Imatges de pÓgina


Of the eel he says: “ The problem of their migrated, never return to the river again, political economy has lately been established generation is the most abstruse, and one of the they must (for it cannot be supposed that they at Oxford. A similar professorship has been most curious, in natural history; and though all die immediately in the sea) remain in salt since instituted in the sister University, either it occupied the attention of Aristotle, and has water; and there is great probability that they from a conviction of the important nature of been taken up by most distinguished naturalists are then confounded with the conger, which is the science, or from a useful spirit of emulasince his time, it is still unsolved.-Phys. I found of different colours and sizes from the tion: and thus this newly created science, thought there was no doubt on the subject. smallest to the largest - from few ounces concerning which opinions and interests are so Lacepede, whose book is the only one I have to one hundred pounds in weight.

much and variously divided, will be subjected to read with attention, asserts, in the most un- “ Both the conger and common eel have the unimpassioned scrutiny of the cap and qualified way, that they are viviparous.-_Hal. fringes along the air-bladder, which are pro- gown-a process by which we may hope it will I remember his assertion, but I looked in vain bably the ovaria ; and Sir E. Home thinks be both improved and extended. for proofs.

them hermaphrodite, and that the seminal Mr. Senior's lectures are the first fruits of “This is certain, that there are two migra- vessels are close to the kidneys; but this cir- the Oxford professorship. The first of them, tions of eels,--one up and one down rivers, one cumstance demands confirmation from new dis- which was published by itself in 1827, is from and the other to the sea ; the first in sections, and some chemical researches upon merely introductory. Of the three now before spring and summer, the second in autumn the nature of the fringes and the supposed us, one relates to the transmission of money or early winter. The first of very small melt. If viviparous, and the fringes contain from country to country, and the others treat eels, which are sometimes not more than two the ova, one mother must produce tens of of the famous doctrine which has been called the or two and a half inches long; the second thousands, the ova being remarkably small; Mercantile Theory. We shonld be glad, if of large eels, which sometimes are three or four and it appears more probable that they are our space permitted, to direct the reader's feet long, and which weigh from ten to fifteen, oviparous, and that they deposit their ova in attention to several passages in the first lecture, or even twenty pounds. There is great reason parts of the sea near deep basins, which remain which are written with great spirit and clear to believe that all eels found in fresh water are warm in winter. This might be ascertained ness ;-indeed, the whole lecture appears emi. the results of the first migration : they appear by experiment, particularly on the coasts of the nently adapted, in our judgment, to excite an in millions in April and May, and sometimes Mediterranean.

I hope this curious interest in the subject, and to allure the continue to rise as late even as July and the problem will not remain much longer un-hearer, by a moderate use of example and illus. beginning of August. solved."

tration, to venture upon the more specnlative * Mr. J. Couch (Lin. Trans, tit. xiv. p. 70) Whether viviparous or oviparous, we have parts of the science. But the next lecture says the little eels, according to his observation, no doubt that the young eel often seeks in- is more immediately interesting, as it treats are produced within reach of the tide, and ternal refuge in its mother, which is an of a matter still depending before parliament, climb round falls to reach fresh water from the anomaly, unless the creature is viviparous ; in the shape of a bill for preventing the sea.- Various authors have recorded the migra- and we have seen at one spot, in a rivulet, circulation of Scotch notes in England, and tion of eels in a singular way, - such as Dr. twenty miles distant from any salt water, a more remotely involves the much-contested Plot, who, in his History of Staffordshire, says congeries of many hundreds, not much larger question of Free Trade: “a question," says they pass in the night, across meadows, from than needles, which seemed to prove that this Mr. Senior, “ which is, next to the Refor. one pond to another : and Mr. Arderon (in numerous family had been bred at that par- mation, next to the question of free religion, Trans. Royal Soc.) gives a distinct account of ticular place, and was not an immigration from the most momentous that has ever been subsmall eels rising up the flood-gates and posts the sea. With regard to the author of Sal- jected to human decision.” If we may judge of the water-works of the city of Norwich; monia thinking Dr. Plot “ singular” for say of the moment of an inquiry by the clamour and they made their way to the water above, ing that eels cross meadows from pond to pond, which is made in discussing is ; by the though the boards were smooth planed, and we certainly cannot vouch for the Oxfordshire abuse which is showered upon the heads of five or six feet perpendicular. He says, when historian to the full extent; but we can de- the reformers in trade, and the contempt by they first rose out of the water upon the dry clare that we have seen eels in the day-time, which that abuse is repaid, it would seem that board, they rested a little - which seemed to at the distance of several yards from the water, Mr. Senior has not exaggerated the importbe till their slime was thrown out, and suffi- twining their way through the moist grass of a ance of this great point. ciently glutinous -- and then they rose up the meadow :- and another curious fact we once It is well known to all who have read a perpendicular ascent with the same facility as witnessed an eel, of about fifteen or eighteen morning newspaper during the last two ses. if they had been moving on a plane surface. - inches long, feeding upon a green weed, near sions of parliament, that the grand object of (Trans. Abr. vol. ix. p. 311.)' There can, I the surface of the water, which it continually dispute between the advocates of paper and think, be no doubt that they are assisted by rose to crop, and bit off parts exactly like a those of gold, is the effect of paper issues upon their small scales, which, placed like those of terrestrial animal.

the exehanges : the advocates of gold main. serpents, must facilitate their progressive mo- We could dilate in this Review, but, alas ! taining that paper has an irresistible tendency tion : these scales have been microscopically we have but one sheet per week, and very lic. to expel the precious metals from circulation, observed by Lewenhoeck. - (Phil. Trans. tle fishing per year. For farther information, and to drive them to foreign countries, from vol. iv.) Eels migrate from the salt water of therefore, we must refer to Salmonia for much which, they add, the metals cannot be re-imdifferent sizes, but I believe never when they entertaining matter relative to the gillaroo or ported, or, at all events, be re-imported in time, are above a foot long - and the great mass of gizzard trout (page 60),—to hook-making, a whenever a commercial panic may produce a them are only from two and a half to four little fanciful (p. 142),—to mermaids, over-run upon the issuers of paper for gold. Whether inches. They feed, grow, and fatten, in fresh turning that fancy (p. 246),—to zoology, re- such reasoners do not mistake the effects of a water. In small rivers they seldom become commending some very beneficial naturalisa- bad system of banking for an inherent defect very large ; but in large deep lakes they become tions of excellent fish to the Zoological Society in the paper currency; whether the value of as thick as a man's arm, or even leg; and all (p. 258),--to the causes of colour in water paper, like that of other commodities, do not those of a considerable size attempt to return (263),--and to many other interesting topics. depend entirely on its relative quantity; when to the sea in October or November, probably For crimping con amore, and for preserving ther its quantity be not susceptible of proper when they experience the cold of the first tish fresh, the same volume may be consulted limitation by the power of exchanging it for autumnal rains. Those that are not of the at pages 98 and 251: but for real pot-wallop- gold, and the exportation of that gold whilst largest size, as I said before, pass the winter ing, frying, and Ude-frying, the North-country the exchanges remain below par; and whether in the deepest parts of the mud of rivers and epicure is the oracle-see p. 74, and through it would be necessary under a well-regulated lakes, and do not seem to eat much, and re- out. Tout pour la tripe-tout pour la tripe. paper system to import any gold at all for the main, I believe, almost torpid. Their increase

purpose of curreney ;-are all questions of vast is not certainly known in any given time, but Three Lectures on the Transmission of the interest, which we have not mentioned for the must depend upon the quantity of their food : Precious Metals from Country to Country, purpose of discussion, but that we may extract a but it is probable they do not become of the and the Mercantile Theory of Wealth ; de quotation in which the principles that regulate largest size, from the smallest, in one or even livered before the University of Oxford, in the transmission of gold from country to country two seasous; but this, as well as many other June 1827. By N. W. Senior, Professor of are developed with clearness and facility. Be particulars, can only be ascertained by new Political Economy. 8vo. pp. 96. London, fore we can decide as to the possibility of ime observations and experiments. Block states 1828. Murray.

porting gold in large quantities and in short that they grow slowly, and mentions that Our readers are aware, or ought to be, that, spaces of time, it is evident that we must ac. some had been kept in the same pond for owing to the munificence of a private in- quaint ourselves with these principles. In the fifteen years. As very large eels, after having | dividual (Mr. Drummond), a professorship of following passage Mr. Senior supposes that we

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have a metallic currency, and that, owing to a cumstances, she could retain for a month the this: --Why, if the mercantile theory be so sudden increase in the importation of French five millions which I have supposed to have mischievous as it is alleged to be, has so great goods, we remit five millions of our currency been paid to her. They would flow from her a reluctance been shewn in departing from the to France. “It must be admitted,” he says, in every direction.

means by which it was carried into effect ? " that the efflux of so large a sum from Eng- “ It is obvious that all this time precisely an “ The answer is, that though restrictions land, and its influx into France, must sink all opposite process would be going on in England. and prohibitions of importation, and bounties English prices, and occasion a general rise of The general fall in English prices would give on exportation, always occasion public loss, prices in France. Indeed, if it did not, the a preference to our goods in every market of they produce, or are supposed to produce, transaction would be one of pure benefit to which they had merely an equal participation individual gain. And the preponderance in England, and of pure loss to France. As before : it would admit them to many others amount of the loss over the gain is more than money is not a source of gratification, but a from which they were previously excluded. It compensated so far as either acts on public mere instrument of commerce, if our prices would exclude from the English market many opinion by the concentration of the gain and were not affected by parting with a portion of foreign commodities which could now be ob- the diffusion of the loss. A restriction or proour money, we should be insensible of our tained more cheaply at home. While the hibition of the importation of any foreign loss; or rather we should have sustained no bills in England on foreign countries were in commodity occasions a loss to those persons loss whatever, and have gained the five mil. creasing, the foreign bills on England would who would have produced the English com. lions' worth of French commodities without diminish, the exchange would be in our favour modity with which the excluded foreign comany real sacrifice, while France would have with the whole world, and the five millions modity would have been purchased; but these parted with those commodities, and received no would come back as rapidly as they went out. are unascertained persons. No man feels that sensible equivalent.

To suppose that the level of the precious me. he is one of the persons peculiarly entitled to The consequences would be an immediate tals in the commercial world can be per. complain. It occasions also a loss to all those and universal increase of imports, and diminu- manently disturbed by taking money from one who are forced to purchase the dearer or the tion of exports, in France, and an immediate country to another, is as absurd as to suppose inferior English commodity. But though the and universal increase of exports, and diminu- that the level of a pond can be altered by tak. sum of these inconveniences is most oppressive, tion of imports, in England. The commerce ing a bucket-full from one place, and pouring the evil in each particular instance is generally which any country carries on with its neigh. it in at another. The water instantly rushes trifling. On the other hand, the producer of bours must depend on the prices of their re- to the place from which the bucket-full has the English commodity, for which the foreign spective exportable commodities. When com- been drawn, just as it rushes from the place one might be a substitute, is an ascertained modities of the same quality, or which may be into which it has been poured. Every country person, fully estimating, and generally oversubstitutes for one another, can be imported to which France exported any of the money estimating, the loss to which the admission of from different quarters, a slight variation of she received from England, would to that ex- a rival would subject him, and if possible ex. price will decide which shall be preferred. If tent have more money than her habitual state aggerating his own terrors in his expression of linen of the same quality can be imported into of prices could allow. It would flow from her them. Nothing but inquiry into the details South America indifferently from Germany either directly to England, or to those coun. of our commercial law will convince those and from France, and the cost of transport tries which were in want of money in con- among my hearers to whom the subject is not from each country is the same, while the price sequence of having previously exported it to familiar, how trifling may be the individual per yard is also the same, South America will England. It appears, therefore, that even in gain that is offered and admitted as an effecprobably import indifferently from each coun- the extravagant case which I have supposed, of tual counterpoise to a public loss. We submit try; but if the influx of money should raise an export of five millions in money, the loss, if to a loss exceeding probably a million sterling the price of linen of a given quality from two it can be called one, would be immediately re- every year, occasioned by the restriction on the shillings to two shillings and a farthing per paired. The only inconvenience that we should importation of Baltic timber, and voluntarily yard in France, while it remained at two shil- suffer from the refusal of France to take our inoculate our houses with dry rot, lest sawlings in Germany, South America would in- cottons and our hardware in return for her mills in Canada, and ships in the North Ame. stantly desert the French market, and confine silks, would be, that instead of the direct ex- rican timber - trade, the aggregate value of her linen trade to Germany. With every com- change of English for French commodities, we which does not amount to a million sterling, mercial rival with whom France was formerly should give to France money ; France would should become less productive to their owners. on a par, she would now be at a disadvantage, export that money to Germany, Holland, and We prohibit sugar retined in the colonies, and and many would now meet her in markets Russia; and Germany, Holland, and Russia, consequently import it in a state more bulky from which she had formerly excluded them. would return us that money in exchange for and more perishable, lest the profits of a few The same consequences, though to a less ex- our manufactures ; that our trade would, in sugar-refiners should be lessened. Other selfish. tent, would follow even in the cases in which short, be circuitous, instead of direct. For the ness may be as intense, but none is so unblushFrance had exclusive powers of production. sake of illustration I have supposed a sudden ing, because none is só tolerated as that of a Every commodity has among its purchasers and great transmission of money: effects the monopolist claiming a vested interest in a pubsome whose desire for it, or at least for that same in kind, though less in degree, would of lic injury. The subject is still farther obscured variable quantity of it which they consume, course follow a more gradual one. If a balance by that powerful instrument of confusion, nainduces them to spend on it a given portion of of only 100,000 sovereigns a year were sent tional jealousy. Free trade is not only to de. their income, and no more. On the slightest to France, similar consequences, though less prive us of our money, it is also to carry it to rise of price they either discontinue or diminish palpable, would follow either immediately, or our neighbours ; it is to do worse than impovertheir consumption. A very slight rise in the as soon as the annual efflux of money from the ish ourselves, it is to enrich them. The trade price of claret would occasion some to drink one country to the other amounted to a suf. with a country is likely to be advantageous in less, and others to drink none. Precisely the ficient sum to affect the prices of either proportion to its extent, productiveness, and samne causes which would diminish the exports country, or of both. It would appear, there- proximity. The trade between Middlesex and of France, would increase her imports. How-fore, that the exchange between two countries Kent is more advantageous to both parties ever earnestly a nation may endeavour to se can never long deviate from its commercial than that between Middlesex and Caithness. cure to its own productive classes the monopoly par.”

But those very circumstances are the causes of in what they respectively produce, it cannot This passage contains the whole theory of national jealousy. The trade between Great really protect them against foreign competition the transmission of gold from country to coun. Britain and France would be the most be. by any measure short of the prohibition of all try; and, when properly applied, will be found neficial that either country could carry on : foreign commerce. The consumer cannot be to throw considerable light on the question of they are countries of great extent and powers 'forced to buy the dearer or inferior home-made a paper currency.

of production; their respective wants and suparticle. If he is prohibited from importing In an essay like the present, which consists plies are happily adapted to each other; and precisely what he wants, he may still make of a string of concatenated propositions, it is the short sea which, for commercial purposes, his purchase abroad. The increased price in difficult to make extracts without doing in- rather unites than separates them, reduces the France of all home commodities would, of justice to the work, because by detaching a expense of carriage almost to nothing. The course, stimulate the consumption of foreign passage from the context, we at once deprive wines of the Garonne would naturally be ones. 'The bills on France in other countries it of the support which it derives from what cheaper in London than in Paris. The mineral would increase, those on other countries in preceded, and suppress the important con- treasures of Wales and Cornwall would find France would diminish, and the exchange would sequences to which it may lead. The follow- their way as easily to the Loire as to the be against France throughout the commercial ing extract, however, may be made with com. Thames. For these very reasons each nation world. It is impossible that, under such cir- parative impunity. The question asked is has always exercised her perverse ingenuity to exclude the commodities. of - her neighbour. [bute the greatest of all human follies—the some of the most wonderful scenes and situaAnd so well have they succeeded, that the im- existence of war between civilised nations." tions which the world has produced, the ports of Great Britain from France, instead of These are sufficient specimens of Mr. Se stately and sustained diction of these volumes forming, as they naturally would do, a third or nior's style of writing and exposition. We corresponds with the dignity of the theme. fourth of all our imports, do not exceed a have already quoted the passage in which he The brief introduction develops the scheme fiftieth. The mercantile system seems to have has stated that the question of free trade is, on which the story is constructed. proclaimed, and national jealousy to have re-next to the question of free religion, the most “ There has appeared from time to time in echoed

momentous that has ever been submitted to Europe, during the last thousand years, a Nequicquam Deus abscidit

human decision. That sentence is followed by mysterious individual, a sojourner in all lands, Prudens oceano dissociabili these observations:

yet a citizen of none ; professing the proTerras, si tamen impiæ

“ If the unhappy prejudices that now exist foundest secrets of opulence, yet generally Non tangenda rates transiliunt vada.

on this subject should continue, and if the ex- living in a state of poverty; astonishing every Another most efficient fallacy consists in a use tension of representative governments should one by the vigour of his recollections, and the of the word “independent.' To be independ increase the power of public opinion over the evidence of his close and living intercourse ent of foreign supply, in consequence of the policy of nations, I fear that commerce may with the eminent characters and events of abundance of our own, is unquestionably a not long be enabled to retain even that degree every age, yet connected with none—without benefit. If we could give to our soil and of freedom which she now enjoys. Much, per- lineage, or possession, or pursuit on earthclimate the productive powers of the richest haps every thing, depends on the example to a wanderer and unhappy. "A number of hisplains in Mexico, and instead of eight or ten, be set by this country. I have perfect reliance tories have been invented for him; some obtain a return of ninety or one hundred, for on the knowledge and good intentions of our purely fictitious, others founded on ill-underevery grain of wheat committed to the earth, present ministers ; but very little on the know- stood records. Germany, the land of mysti. we should be independent of foreign grain ; ledge possessed by the country at large." cism, where men labour to think all facts but the benefit would consist not in the in- In this place there is either a mistatement, imaginary, and turn all imaginations into dependence, but in the abundance. The in- or Mr. S. has propounded what amounts to a facts, has toiled most in this idle perversion dependence of the mercantile system is ac- condemnation of representative governments; of truth. Yet those narratives have been companied not by abundance, but by privation; until_Heaven help us !-until the community in general but a few pages, feebly founded it arises not from the extent, but from the mis- shall have attained to the same degree of on the single, fatal sentence of his punish. management of our resources ; not from our economical knowledge as the Oxford professor. ment for an indignity offered to the Great riches, but from our self-inflicted poverty. It We do not mean to fasten a proposition so Author of the Christian faith. That exile is the independence of Swift, who deprived untenable as this upon the author of these lives ; that most afflicted of the people of afflic. himself, during the last years of his sanity, of lectures; the words, however, are not only tion yet walks this earth, bearing the sorrows the power of reading, by an obstinate resolu- capable of such a meaning, but require, as we of eighteen centuries on his brow,-withering tion never to use glasses. It is the independ-think, a little twisting to be forced into any in soul with remorse for the guilt of an hour ence of my supposed trader in blacking his better interpretation. A people, be their trade of madness. He has long borne the scoff in own shoes. It is to be independent of the foot- free as the air, may yet, without a representa-silence; he has heard his princely rank de. path, by walking in the kennel. Independence tive constitution, be misgoverned to the con- graded to that of a menial, and heard without of our neighbours has, however, sometimes been tent of a Turkish sultan: but can they ever a murmur; he has heard his unhappy offence recommended, not as a means of wealth, but of be brought to acquiesce in sound commercial charged to deliberate malice and cruelty, when security. This view of the subject is not principles, unless under the enlightening in- it was but the misfortune of a zeal blinded and within the scope of political economy. If I fluence of such a constitátion? And without inflamed by the prejudices of his nation ; and might venture to travel somewhat beyond my their acquiescence, of what use are the “good he has bowed to the calumny as a portion of sphere, I should reply, that it seems forgotten intentions of a ministry"? Mr. Senior wrote his punishment. But the time for his forbearthat dependence as well as independence must a year ago; a year ago he expressed the fullest ance is no more. He feels himself at last wear. be mutual ; that we cannot be habitually de- confidence in our enlightened ministers.” ing away; and feels, vith a sensation like that pendent on another nation for a large portion Does that confidence survive the death of one, of returning to the common fates of mankind, of our annual supplies, without that nation's and the retirement of others, of those en a desire to stand clear with his fellow-men. being equally dependent upon us. That if lightened persons; or is he not convinced that, In their presence he will never move again. such a mutual dependence should increase the in affairs of this moment, the minister must To their justice, or their mercy, he will never inconveniences of war to the one, it would rely on the people as his only efficient auxi- again appeal. The wound of his soul rests, equally increase them to the other. That if liaries in any project of useful reformation ? never again to be disclosed, until that day the supposed intercourse were one in which

when all things shall be summoned and be England received raw produce in return for Salathiel: a Story of the Past, the Present,

known. In his final retreat he has collected her manufactures, or even her gold, (and such

and the Future. Colburn.

these memorials. He has concealed nothing, are the cases in which this argument is chiefly

he has dissembled nothing ; the picture of his used,) such an intercourse would bind to her

(Second notice. ]

hopes and fears, his weaknesses and his sor. the foreign country in question by the strongest This extraordinary story, the production of a

rows, is stamped here with sacred sincerity." of all possible ties, the immediate interest of man of great genius,* cannot be classed with any

After this explanation, Salathiel, the Wan. the owners of the soil

, the most powerful class of the works of imagination which have been dering Jew, proceeds with his story from the in every community, and the only class pos; and as our first notice of it appeared after the nounced upon him, " Tarry thou till I come.”

put forth in these times so fertile in romance : moment when the memorable curse was pro, sessing power in a poor country. I should illustrate the argument by our relations with perusal of an early copy, a short while previous

The horrors of this infliction, and the inex. the Baltic states.

I should observe, that our to publication, we feel ourselves called upon plicable conviction of his crime, are most powerdependence on them for the principal materials to complete our review, now that Salathiel fully depicted. Then come the more open and of our navy,-a dependence carrying a peculiar has been sometime published. It is perfectly awful visitations of the earthquake and darkappearance of insecurity,-never seemed to di. original in the general conception, as well minish our strength during war, while the as, in its splendid and powerful eloquence

. attempting to My with his wife and child in dependence on England of the Russian land- The most striking peculiarity is the com- the hour of terror, is overpowered in the whirlholders for their rents, made peace with us

bination of lofty thought, expressed in a style wind of dust and ashes; and the story thus absolutely essential to them; and actually en.

which, for its richness, copiousness, and vigour,
Indeed a strain so ex-

proceeds: forced it by means of the unpunished murder is almost unrivalled. alted could not be judiciously used, if the much changed round me, that I could scarcely

" When I recovered my senses, all was so of one sovereign, and unresisted menaces to another. And I should infer from all this, subject were not far above those which are be persuaded that either the past or the present that an attempt at commercial independence where the story is that of a being supposed any interval between them, more than that of usually selected for works of fiction. But

was not a dream. I had no consciousness of must infinitely increase the chances of a war to a nation, by diminishing the motives in to be under the immediate and constant in, having closed my eyes at one instant, to open other nations to remain at peace with her, and, fiction of the Divine wrath, driven through them at the next. Yet the curtains of a tent by impoverishing her, must make her less able

The author is understood to be the Rev. G. Croly. waved round me in a breeze fragrant with the to support the wars to which it inevitably | Indeed, not merely the eloquence, but the profound and breath of roses and the balsam-tree. Beyond leads." To the mercantile system, besides its extensive learning displayed in these volumes afford in the gardens and meadows, from which those

ternal that the author the own peculiar follies, we may in general attri. New Interpretation of the Apocalypse.

odours sprang, a river shone, like a path of

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lapis lazuli, in the calm effulgence of the dulgence, and I laid it on the table. Here's of the human monster before me were mild,

Tents were pitched, from which long life and glory to Nero Claudius Cæsar, and almost handsome : a heavy eye and a I heard the sounds of pastoral instruments ; our pious, merciful, and invincible emperor, figure tending to fulness gave the impression camels were drinking and grazing along the cried Florus; and only when he had drunk to of a quiet mind ; and but for an occasional river side; and turbaned men and maidens the bottom of the goblet, found leisure to look restlessness of brow, and a brief glance from were ranging over the fields, or sitting on the upon his prisoner. He either felt or affected under it, in which the leaden eye darted susbanks to enjoy the cool of the delicious even. surprise, and turning to his young companion, picion, I should have pronounced Nero one of ing. While s tried to collect my senses, and said, “By Hercules, boy, what grand fellows the most indolently tranquil of mankind. He discover whether this was more than one of those Jews make! The helmet is nothing to remanded the parrot to its perch, took up his those sports of a wayward fancy which tanta- the turban, after all. What magnificence of lyre, and throwing a not unskilful hand over lise the bed of the sick mind, I heard a low beard ! no Italian chin has the vigour to grow the strings, in the intervals of the performance hymn, and listened to the sounds with breath- any thing so superb; then the neck, like the languidly addressed a broken sentence to me. less anxiety. The voice I knew at once-it bull of Milo; and those blazing eyes ! If I' You have come, I understand, from Judea ; was Miriam's. But in the disorder of my brain, had but a legion of such spearsmen'-_I grew they tell me that you have been, or are to be, and the strange circumstances which had filled impatient, and said, “I stand here, procurator, a general of the insurrection ;-you must be the late days, in that total feebleness too in in your bonds. I demand why? I have put to death ;- your countrymen give us a which I could not move a limb or utter a word, business that requires my instant attention ; great deal of trouble, and I always regret to be a persuasion seized me that I was already be- and I desire to be gone.' "Now, have I treated troubled with them. But to send you back yond the final boundary of mortals. All before you so inhospitably,' said he, laughing, that would only be encouragement to them; and to me was like that paradise from which the crime you expect I shall finish by shutting my doors keep you here among strangers would only be of our great forefather bad driven man into upon you at this time of night ?' He glanced cruelty to you. I am charged with cruelty ;banishment."

upon his tablets, and read my name. * Ay,' you see the charge is not true. I am lam. The rich and glorious landscape thus ex- said he, and after I have been so long wish. pooned every day; I know the scribblers, but quisitely placed before us, is the country of ing for the honour of your company. Jew, they must lampoon or starve. I leave them to Samaria, whither Salathiel had been borne by take your wine, and sit down upon that couch, do both.-Have you brought any news from his kinsmen, who had Aed in those hours of and tell me what brought you to Cæsarea.' Judea ? They have not had a true prince terror from the holy city.

I told him briefly the circumstances. He roared there since the first Herod; and he was quite But we cannot attempt to trace the progress with laughter, desired me to repeat them, and a Greek, a cut-throat, and a man of taste. He of this wild and wonderful tale, which from its swore that by all the gods, it was the very understood the arts. I sent for you, to see manner defies all compression. We can only best piece of pleasantry he had heard since he what sort of animal a Jewish rebel was.-Your extract, almost at random, the following pass- set foot in Judea.' I stood up in irrepressible dress is handsome, but too light for our winters. ages. The first shews us Salathiel unexpect- indignation. “What!' said he, will you go -You cannot die before sun-set, as till then I edly dragged before Florus, the Roman gover- without hearing my story in return?' He filled am engaged with my music-master. We all nor of Judea, - picture remarkable not only his goblet again to the brim, buried his purple must die when our time comes.-Farewell-till for the brilliancy and power of its colouring, visage in a vase of roses, and having inhaled sun-set, may Jupiter protect you !'but for its perfect accuracy.

the fragrance, and chosen an easy posture, These passages may convey some notion, but By extraordinary speed, I reached the said, coldly, “ Jew, you have told me a most ex- not an adequate one, of this powerful work. gates just as the trumpet was sounding for cellent story; and it is only fair that I should The only faults which can be attributed to it their close. My attendant went forth to obtain tell you one in return; not half so amusing, I proceed from the unabated loftiness and sweepinformation; and I was left pacing my chamber admit, but to the full as true. Jew, you are a ing style which is continued throughout. It is in feverish suspense. I did not suffer it long. traitor !' I started back. “Jew,' said he, you true this is consistent with the elevation of the The door opened, and a group of soldiers or- must in common civili.y bear me out. The subject; but we could almost have wished for dered me to follow them. Resistance was use- truth is, that your visit has been so often an- occasional parts in a more simple, smooth, less. They led me to the palace. There I was ticipated and so long delayed, that I cannot and easy strain. It is astonishing that, withdelivered from guard to guard, through a long bear to part with you yet. You are an apos- out the relief of any such parts, there is succession of apartments, until we reached the tate ; you encourage those Christian dogs. nothing to complain of in the shape of ridi. door of a banqueting - room. The festivity Why does the man stare ?-you are in com- culous pompousness or affectation. In this within was high; and if I could have then munication with rebels ; and I might have respect, indeed-in his power over the English sympathised with singing and laughter, I might had the honour of meeting you in the field, language--in the richness and vigour of his have had full indulgence during the immeasur. if you had not been in my hands in Cæsarea.? imagination_Mr. Croly is hitherto unrivalled : able hour that I lingered out, a broken wretch, He pronounced those words of death in the and as these volumes are only to be considered exhausted by desperate effort, sick at heart, most tranquil tone; not a muscle moved : the as the first portion of a more extended plan, and of course not unanxious for the result of cup which he held brimful in his hand never we may perhaps hope, as the author descends an interview with the Roman procurator ; a overflowed.”

with the stream of time to “the present,” man whose name was equivalent to vice, ex- We are sorry we cannot conclude this scene: that he will delight us with touches of pathos tortion, and love of blood, throughout Judea. and must finish with the following vivid por- and nature, in addition to his loftier and more At length the feast was at an end. I was sum. trait of Nero at Rome.

magnificent strains. moned, and for the first time saw Gessius “ A few steps onward, and I stood in the Florus, a little bloated figure, with a counte- presence of the most formidable being on earth. LITERARY AND LEARNED. nance that to the casual observer was the Yet, whatever might have been the natural | OXFORD, July 12.-On Saturday last, the following demodel of gross good-nature, a twinkling eye, agitation of the time, I could scarcely restrain grees were conferred :and a lip on the perpetual' laugh. His bald a smile at the first sight of Nero. I saw a Grand Compounder.

Doctor in Divinity.--Rev. W. Fawssett, Magdalen Hall, forehead wore a wreath of flowers, and his pale, under-sized, light-haired young man sit. Masters of Arts.-Rev. R. Sherson, St. Mary Hall; tunic and the couch on which he lay breathed ting before a table with a lyre on it, a few copies Rev. C. J. Gooch, Christ Church ; Rev. J. W. Birch, perfume. The table before him was a long of verses and drawings, and a parrot's cage, to

Magdalen Hall. vista of sculptured cups, and golden vases and whose inmate he was teaching Greek with great Remarks upon an Egyptian History, in Egypcandelabra. "I am sorry to have detained assiduity. But for the regal furniture of the tian Characters, in the Royal Museum at you so long,' said he; but this was the em- cabinet, I should have supposed myself led by Turin, with reference to an Article in the peror's birth-day, and, as good subjects, we mistake into an interview with some struggling Edinburgh Review. By Dr. G. Seyffarth, have kept it accordingly. During this speech, poet. He shot round one quick glance on the Frofessor of Oriental Literature in the Uni. he was engaged in contemplating the wine-opening of the door, and then proceeded to give versity of Leipsig. bubbles as they sparkled above the brim of a lessons to his bird. I had leisure to gaze on ALTHOUGH a vast number of papyri and large amethystine goblet. A pale and delicate the tyrant and the parricide. Physiognomy is a other inscriptions have been found in modern Italian boy, sumptuously dressed, the only one true science. The man of profound thought, times among the ruins of Egypt, and brought of the guests who remained, perceiving that I the man of active ability, and above all, the to the museums of Europe, no person has yet was fatigned, filled a cup, and presented it. man of genius, has his character stamped on succeeded in discovering a proper Egyptian • Right, Septimius,' said the debauchee, .make his countenance by nature; the man of violent history. Of this nature is a large papyrus in the Jew drink the emperor's health.' The passions and the voluptuary have it stamped the Egyptian Museum at Turin, recomposed youth bowed gracefully before me, and again by habit. But the science has its limits : it by me from a quantity of fragments, during my

a offered the cup ; but the time was not for in- Thas no stamp for mere cruelty. The features / residence in that town. This remarkable ma.



Greek Text of Manetho.




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Greek Text,



nuscript, in hieratical character, being carefully| Egyptian Test of Manetho.

who appears, however, under his name in a written on both sides, belongs, according to

French translation of the essay in the Edin. the manner of writing, to the era of the first Metusupis

Methusuphis burgh Review, had in view, nor what are the Ptolemies. The text consists of twelve co



secret motives of his frequent articles against us.

Mentusuphis lumns on the left side, where the fibres go


It is not at all necessary to refute this reperpendicularly, and of six large columns on the other side ; and each of these contains being written thus :

of these names the shortest is that of Pi, viewer : for matters of fact never can be

wholly suppressed ; and a hieroglyphical system from twenty to thirty lines, particularly near

cannot as yet be really condemned, as every the end, where the text is more cramped and

body will allow, but by such a one as has excomprehensive. Sometimes there are small

clusively applied himself to hieroglyphical stu. stripes of papyri fastened with gum upon the


dies, and examined a vast number of Egyptian sheets, in order, perhaps, to correct errors.

monuments. Any other person, however learn. The said twelve columns furnish, besides other Now let us try, even by these hieroglyphs, ed, may certainly pronounce an opinion upon a things, a catalogue of the Egyptian regents, Spohn's system and Champollion's. According system; but his judgment, however positive, perfectly coinciding with Manetho's history. to Champollion, representing a fence, will never be considered as decisive. Notwith It begins with the government of the deities, or Klo in Coptic, signifies K; signifies T, standing, I will shew in what way Sphon and demigods, heroes, and other divine regents. and ll signifies P; and I think it is impossi- myself have been proceeded against. This is the fabulous part of the Egyptian ble for Champollion's system to pronounce this The reviewer asserts, that, according to the history, like that of the Chinese and other name otherwise than KeTeP, or KaTaP, &c. principles of our system, the Egyptians have people therefore it need not be wondered But in my system I have said, that lil and a used 650,000 arbitrary characters of letters; at, that the Egyptian mythologist gives 19,918 together signify only one sound, namely, I; and he takes this axiom to be the basis of our years as the government of the first gods, and and is a form of the letter P,* system. There are whole pages which he 23,22(?)0 years as that of all the divine regents which furnish P1, or Plos, adding the Greek wastes for the sake of proving, that Egyptian together. Each of the gods, which follow in termination. The aforesaid name must there. brains were not capable of retaining more than this orderHephaestos (?), Helios (?), Aga-fore be read, according to

half a million of distinct characters ; and that thodaemon (?), Kronos, Osiris, Typhon, Orus, Champollion's System,

My System, it is impossible for human understanding to de. Thoouth, Anubis, Orus II., have reigned ke Tepus.

cipher an inscription written in such characters; several hundred years, and Thoouth alone This is a fact which must be admitted, and and that consequently our system is downright governed Egypt 3926 years. After this follow I could produce a thousand such proofs. One nonsense. But neither I nor Spohn ever as. the human dynasties, commencing with Menes, more example may as well be added here. In serted so strange a paradox. There is indeed Athothis 1., Athothis II., &c. Each dynasty the name preceding that of Plos, in the afore- in one of the annotations to my system a commences with the indication of that town or said dynasty, we find the letter O expressed number 675,000, and an analytical calculation, country where it originated, and finishes with by

shewing plainly the mutual relation of the dean article concerning the number of Pharaohs

motical, hieratical, and the hieroglyphical letin that dynasty, and the time of their govern

ters; but in the same annotation I have exment, &c. The commencement of these notes

pressly conjectured, that the forms of the Egypis distinguished by red letters : immediately

tian letters, in the three manners of writing, following the name of each Pharaoh, the num- That is FT according

to Champollion, and o altogether do not exceed the number of a few ber of years, months, and days, of his reign is according to my system.† Therefore, Cham- thousands. It is impossible that onr critic remarked, with other notices. It is a great pollion's system will pronounce here, per. has seen or understood our system. I do not pity that this manuscript, consisting of seven haps, FeTeTeFeTEs, or literally, FTTFTES, know where that gross mistake originates ; but large sheets of papyras, which in its priginal instead of OTOFs; while my system literally I think a pamphlet, published by Champollion, condition contained about 300 names of Pha- and strictly pronouncēs OTOEs, like the Greek which attacks it with nearly the same assertions raohs, is in many, and indeed in essential text. These two examples may suffice for the as his, has led him into the same error ; and parts very incomplete. It remains, however, present, and enable every one to come to a perhaps he had not then seen my refutation of an important monument of Egyptian literature, decision between Champollion and us, and to Champollion's pamphlet.+ Besides this, a and furnishes much remarkably illustrative of contradict every sentence like this in the conjecture concerning the number of the Egypthe history and the manner of the sacred Caledonian Mercury: “ Spohn's system is tian forms of letters is not a principle, or an writing of the ancient Egyptians : therefore I considered as one of the most perfect specimens essential point, of any hieroglyphical system. shall as soon as possible publish it. Besides of cimmerian mystifications,” &e. &c.

After the Rosetta-stone, and all the innumerthis, we having a Greek translation of this The particular circumstances under which able inscriptions and papyri brought to Euro. history and that of Manetho, by Eusebius and the hieroglyphical pursuits of Spohn and my: pean museums, had reanimated the study of others, this manuscript, like the Rosetta stone, self were published, admitted of no doubt that Egyptian literature, it remained to determine affords a bilinguous inscription, and serves, our system would meet with rash censure by what rules these monuments were inscribed. by its considerable number of proper names, and unfounded disapprobation ; but I confess The question was, therefore, What may we more than any other, to decide upon Champol- I did not expect that our discoveries would

presume, and what course pursue, that we lion's hieroglyphical system, and that of Spohn be exhibited in such a light as they were and myself. On this subject I shall add a few made to appear in the articles to which I may so far succeed as to understand those in. observations. have alluded. Indeed, it is astonishing that be easy to determine the material points in

scriptions? According to this question, it will There are some articles in the Edinburgh men who pretend to politeness and character,

every hieroglyphical system. Here are our Revieu, as also in the Caledonian Mercury, so far as pursuing truth, are not ashamed principles, which I will compare with Chamapparently from the same writer, which, while of defending in such a manner, and by such

pollion's :they approve of Champollion's system, con- means, a fallacious opinion. I do not com

Our System.

Champollion's System. demn ours in extravagant terms. The said plain of the extravagant expressions against

The Egyptian inscriptions The Egyptian inscriptions papyrus completely contradicts this decision. Spohn and myself, nor of the condemnation of

are in general alphabetic, are in general symlmlie, parFor instance, like the original text of Manetho, our Egyptian exertions, by a person wholly particularly the demotical. ticularly the hieroglyphiml.

The basis of the Egyp- The basis of the Egypafter Julius Africanus, it gives the following ignorant, or most imperfectly acquainted with

tian is an writing is a regents as the fifth of the Egyptian dynasties : the Egyptian museums and libraries of Italy, of twenty-poker letters, as Plu- ahnut right hundred and firma

France, Germany, and perhaps with those of tarch and Eusebius them- hieroglyphs, and each of See Edinburgh Review, Vol. XLV. p. 328; Cale- England itself; but I deplore the assurance selves testify, of which three these. not being symbolical.

were invented by the priest signifies the sound by which donian Mercury, No. XVI. p. 612, April 24, 1828; and self-conceit with which a person would Isiris; the others are the the name of that hieroglyAsiatic Journal, October 1827, p. 528: I determined to forestall the decision of competent judges ; the 'wenty-two Phænician let- phical figure commences. overlook the said articles, and not to give publicity to my disapprobation of such attacks upon Spohn and myself; boldness with which he denies matters of fact ; and therefore, some time ago, addressed similar remarks to and the facility with which he misrepresents express but one word.

Ordinarily, many signs Ordinarily, each sign exthe author himself, in order to convince him privately of

But it is not yet his erroneous statements against us, and of his unbecom

the statements of others. ing style in literary matters. I have, however, since then, known what objects the anonymous author, * See Rudimenta Hieroglyphices, p. 8, not. 44. been induced to publish some remarks upon the said

+ Brevis Defensio Hieroglyphires invente à F. A. G. articles, in order to check the growth and progress of pre- * See Rudimenta Hieroglyphices, tab. xxxvi. letter I, Spohn et G. Seyffarth. Lipsia, 1827. judices; and although I am quite averse to every kind of in the column x. No. 17; and letter P, columns v. and French translation of it have been published at Turin and literary cavilling, I cannot but deviate from my former xii. No. 2.


presses a word or an idea.

at Paris. Dipesa del Sistema Geroglifico dei Signori Spohn resolution, particularly as it is more in favour of my de- | See Rudimenta Hieroglyphices, tab. xxxvi. letter 0, e Seytfarth, da C. Sylva. Replique contre les Odjections de ceased friend than myself. column vi. No. 7.

V. Champollion contre le Systènue, fc. Chez Ponthieu.

An Italian and a

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