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Journal of Belles Lettres, arts, Sciences, &c.
This Journal is supplied Weekly, or Monthly, by the principal Booksellers and Newsmen, throughout the Kingdom ; but to those who may desire
its immediate transmission, by post, we recommend the LITERARY GAZETTE, printed on stamped paper, price One Shilling.
SATURDAY, JULY 19, 1828.
| lised. So early as page 3 we found it stated, scenes and diversified details. Of the Portu, REVIEW OF NEW BOOKS.
that “ the taste for travelling is a gentlemanly guese national music we are told :Portugal Illustrated. By the Rev. W. M. pursuit ;" and, as if the indulgence of this " The general character of the Portuguese · Kinsey, B.D. Fellow of Trinity College, taste were an affair of consequence, we have modinha is now scarcely any thing better than
Oxford, &c. Royal 8vo. pp. 500.' London, a list of the passengers in the Lisbon packet, spurious plagiarisms from Rossini and other 1828.
videlicet - a Cornish man, a raw Welsh lad Italian masters; and in a large collection The title-page is quaintly enough devoid of a from Brecknockshire, and a Portuguese gen- which we have purchased of the manufacture publisher's name, though, from the advertise- tleman, besides our Rev., worthy, and very par- of Da Costa, Franchi, and Sehiopetta, as might ments, we perceive that this office belongs to the ticular writer. We are next indulged with a naturally be expected, the original character of respectable house of Treuttel, Würtz, and Co.; panoramic view of the Lusitanian coast, from the Italian source is too plainly perceptible. It no bad passport for a book into decent society. Cape Ortegal, by Cape Villano, Cape de Tosto, is asserted of Schiopetta, that he is an excellent Portugal, however, possessing at this period as Cape Tourinan, Cape Finisterre, Cape de player on the guitar, and can compose verses much of public interest as Portugal can possess, Nave, all along the shores of Galicia, till we with facility; but, though equal to the mental the volume comes forth very opportunely under arrive at Cape Feizerao, and soon after enter conception of a modinha, that he is unable to any circumstances; and the reverend author's the Tagus, and land at Lisbon, where a give existence to his own ideas in musical chaillustrations are likely to meet with as much, dreadful adventure awaits the luckless roamer, racters. His system appears to be, for he has or more, attention than their intrinsic qua- and requires all his courage to surmount. As a remarkably fine ear, to carry away from the lities would otherwise command.
this is the first time we ever heard of the opera a few bars out of some Italian composiMr. Kinsey visited Portugal for a few excessive danger of this navigation and peril tion which has peculiarly affected his imaginamonths last year, landed at Lisbon, stayed on land, we will leave their description to Mr. tion, as the thesis or subject of his modinha, some time in the capital, and afterwards made Kinsey.
which he speedily works upon his guitar into a tour, which included Cintra, Porto, Vianna, “ The entrance of the Tagus is extremely a regular form, adapting his poetic effusion to the Minho, Valença, Braga, Amarante, the dangerous ; and it requires considerable skill the corresponding sentiment of the harmony; Douro, Lamego, Aveiro, Coimbra, the Mon- and experience to navigate a vessel with safety but he is obliged to have recourse to a more dego, Leiria, Mafra, &c. &c. Upon these across the bar, as the tide and currents are scientific friend to write down the notes of his places his original remarks are more scanty very powerful.
modinha, as he plays off the air. Beautiful, than might have been wished, since one note “ The packet-stairs (the landing-place) are so full of pathos and sentiment, as most of a traveller's own observation is worth pages called, it is to be presumed, from there being no doubtedly his compositions must be admitted of extracts from preceding writers. But Mr. steps whatever to aid the tottering traveller up to be, yet there is that indescribable originality Kinsey far too frequently quotes Link (an one of the steepest and most dangerous ascents of character wanting to the perfection of their accurate German), and Costegan, and Murphy, about Lisbon."
excellence, which you will find, if I mistake and Colonel Jones, and Mrs. Baillie, and a cento This smells rather strongly of the mus nas-not, constituting the powerful charm of the of other authors ; and favours us with so small citur ; and we are not inclined by it to pardon two modinhas which are now sent you, and to a spice of novelty, that his volume is in many the blemishes in the writer's language. To which we have listened for hours and hours, parts a mere compilation. It could not be “ motive the actions of many" is a verb-coin- again and again, insensible to every thing else wanted in a tourist of 1827 to give us details age quite inexcusable ; while, “ intimate” as but the enchantment of their syren effect.” of the Duke of Wellington's marches and an adjective is used, in the very next page, The music is, indeed, very sweet and cha. battles (from Southey); or of the positions in a way perfectly unintelligible to us, where racteristic; nor are the words bad, as may be and actions of Portuguese leaders in their Mr. K. speaks of " household furniture of the judged even from a prose translation of one of civil contests ; yet these, mixed up with a most intimate description.” It is not worth them ( Entretem meu pensamento). great deal of theological matter, form, inasmuch while to point out more of these innovations “ Whilst absent from thee I drag on a miserable existas the literary portion is concerned, the staple and improprieties; but it is our critical duty ence: thy lovely image impressed on my mind keeps ine
from sinking: ingredients of this work. There is also an to indicate them when they occur in a book The only thing that relieves my melancholy is the reundue importance attached to trifles; and were from the pen of a well-educated graduate of Nection on thy beauty, which I have deeply engraven on it not for the efforts of the engravers, Messrs. Oxford, a B.D., and fellow of a college.*
Sometimes I fancy I see you tenderly looking upon me, Skelton, Cooke, and Pugin, we should be in.
We shall not advert to the religious portions and testifying your love by a thousand sighs. clined to say very little in praise of Portugals of the volume, in which, though tolerant, the
At other times, alas! that, forgetful of me, with another Illustrated. In this respect, however, there author appears to make too little allowance for and happier Sover thou Leadest, a joyful life.
an alternate prey to hope and fear, I live, withis much to commend. There is a fine view the prejudices of the people among whom he out, perhaps, ever awakening in your heart one tender of Coimbra, as a frontispiece ; and nearly a sojourned ; some of whose follies were only recollection of me." score of other well-chosen and well-executed follies because they were of a different com
Between Vianna and Caminha, “ Road-side plates adorn the publication, exclusive of eight plexion from those to which he had himself chapels, with pictures of souls in purgatory, plates (each with four figures), of coloured been familiarised. It is more consonant to most horribly executed, and a box to receive costumes, pieces of national music, prints of our taste to notice a few of his miscellaneous the passenger's alms, Pelas almas dos que coins, wood-cuts, and head- and tail.pieces : the statements, and with these we shall conclude, mais exercitarao as obras de misericordia com whole appearing to be of interest and value only remarking, that, as a light and not un- os proximos, '--everywhere challenged our comsufficient to satisfy the purchaser.
entertaining mélange, Mr. Kinsey's Illustra- passion ; and we frequently met with the figure We have alluded to the author's propensity tion of Portugal may, in spite of its defects as of our Saviour, as large as life, on a lofty cross, to dwell on trifles : his entire preface affords a powerful or original production, be dipped rudely sculptured, and as rudely painted, with a warning of this, in a long excuse for em- into at an idle hour with both profit and the accompaniment of the sacrifical imple. ploying the epistolary form instead of dividing amusement, since it has the merit of recalling ments. A farmer boasted to us at a winehis work into chapters ; and, in another apo- many agreeable and useful recollections, and house where our muleteers stopped to refresh logy, still more unnecessary, for putting a is, at any rate, very various in its shifting their beasts, how nice!y he had tricked a brief review of the history of Portugal in his
priest out of his gains upon a vow which he second letter, and not in the Appendix! After
• Even in a newspaper of any reputation, or hasty had performed. It appeared that he had stumbling on the threshold, we were not led to periodical, we dislike such offences and have to com- taken his cattle to shew them to some image of expect more than an ordinary production in the plain of the coinage of a verb in the Times of Monday, or Nossa Senhora, and to have them blessed for sequel, and our anticipation was speedily rea-) to mean without harın.
Tuesday—to " unsconce,” an entirely new word, seeming the current year; but upon the sacerdotal de
mand of the usual fee, the fellow declared that of the more substantial part of the festivity. | duty, I accompanied him into the building, he had done as much as he intended, and that In a corner sat three of the hinds, eating out that we might pass away the time in an exapayment of money formed no part of the cere- of the same wooden bowl a savoury olio, which mination of it at leisure. We had no sooner mony."
betrayed no slight suspicion of garlic; and entered, than we discovered General English A night-lodging at Ponte de Lima. overhead were suspended Lamego hams, strings very busily employed in taking down an an
“ Ponte de Lima is the Forum Limicorum of onions, dried parcels of herbs and pumpkins, cient painting which was fixed in an iron frame of the Romans, and the antiquity of its founda- bladders, poles, guns, lamps, baskets, sheep- to one of the walls near the altar. It repretion is referred to a remote period even of skins, shoes and stockings of all ages, hues, sented a battle between the Moors and the Grecian history. It is only three leag from and quality. The sound of the bag-pipe had Spaniards, just at the moment of victory deVianna, and its population cannot exceed three now attracted a crowd of spectators to the doors claring itself in favour of the latter. Its beau. thousand persons.
Here we dismissed our of the room, and therefore we took leave to ties were obscured by the accumulated dirt of body-guard, whose attention and propriety of sound an early retreat, and ascended aloft to ages; but the general, who was a connoisseur, demeanour spoke well of the discipline main- enjoy the peculiar comforts in reserve for the thought that if its colour could be restored, it tained in the ninth regiment by the Portuguese travellers. The real miseries now commenced, would be worth removing to England, where officers. The estalagem at Ponte de Lima for it was quickly found that the chairs of every its antiquity and value might be duly apprecia merits particular notice, and before this letter date and form, upon which one of the party ated. It was accordingly washed, and the can be brought to a close, you must hear all had directed his mattress to be placed, hap- colours appearing brilliant, and in high preabout it. Mine host ushered us through the pened to be particularly infested with that kind servation, he resolved to ship it off, with large dark room, usually occupied by muleteers, of enemy which it was proposed to avoid in others, to his agent at Margarita. The exam. through a filthy kitchen, and then up a ladder giving up the use of the cupboards adjoining ple having been thus set us, it will not be into a room that in English would be called a as sleeping-rooms. Thus, as it generally hap- a subject for surprise that we followed it. cockloft. This apartment was intended to serve pens,
As soon as the general went out, having obas our dinner-room, and upon one side were Incidit in Scyllam, qui vult vitare Charybdim. tained the assistance of another officer, we three cupboards, in which it was proposed that Another of the party swang comfortably in his commenced a regular examination. The altarwe should sleep, had there been but the animus Brasilian hammock. The other, for whom piece, portraying the Crucifixion, was placed in us so to do. There were four window- neither the boasted oil of rosemary, nor spirits in a carved frame of exquisite workmanship, frames in the room, but as glass had never of camphor, could procure a few untroubled and covered by a large piece of purple velvet, been thought of, we had no other alternative hours, lay the livelong night watching the in- edged with broad gold lace. On tapping round than that of suffering the intrusion of northern gress of the rats through the crevices in the it, we judged by the hollowness of the sound, blasts, or of enclosing ourselves, while the light door, and the mice at their gambols.”
that there was a closet behind it; and contiá of day was yet bright, in utter darkness. The
nuing our search, we found three spring-bolts view, however, from the wooden balcony was
rather elumsily attached to the frame, npon pretty enough, over the river and along the Recollections of a Service of Three Years dur- the touching of which the altar-piece flew open, bridge to the chapel at its further extremity,
ing the War of Extermination in the Repub- and disclosed a spacious room, filled with boxes and a convent beantifully situated in the midst
lics of Venezuela and Colombia. By an of various dimensions. Colonel Blossett, who of its quinta, upon the side of a mountain
Officer of the Colombian Navy. 2 vols. 8vo. thought that this apparent concealment, couwhich is immediately opposite the town. The London, 1828. Hunt and Clarke.
pled with other indications, implied the existmore elevated part of the serra, of which it From the first publication of a kind similar to ence of a hidden treasure, immediately jumped forms a branch, is completely bare of all vege- this, by Colonel Hippesley, a British officer, into the room with such violence, that myriads tation. A prettily formed fountain upon one who early adventured into the cause of South of spiders and an enormous cloud of dust came side of the estalagem, which supplies the town America, we have had several works, all of tumbling about his ears. After shaking him. with water, soothed us during the night with them more or less distinguished by character- self, to get clear of this disagreeable annoyance, the gentle noise of its falling streams. "Beyond istic observations on the revolutionary leaders, he assiduonsly commenced operations. Some this, to the left, situated upon a rising ground, the people and the country, or by the interest of the boxes were about four feet square, others were seen the remains of a church, the long of personal dangers and sufferings. The pre- much larger, and the smallest were so weighty, flight of steps leading up to which, with a cross sent work is replete with both features, very that he could not remove them unassisted. at every ten steps, is still uninjured. It hap- forcibly painted; but being anonymous, it is By our joint efforts, one of them was brought pened to be our host's celebration of harvest impossible to say what reliance can safely be out and opened ; the contents of which were home upon the evening of our arrival, and reposed on the writer's opinions of men, or on golden salvers and knives, and massive goblets every room but our own was nearly filled with his credibility, where extraordinary circum- of the same metal. Another held a large num. the large yellow and brown heads of the Indian stances are related. For ourselves, we can ber of crowns, similar in their general appear. corn. At night, a noisy party of rustics as- only say, that we are disposed to think well of ance to the crown of England, thickly studded sembled in the kitchen to dance and make liba- his narrative strange and wonderful though with the topaz, ruby, emerald, and other stones. tions to Ceres. In yielding to an entreaty that it be_where he tells us what happened to him One of these was particularly handsome, which we would descend from our apartment and as an individual; but that upon matters of a Blossett caught up, and exelaimed: See, witness the festivities, we only exchanged one more important description, we think the par- here's a pretty thing! I will send it to my scene of filth for another, the latter being tisan is more apparent than the cool and im- wife. Fine finish to a full dress, by Jove!' rather the more amusing of the twain. The partial observer.
Our companion wanted it for the same purlife of the party had already begun to shine Pirates and banditti, upon a larger scale pose ; but to me, who had no wife to crown, forth. An elderly inhabitant from a neigh- than is common in our times and latitudes ! - it was of minor importance; and I left bouring village, whose dark features and large it is not surprising to read of the bickerings them to settle the point between themselves. piercing eyes were sbaded by the breadth of an and intrigues of rival commanders; and as for We replaced the boxes until night, by which enormous slouch hat, such as Murillo would their murders and butcheries, we think it time, our servants having made bags out of the put upon the heads of his peasants, the dark would little gratify our readers were we to dresses of the saints, we had the contents of cloak being thrown aside, wearing black gait- dwell upon such borrors. We shall, therefore, five of them carried to our quarters. General ers, and sandals of untanned leather,—was simply quote a passage or two, as examples of English, when informed of our good fortune, ready on his legs, with castanets, inviting one this publication. The native general, 'Urde- came in for his share ; and General Urdenetta from the fair throng to figure off with him to natta, assisted by the British legion under took possession of the remainder. In a niche, the monotonous tones of a bag-pipe, played Colonel English (whom the author, rather un- we also found one of the most valuable relics of upon by a Spaniard, the only wandering musi- feelingly and ungenerously, after his death, the place at least to the monks. This was cians allowed in Portugal being natives of represents as a coward), having taken Barce- the body of a man of gigantic stature, curiously Spain, whose appearance, altogether, was as lona, we find the following relation :
preserved in a case with a glass cover. It wore rough and uncouth as the notes of his instru. “During the inebriated state of the soldiery, a loose dress of white satin, in the Roman ment were sorry and inharmonious. The scene fears having been entertained that the cathe- form, and round its neck was a golden collar of was worthy the pencil of a Teniers or a Jan dral might share in the general devastation, a great weight, set with emeralds and pearls, to Steen. Bacalhao, rice, onions, and sardinhas, guard composed of the seamen were placed which was fastened a chain of the same metal, fried in oil, formed the humble preparations over it, with orders to prevent the entrance of each link being elegantly chased. On its wrists for supper; and on one side of the room was all persons except the generals, the field-officers and ancles were bracelets similar to the collar, extended a long table, at which some of the of the day, and myself. The day after our to each of which the chain was also fixed ; and guests had already seated themselves, expectant arrival, Colonel Blossett being field-officer on a crown adorned its head, whereon its name
was enamelled at full length. This was shewn the gulf, to strengthen the garrisons of Cu- / was, however, extremely fond of appearing to by the priests as the remains of St. Lawrence, mana, and who, from ignorance of our situa. be in the secrets of all his acquaintances : every the patron saint of the city, to whom the tion, fell directly across our line. Their fate thing he told you was with a request that you cathedral was dedicated. To him were all mi- may be easily anticipated : Urdenetta imme- would not let it go further, which, however, racles ascribed ; and for him, and in his name, diately ordered the work of extermination to did not operate as a preventive to his doing so, were all contributions levied; and of the latter commence ; but the English refused to hurt as the regiment generally were all acquainted he had by no means a few to account for. It one of them. The natives were not so scru- with the same story. I recollect hearing of his is needless to say that his appendages were pulous, and in a quarter of an hour not an much annoying Brevet-Major Lackner, comremoved; but we carefully replaced the car. individual among them breathed. Presently mencing some observation, as he usually did, cass, and quitted the cathedral, which was the after, a captain of grenadiers, and three men with a sigh, saying the world is very censonext morning ransacked by the soldiery, who who had lingered behind owing to illness, came rious. The major was quite a plain matterforced the guards, and despoiled it of every up; and being seized by a party of Creoles, of-fact man. • Well,' said he, what have thing worth taking, and among the rest, I were carried before Urdenetta. The officer they been at now, Gamillus ?' 'Why, they believe, of the patron saints of the ladies. As was born in Spain, of English parents, and can't even let Mrs. Lackner alone,' replied the might be expected, the natives were much had entered the Spanish army at a very early captain. • Why, White, what can they possiexasperated at the spoliation of their cathedral. age: from his youth, not being at this time bly have to say of her ?' asked the major. O, One old woman, at the head of about forty of more than nineteen years of age, he ex- now, Lackner, I see you are getting warm," her own sex, assailed me without mercy the cited much pity and commiseration among the said the captain, “I am sorry I hinted any thing day the troops got in, and was particularly loud officers of the legion, who entreated Urdenetta of what I heard to you.' I insist, sir,' said in her complaints of the treatment of the pa- to spare his life. He gave his word of honour the major, ‘on knowing what has been said of tron saint. Here !' she exclaimed, they have that he would do so, but in the dead of the Mrs. Lackner, as her conduct is so irreproach. stripped poor St. Lawrence, and every body night he had him and his men taken from the able, there is no opening given for any unpleaknows that he was a good old soldier! Very quarters allotted to them, and privately but. sant remarks. I request to know, instantly true,' replied an officer standing by ; ' but you chered. I saw them the next morning, about what has been said on the subject.' 'Well, know that all soldiers are liable to lose their two hundred yards in the rear, all tied to then, since you are so warm,' said our amiable baggage in time of war.' This silenced the gether naked, their heads nearly severed from captain, you must know, people say that Mrs. ancient dame, although it failed to satisfy her ; their bodies by the machetti, and several slight Lackner has a great brogue.' but a younger female, whose fine dark eyes wounds inflicted upon them, as if by way of “ I desired my men one morning to form shot the fiercest flashes of resentment, said, torture, before the finishing stroke was given.” two deep. An Irish lad immediately replied, with the most piquant indignation : All is It cannot be pleasant to continue such ex- ' Oh, then, your honour, we are too deep true that our padres (priests) have told us con- tracts, and we gladly leave this work to the already,' alluding to the great depth of the cerning the English, except that they have no amateurs in hair breadth scapes and blood; only mud in the roads, which took them sometimes tails !' • Do not offend them,' rejoined the expressing our wonder that any Briton should up to their hips." officer, or they may take possession of St. ever make common cause with such ruthless As others of the jokes and stories boast of Lawrence, as well as of his accoutrements.' cut-throats.
considerable antiquity, these must suffice for This was enough : apologies were immediately
our notice of the Log-Book. offered; the English were declared the best people in the world ; and they went away, re- The Subaltern's Log-Book ; including Anecjoicing that the bones of the saint were still doles of well-known Military Characters. left them to adore."
Sir H. Davy's Salmonia. 2 vols. 12mo. London, 1828. Ridgway.
The North Country Angler. of the bloody scenes, we shall instance but of this work, which seems to be a bona fide it might be surmised, from the nature of our two--the least offensive and shocking to hu- detail of things, and sketches of characters, of manity. very little general interest, and of no use to in our last Gazette, that we were more struck
extracts from Sir Humphry Davy's Salmonia « The Moro was carried without the loss of any but the owner, we have of course very by his miscellaneous than by his piscatorial a man; and now followed the horrible neces- little to say. Joining the army at the age of lore. Such was our impression on a hasty sity of witnessing the general massacre. This sixteen, going twice to India, and serving there, was the first scene of cool-blooded slaughter without meeting with any event out of the glance at his lucubrations ; and
it is so entirely that I had ever witnessed ; it was equally usual routine of life, can scarcely justify the clined to restrict our praise of its “ judicious
confirmed by a second cast, that we are in. strange to many others; and a very terrific protrusion of two volumes upon the world. with great pusillanimity, had no sooner sur- the hope that if they do not amuse, they may the author moves into the North he makes one it was. The Spaniards, who had behaved We will try to quote some of the best points, in practical lessons to fishermen,” to the fisher
men of the south or London district. When rendered, than the natives, who had accom- not tire the reader. panied us, began their murderous work; and it was continued without intermission, until in whose company I then was, had his portrait in Scottish rivers as directed by him, would re
At Madras (says the writer,), “ the captain, very dubious work of it; and we will venture
to say, that any Sasenagh throwing his lines every individual of the entire 1300 was des- taken by a native. These artists draw every turn home with a very empty creel, and con. patched. Myself and the whole of the British feature as accurately as it could be done in siderable damage to tackle. The fact is, that kept aloof from this spectacle as much as pos- Europe; but there is always a great want of the fish in the North are in a wild and natural sible, and did not interfere after the colours of expression in their performances. Their likethe fort were struck; but it was impossible to nesses are not flattering, nor do they attempt their senses are very acute ; their habits are
state ; their mode of life is free and predatory; avoid seeing the effects of the butchery, and to add to any beauty you possess, or smooth off bona fide " ancient and fishlike;"_and their the sight of so many mutilated creatures, some any defect. On Captain Escrew seeing his homes and haunts are turbulent and obstreof whom still writhed in the agonies of death : likeness, and having no idea he was such a their groans, the torrents of blood rushing on plain man as the native had drawn him, he perous. A big fellow of a trout in a rushing all sides, the shouts of the murderers, and their remonstrated warmly with the artist. Why, with a Tail like a Highland chieftain : wo be
stream, or by a roaring cataract, swashes about demon-like appearance as they slided over the gad hang it, Ram Sammee, you have drawn mangled carcasses, covered with human gore, me very ugly. The native was much annoyed attempts to trammel or control such a mag
to the puny arts of the intrusive angler who together with the heart-piercing cries for mercy at this observation. What, sir !' he indig-nifico ! But even the smaller fry would laugh of those who still lived, so shocked and dis- nantly replied, master got too much ugly to scorn the modes, tricks, and inventions, of gusted me, that, sickened at the appalling face, mouth go up above master's teeth; master Southern hostility ;-these inhabitants of the scene, 1 left the place, and went instantly on got too much big nose. What, sir ! how I can brook would, like the human heroes of Ban, board ; and I believe few of the British 'who draw master handsome ? master too much ugly. nockburn, not only refuse to yield, but ab. witnessed these horrors, any more than my. Suppose I tell lie the pencil.' This artist was self, thought of eating for at least two or three overheard saying to Escrew's portrait, when solutely send back the invader with
in-fin-ite days, I received a severe reprimand, as did looking at his different pictures, " Ah, that is disgrace. Scots fish, just like Scots - men, my brother officers and the seamen, for not Ld ngly fellow! Che! che! I never, so • Or the Art of Angling, as practised in the Northern having taken an active part in the slaughter." long I live, draw such d-d ugly face again.' Counties of England. 12mo, pp. 89. Published in 1817, by
Longman and , Son, and “ On the return of the division to its previous At the same time making grimaces illustrative Holdsworth, Leeds." Chapter 1. begins with an ornamented encampment, we accidentally met two compa- of great disgust.
M, of which the two wings are formed of an eel and a pike mies of Spanish troops, which had been sent " One of our captains was possessed of the with two trouts, horizontal, for the bottom supporters),
and the centre of the fisherman's arms three fishes from the town of Curiaco, in the upper part of most agreeable and insinuating manners ; ho natatiant, surmounted by a basket,
would resent the idea of having the English with the same prefixes.* A fisherman of this, of the opinion, and I should think it much line stretched beyond the Border ;-content class would as soon eat a grilled toad as he more probable, if it is a mixed race, that it with their native element and native produce, would taste a trout that had been pampered on is produced by the sea trout and common trout. no pastes, though of the finest wheaten flour, liver !
The sea trout and river trout are, indeed, nor gilded temptations, nor savoury baits, The sport of fishing resembles the sport of so like each other in character, that such a would seduce them into the sacrifice of their shooting in the two parts of our island ; and a mixture seems exceedingly probable ; but I independence ;-10 crooked policy would cheat stranger contrast can hardly be imagined than know no reason why such mules should always them ;-and, alike, they would spurn the rod. is obvious in either. On the one side, there are continue small, except that it may be a mark Now, the trouts in the ditches, and stagnant manly toils, skill, ingenuity, and vigour; on the of imperfection. The river and sea trout seem waters, and pools, and cuts, and canals, other, dandy preparation, punctilios, knick- capable of changing permanently their places of and preserves, which generally submit to knacks, and lassitude. The being who bas once residence; and sea trout seem often to become be called rivers, in the neighbourhood of traversed the wild heath, with his fowling-piece river trout. In this case they lose their silvery London, are altogether of a different genus. over his shoulder, and his stanch dogs at his feet, colour, and gain more spots; and in their off. First, they are pretty well accustomed to be or who has “skurred the country round,” leap- spring these changes are more distinct. Fish, caught and returned to their places, from the ing over hedge and ditch, forcing through copse likewise, which are ill-fed, remain small; and age of a few weeks till they have grown up to and brake, threading valley and climbing hill, pars are exceedingly numerous in those rivers. the age of some two years, when they are two loading his own piece, and cheering his own where they are found, which are never separated pounds avoirdupois, and fit for the frying-pan. pointers, independent of menial aid,—bagging from the sea by impassable falls; from which Thus, being hooked, played, landed, and re- and bringing home the loads of grouse, partridge, I think it possible that they are produced by a launched, is a mere fearless pastime to them; blackcock, hare, ptarmigan, rabbit-of which his cross between sea and river trout. The va. and, like young London thieves, they go on steady aim and persevering labour have made rieties of the common trout are almost infinite. nibbling and plundering, and dashing at every him the proprietor,-cannot allow the name of - Indeed, considering the sea trout as the thing they see, till, like the said thieves, they sporting to the absurd and spiritless massacres type of the species trout, it is, I think, proget beyond the mark, commit the last fatal of battu shooting, where thousands of tame bable that all the other true trouts may be mistake, and are fairly orimped and tucked up fowls (for the pheasants are nothing else) are considered as varieties, where the differences for their pains, by anglers no better than Bow- driven into alleys, for a number of persons to of food and of habits have occasioned, in a
Secondly, they are almost destroy with guns furnished by servants as long course of ages, differences of shape and hand-fed from their infancy upwards; and a quickly as they can be fired off at the promis colours, transmitted to offspring in the same fish educated on grains and bits of bullock's cuous crowd of fluttering birds. Of the same manner as in the variety of dogs, which may liver, is no more fera nature than a pig or a character is the preserve fishing ;t and from all be referred to one primitive type.” duck. Thirdly, they are cabined, cribbed, con- both, may all true sportsmen and anglers be The opinion of the Northern is more deci. fined: : at this end is a weir, over which 'there preserved, now and for ever more !
sive. He saysis no leap-and at t'other is a net-work, through But, lest the Literary Gazette should be “ Whether trouts (I mean the river or burn which there is no passage. The poor devils, thought to resemble the Edinburgh and Quar- trouts) are all of one species, I shall not take unable to escape, become quite familiar with terly Reviews, we will now take the liberty to upon me to determine. In many things they the human face divine, from observing it every say something of the books whose titles stand all agree, and in many they differ, in the same hour in parade upon their terraced banks, and at the head of this article. Our North-country rivers, and even in the same pools ; so that if care no more for the ugly phiz of a fisherman, friend is a wag in his way, as well as Sir the difference was owing to the water or the reflected on the glassy surface of their placid Humphry; and in describing his apparatus, he food, I could not say any thing against their abode, than for the stump of an alder or a wil. tells us, among other forks, screws, &c.—“I being of one species. I believe they spawn low. There can be neither exercise nor excite- had a mischievous thing to screw into my pole, promiscuouslytogether-thedark-spotted scurf, ment in dragging such fat fools from the like the point of a tuck or small sword, about and the golden-spotted trout ; that which has watery elements and Johnson's definition is five inches long, with which I have sometimes only a row of bright spots down the middle line not so far wrong, seeing that all his experience punished a noisy, tronblesome cur, either when on its sides, and that which has also three rows of angling consisted of having witnessed fishing riding or walking. This you will find a most of dark spots on each side, above that line. of this sort ; or, by way of variety, having excellent instrument to keep off those rascally They are all of much the same shape, have the seen two or three sedate gentlemen sitting on poachers called game-keepers, who sometimes same number of fins, and in the same places. eane-bottomed chairs in a fast-moored punt, threaten to break your rod.”
Whether the spots make any specific difference, with their eyes intently fixed upon so many How would a Goth, thus accoutred, be re- let the curious naturalists decide; I make none pieces of floating cork, till they happened to ceived in a sweet and gentle preserve, on the but in their size and goodness. And in my dive and disappear under the water, when the lawn in a home county? We fancy a good opinion, the so-much-esteemed char, both red aforesaid sedate gentlemen would hastily pull many London anglers would be fain, if they and white, is only a meer or marsh-trout; and up their lines, and, perhaps, discover some lit- met him, to be off at the sharpest angle which the colour, perhaps, is owing to the sex. I tle dace or gudgeon struggling at the end. their heels could make. Yet, so different in have taken in several rivers in the North of One would as soon catch red herrings, like manners from each other, it is curious to re- England, trouts as red, as good, and as well Marc Antony! How different is the genuine mark, when they come to actual observation, tasted as any char, and have potted them and fishing in the North, in Wales, and many how well the fishermen of the South and North dissolved the bones, as those of char are when parts of Ireland ! Instead of being stuck upon agree upon points of natural history; though potted."'* the aqueous brink, like an osier, watching on others we think the Northern (where he On the subject of migrations, we have the with most exemplary Cockney patience, to dissents) is the best practical authority of the following interesting remarks in Salmonia :ascertain by their movements if there are any two.
“ It has always appeared to me, that the two fish, and whereabouts they are; the angler Treating of the varieties of trout, Salmonia, proceeds to some gallopping and impetuous mentioning the samlet or par, says,—“ Orn. *“ Trouts (says this accurate observer) in a good pond stream, with here an eddy and there a smoother I have seen this fish in the rivers of Wales do not range so much in feeding : how long they generally
some , face, and down he goes, trying the whole for and Herefordshire, and have heard it asserted, live, cannot be determined any other way so well as by an miles wherever there is a chance of finding on what appeared to me good authority, that observation of those that are kept in ponds, which obser, his finny prey. If they elude him in the rip- it was a mule,—the offspring of a trout and a therefore shall only say what a gentleman told me. He
vation I never had an opportunity of making myself, and ple, he endeavours to seduce them from the salmon. Hal. This opinion, I know, has been assured me, that at four or five years old they were at deep hole or pool ; if the top of the current supported by the fact, that it is found only in their full growth, which was in soine about thirty inches, fails him, his hopes are better at the bottom, streams which are occasionally visited by sal- years pretty near the same in size and goodness: two years
in continued where the broader sweep may be the haunt of mon; yet I know no direct evidence in favour after, they grew big-headed and smaller bodied, and died those that dislike the more rapid gullet. At
in the winter after that change. But he thought the head
*." They tell us (says the North Country Angler) of did not grow greater, but only seemed to be so, because all events, he plies his limbs, and arms, and killing a brace and a half, or sometimes three brace: we the body decayed. So that, according to this gentleman's frame, and fishes on; and when his sport is reckon by scores, and of a large or larger
trouts than computation; nine or ten years is the term of their life. over, returns, healthily fatigued, not with his with the water-cricket in Coquet, at Tod Stead and grow to a greater size, where they have liberty to go into
Dove, or any river in Hampshire, &c. can afford. I have And yet I think they may live longer in some rivers, and two bites and one nibble, nor with his marvel- Brenkburn, in one night killed more than I could lift off the tide-way and salt water." lous exploit of a brace and a half (measured, sometimes done by other methods, though I always put some small river trout, 24 inches in length, into a
the ground. I am ashamed to tell what execution I have In Salmonia it is stated—“Mr. Tomkin, of Polgaron, weighed, recorded, wondered at, perhaps paint-catched them with a fair bait; but this only by the by;" newly made pond. He took some of them out the second ed), but with his three, four, five, six, seven, been killed here since
Fast August, and this is the moment one out of 16 inches in length: and the fourth year, que
p“ This river is most strictly preserved; not a fish has year above 12 inches in length; the third year, he took er eight dozens, ar probably counting scores when the large tisti cane to the surfaye." - Şaluwnitta of 3 inches in length; this was in 1734
great sources of change of place of animals, sing to the age and size of the salmon, in the gravel and sand, which he throws up with was the providing of food for themselves, and some above an inch long, and taper. And his head, making at the same time a new bed, resting-places and food for their young. The this gib, as it grows, makes for itself a socket and filling up the other. This he does all by great supposed migrations of herrings from the or hole in the upper jaw, which nails up his himself, for I never saw the she fish along poles to the temperate zone, have appeared to mouth when it is shút ; and besides, all the with the he, when he was making a new hole me to be only the approach of successive shoals fore part of the head is at this time more tough at the head of the other. Sometimes I have from deep to shallow water, for the purpose and horny. This is one of the numberless seen him lie still in the hole, as if resting himof spawning. The migrations of salmon and works of the God of nature, by which the self, and then, in an hour or two, brings up trout are evidently for the purpose of depo- fish is armed and prepared for the work he his mate again, and do as before. If it is rainy șiting their ova, or of finding food after they has to do, when they come to proper places or bazy weather, they will be three or four have spawned. Swallows and bee-eaters for spawning. At what particular time they nights in finishing their work ; but frosty decidedly pursue flies over half a continent; choose their mates, and pair like most other weather puts them in a hurry, and they will the scolopax or snipe tribe, in like manner, creatures, none of our books of angling tell have done in two nights, or less, and hasten search for worms and larvæ, Aying from us ; but I suppose it must be as they come down to their holds, and take the first opporthose countries where either frost or dryness up the rivers in shoals of three or four hun- tunity to get to sea. In this manner salmon, prevents them from boring, - making gene- dred together. And who knows, but they salmon-trouts, and I believe all other trouts, rally small flights at a time, and resting on may keep to their own tribes, and match or spawn ; and other fish that spawn in the their travels where they find food. And a choose mates among their relations ? for it has streams use mach the same, or sach-like me. journey from England to Africa is no more been observed, that salmun particularly, and thod in making beds, and covering up their for an animal that can fly, with the wind, salmon-trouts, will come up the same rivers, and spawn. I have been the more particular in one hundred miles in an hour, than a journey spawn in the very same places where they were this article, because I have seen it often done, for a Londoner to his seat in a distant pro- bred ; and I am inclined to believe the same of and in many places, both in the evenings and vince. And the migrations of smaller fishes some other fish, as we read of swallows, and mornings, and sometimes at night, with light. or birds always occasion the migration of other birds of passage. The lightest and strong- Sometimes a salmon loses its mate before they larger ones, that prey on them. Thus, the est go the farthest up the rivers, and the larger have done spawning, it being struck with a seal follows the salmon, in summer, to the and heavier press up as far as they can get, if leister, &c. ; and yet the gib fish has brought mouths of rivers; the bake follows the her. not to the place where they were bred, choosing up another, in two or three hours' time, to ring and pilchard ; hawks are seen in great large pools, and pretty deep gravelly streams. spawn with him. Whether there has been quantities, in the month of May, coming into As they come up the river, they swim close to any supernumerary shes in the pool, or he the east of Europe, after quails and landrails; the bottom, and generally in the middle and has taken by violence another's mate, I can. and locusts are followed by numerous birds, deepest part of it, making tracks in the gravel not tell ; but I have a better opinion of our that, fortunately for the agriculturists, make and sand like sheep-tracks, by which we fishers noble salmon, than to suspect him of such them their prey."
know when any salmon are in the river. And injustice. I have sometimes known the gib On the same subject, but restricted to fish, it has been observed, that the pilots or guides, fish caught at spawning time, and the she has and particularly to their spawning, the North as fishermen call them, often come to the top of got a mate; or else two other salmon have Country Angler has also some curious obser- the water, as if to reconnoitre, if I may use a taken possession of their works, and finished vations:-“ Salmon, where there are no dams moderni military term, and see what coast they them out. A salmon spawn heap will be three to stop them, as in the Tweed, and most of the are upon. They swim very fast, and generally yards or more in length, and two feet or near rivers in Scotland and Ireland, will change the more at night than day; and rest when they a yard broad, and looks like a new-made salt for the fresh water several times in the come to convenient places, under bushes, weeds, grave." summer, when they taste a fresh, as the fisher- banks, or stones, and then the whole shoal run We do not remember to have met with so men call it, that is to say, when a great food again : the reason, I suppose, of their swim- accurate a history of the propagation of fish and a spring-tide reach a good way into the ming in the middle, and at the bottom of the as in this passage; and it is evidently the sea. And as these migrations or changes are river, is, because that part is the least disturbed detail of an eye-witness who has often watched necessary for their health, so there are some by a food, and there is the safest and best what he so well describes. reasons that in a manner force them to it. travelling. They generally choose streams to Respecting eels, too, and their habits, he For when they have been too long in the sea, spawn in, at the head of great deep pools, both gives us some curious information.." I have and have lain among the rocks and sea-weed, for their own security from their mortal enemy catched them (he says) at all times of the the sea-lice get on to them, stick so close, and the otter, and the greater preservation of the year, except the middle of winter ; and even make them so uneasy, that they will rub the young fry, which we may observe in the spring, then, when the river has been frozen very very skin off, where the lice bite them; and very near the shore of those streams where they bard; as I remember once at Keeper, near nothing cures them of these tormentors so were bred, waiting for a flood to carry them Durham, the mill-dam being broken with the soon as the fresh water: and then again, when down. When the gib fish has found a stream weight of ice laying upon it, the key next to they have been about a month in the river, that he likes, he makes a hole, as a swine the hospital and gardens was left dry, almost and lie under banks, roots, or stones, the fresh- works in the ground with his nose, his mouth to the foundation, the ice subsiding as the water lice creep on to them, and force them to being nailed close with the gib in its socket. water drained from under it; and abundance get to sea again, to be freed from them, which When he has made this hole, a yard and a of eels crawled out of the wall and lay torpid, the salt water does effectually. And here I half, or more, long, and near a yard broad, he as if dead, upon the ice: I got many of them, must observe, how this migration of these goes down to his mate, under a root or stone, some large ones ; but neither in these, nor in creatures answers the same end of Providence and in what manner he makes his addresses to any that I ever took, could I observe either with that of woodcocks, quails, &c. and several her I cannot tell; but I have often seen the milt or roe, or any vessel to contain the ovakinds of fish that go round our island at their gib fish rush at his mate, as if going to bite ries, as may be seen in all fish that spawn. proper seasons, and furnish all the neighbour- her, jostling her sometimes on one side, then It is, therefore, my opinion, nay, I am posi. ing inhabitants with delicious food. But the on the other, chasing her from place to place, tive in it, that they are produced by genera. sea-lice are more troublesome to the salmon, as we see a cock pigeon does the hen to her tion, and brought forth alive. when they grow big-bellied, at the end of nest, till they come to the marriage-bed he " It is well known to the fishermen in most August and beginning of September, for then has been preparing for her, where they lie at of our harbours, that sand eels are bred in the they are heavier, and lazier, and lie more the lower end of it, close by the side of each sands, from whence they hook them out, with among the rocks, and get the more lice upon other, and pressing their bellies hard to the crooked knives, and make excellent baits of them; and this forces them into the fresh bottom, wriggle on to the top of the bed, squeez- them for large fish. And there is an eеl called rivers upon a double account, to be eased of ing out the spawn from both of them at the same a burrabut or green-bone, that is a viviparous the vermin and their natural burden too. time. All the roes that are smit or touched tish. I have often at Shields taken these in At this time, their skin grows thicker than in by the milt, which is of a viscous quality, sink a net when their bellies have been big, and summer, and of a dusky copperish colour, to among the little stones and gravel ; and those have given them a nick with my penknife, and make them endure the cold of the winter that are not touched with it are carried down there have sprawled out one hundred or more season the better. At this time also, the the stream, and are delicious food for the many into a tub of water, that I had to put my fish milter is easily distinguished from the roe ; trouts that are watching the opportunity; then in: they were about two inches long, and very for now, at the end of his lower chop, there the she fish leaves her mate, chasing away the lively; and I am persuaded that the lamprey grows a hard bony gib, from which they are small fish, whilst the gib fish is working at the is bred in the same manner. then called the gib fish, larger or less accord- head of the bed, covering up the spawn with Sir H. Davy is sceptical on these points.