835, ters, chiefly of the Italian school, the lower apartments be- of 143,550 properties subject to the contribution foncière, ing used as a repository for sculpture. Many, however, of 60,920 were assessed at less than 5 fr., and 26,058 between the best specimens once belonging to this palace, both in 5 and 10 fr.; the number of considerable properties is much painting and sculpture, have been removed to the royal below the average of the deps. Principal crops, rye, oats, gallery of Madrid, which now possesses one of the richest and barley; the dep. is not so suitable for wheat; and but collections in Europe. The gardens are laid out in the little maize is grown; the annual quantity of grain proFrench style, with formal hedges and walks; and the duced is about 3,436,000 hectolitres, which is scarcely suftrees, notwithstanding the labour with which the formation ficient for home consumption; and the peasantry add to of these grounds was attended, are poor and starved; the their corn chestnut flour, potatoes not being in general use : chief feature, indeed, in these gardens, is the quantity of 13,200 hectares are in gardens and orchards; fruit is plentifine water, disposed in a variety of ways, and especially in ful, and some very good cider is made; but the agricultural the formation of fountains and works. “These," says products of the greatest importance are flax and hemp, and Swinburne, “surpass all that I ever saw, not excepting the ihe linen thread of the dep. is very highly valued. Both finest at Versailles. The jets d'cau send forth a clear cattle and horses are of good breeds; many oxen from this crystal stream, which falls around like the finest dew: the dep. are fattened in Normandy for the Paris market. Dairy most remarkable are eight fountains, dedicated to the chief husbandry occupies a good deal of attention, and the beurre heathen deities, one of which, Fame, seated on a Pegasus, de Prevalaye, made in the neighbourhood of Rennes, is throws up from a trumpet a stream to the height of 132 ft. highly esteemed throughout France. The sheep are of an There are various other water-works, all adorned with inferior kind. The sole, cod, mackerel, and other fisheries statues of lead, varnished in imitation of brass; and the on the coast are extensive ; and Cancale bay is celebrated whole supply of water is procured from reservoirs on the for its oysters, with which Paris is in great part supplied hills above." (Srinburne, ii., 230.) The expense of con From 50 to 60 boats go annually from this dep. to the cod structing the garden alone, a large part of which was made fishery of Newfoundland. Some copper, iron, argentiferous by blasting out of the solid rock, must have been very great; lead, and coal mines, and quarries of marble, granite, slate, and the entire expenditure on the palace gardens and water- limestone, &c., are wrought, but apparently not to any great works is stated by Townsend to have exceeded £6,000,000. extent. The manufactures consist chiefly of hemp and linIn the town, which lies at a little distance below the pal- en thread, packing and sail-cloth, cordage, flannels at Fouace, is a manufactory of mirrors, supported by the govern- gères, leather, &c. In the arrond. of Fougères there is a ment, which, at the time when Townsend visited it, large government glass factory, partially wrought by steam, "proved a devouring monster, in a country where provis- some of the products of which are equal to any made in ions were dear, fuel scarce, and carriage exceedingly ex- Lyons. This dep. is divided into six arronds.; chief towns, pensive.” Inglis says that the largest mirrors made there Rennes, the cap., St. Malo, Fougères, Redon, Monfort, and were 134 it. long, 8 ft. broad, and 6 in. deep. (Townsend, Vitré. It sends seven mems. to the ch. of dep. Number vol. ii.; Dillon, p. 85; Inglis, i., 281-285; Miñano.) of electors (1838-9), 2128. Total public revenue (1831).

ILFRACOMBE, a seaport, market town, and par. of 11,116,307 fr. This dep. has produced many celebrated England, co. Devon, hund. Braunton, on the Bristol chan- men, including M. de la Bourdonnaye, Maupertius, Savary, nel, 9 m. N. Barnstaple, 41 m. N.W. Eseter, and 172 m. W. Vanbun, Chateaubriand, and Broussais. (Hugo, art. Illeby S. London. Area of par., 3620 acres. Pop. (1831), 3201. et-Vilaine, &.c.)

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