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senses.

He had gene

which stood several denominations of Franks, rise, and that our star is labouring hard in our sand pistols ; and had made all the arrangewithout their hats, and two or three women service. We have not only the repose of para- ments usual in a caravanserai. There was no unveiled, all ready to receive us, and who, dise made ready for us, but also the houris end to the many strange things which we had placing themselves in a sort of procession, pre- thereof awaiting our pleasure. Of a sudden a to say to each other. They had travelled ceded the ambassador until they reached a great sensation appeared to be made in the through the country in a style worthy of kings, room fitted up with looking-glasses, and sur- caravanserai, and the ambassador was informed for their carriage was provided with every con. rounded by many contrivances too numerous that the Circassian was arrived. The infidels, venience ; horses ready harnessed at frequent now to mention. The mehmandar then told still treating her with the same attentions intervals were awaiting their arrival to carry us that this was to be our habitation for the that we had remarked on board ship, were them on with increased rapidity; and they had present, and added, that whenever we wanted bringing her straight to Mirza Firouz, when not once had recourse to either sword or car. any thing, we had only to pull a string pen they were prevented by the sagacity of Seid bine, such little impediment had they found. dant from the wall, when slaves ready to obey and Mahboob. Not one of them could under- | 'Tis true they were obliged to proceed whether our orders would appear, quicker than even the stand that she was only a slave ; the mehman- they would or not ; for the inexorable driver gins did to Aladin. All this bewildered our dar himself, when he reached England, seemed would not give them time even to prepare a

Here we were in a house which no to take part with his own countrymen in pay- kalioun ; but they found so much pleasure in shah of Persia, since the days of Noushirvan, ing her a respect that was not her due. being as it were masters, whilst every body could have seen, not even in a dream_fitted Where shall we put the lady?' said he to the seemed slaving and toiling for their advantage, up with more luxuries than decked our largest ambassador. • Lady, indeed!' said Mirza that, to hear them talk, they would not have palaces_with windows glazed with the purest Firouz; "what words are these ? You know cared if the journey had never come to a closé. glass --- with carpets of such little account, better than I that she is no lady; that she is On arriving at the house in London, they that every one walked over them in their only a poor slave; and, therefore, for the love were at a loss, amidst the variety of rooms shoes-with walls beautifully painted with of All, do not allow her to be treated as a lady. which it contained, where to deposit them. chairs enough to seat all the elders of Tehran ; Give her a corner, and there let her sit.'” selves; but knowing from experience how much in short, with such inconvenient abundance, All the way to London was equally full more convenient and safer it was to keep to. that it was long before we could be convinced of wonders ; but his reception in the capital gether, and to sleep under each other's protec. to look upon it as the abode of the stranger. was still more displeasing to the ambassador, tion, they settled to remain where I found them,

Adieu, said we, adieu, the vaunted hospi. than the conduct of the worthy admiral at rather than to take separate beds and separate tality of the East, if this is the way the the outpost. He expected all the world to rooms at the top of the house. They were stranger is received by the European !' But have been turned out to meet him, and was visited every morning by a good old in del, what was still more extraordinary, we had enraged at being trotted quite unceremoniously a doctor, so they thought, who had been remained in this state of surprise not a few to his appointed residence.

very kind to the cook, who felt unwell from minutes, when in came a fair-faced daughter “ The ambassador (we are told) got out of the fatigue of the journey: of England, asking us through the mehmandar, the carriage with his temper all crooked, totally rously felt his pulse, and had sent his deputy whether we should like to see our beds;' at ignorant whether in so doing the hour was for. to give the proper medicines.

We were exleast so we understood her. We knew of no tunate or unfortunate. Nobody appeared be pressing our admiration of Frank doctors, other beds than those which we carried about fore him to say, you are welcome; no one when, at this very moment, the said old man and spread on the floor, and therefore we all with a present in his hand to greet him ; not came in, accompanied by the mehmandar. We willingly pressed forwards to the sight; and even a pomegranate was offered him; and all rushed to have our pulses felt, and our here our wonder was again excited. The rushing up a rapid Alight of stairs, he threw tongues looked at, which is the Frank mode shah's throne, on which he sits to administer himself in despair upon a sofa. In vain was he of ascertaining health, when the mehmandar, justice, and to make the two extremities of the invited to partake of a magnificent repast of to our astonishment, burst into a fit of laughter. world tremble, was not more magnificent than sweetmeats, fruits, and ices, which had been. What news is this ?' said he; ‘what do you the bed intended for the ambassador. It must prepared, and which the English mirzas and do thus for ?' 'He is our doctor, praise be to have been constructed upon the model of the the mehmandar assured him had been provided God !' said the cook; he has cured the pain famous peacock-throne of the moguls. Upon at the express orders of the government in my heart.' • Doctor !' exclaimed the Frank four pillars of curiously wrought wood was nothing would console him-he swore his face he is no doctor - he is my uncle !' Well, raised a canopy of rich stuffs, from which were was black, and black he swore it should remain. said I, and suppose he is ? he may be a doctor, suspended curtains as ample as those which The mehmandar then presented him some food and your uncle too: there is no harm in that, screen the great hall of Tehran. The seat was in a dish, and asked whether he would not eat. is there? But he is one of the omrahs, a overlaid with the softest and most luxuriant' Eat!' said the ambassador ; if all your re- lord, and a man of the sword; he never made mattresses, and pillows to recline upon were ceptions are like this, and if you think to wipe up a drug in his life. How should we know raised one above the other in heaps. Here off the disgrace which my shah has this day that,' said the cook : how are we to distinour moonfaced conductress proposed that the received, by giving me to eat, you are much guish between your lords and your doctors ?' ambassador should pass the night; and the mistaken. Tiet me see some one to say wel. This puzzled the mehmandar; for truly every invitation, as may be expected, was greedily come' on the part of your shah, and then, per. body seemed to be on an equality in this accepted ; an event to which she appeared per- haps, I may eat. No salt will be lawful till strange country. To judge of people by their fectly accustomed, inasmuch as it was settled then.' But do you count the British mirzas dress here was impossible. Finery certainly without the least indication of a smile or a for nothing ?' said the mehmandar. 'Mirzas, was not the criterion : for if it were, then blush on her part. Allah! there is but one indeed !' exclaimed he in a fury; ' did we those who drove the coaches in the streets, Allah l'exclaimed Mirza Firouz ; . I am in a send a writer of firmans, and a clipper of paper and those who stood behind them, must be state of amazement. To eat dirt is one thing, to your ambassadors ? What words are these ? the nobility of the land, - for they were the but to eat it after this fashion is another. If Don't beat the air with more useless words ! finest drest people we saw. We found, when pollution did not meet us in the face at every My face is black ; your face is black; and your we came to draw inferences from all that met turn, I should say that our fortune is on the government's face will also be blackened (praise our eye, that our difficulties increased ; and

be to God !) throughout the world when this therefore, until our senses should have become delivered over into my custody. For the information of fact is known! Seeing that nothing could be more expanded, we thought the best plan for the curious, I must take the liberty of describing a speci- made of him in this humour, we left him to the present was to seat ourselves upon the men of such rare and precious deformity. In the first roll on the sofa, whilst Seid rubbed his feet, and hill of patience, and open the eyes of astonishshrivelled neck, that seemed by much too slender a pedes- Feridoon, the barber, kneaded his back and ment upon the prospect of novelty.” tal for its support. The face was composed of a succession loins, which produced relief more effectual of wrinkles, which festooned over his features in folds of than either speeches from the mirzas or the sians exceedingly.

The long stairs in the house puzzled the Per. sessed the heavy dulness peculiar to the snake. The nose mehmandar. I consoled myself for the miseries “ Mohamed Beg, the Locman of our party, was merely an indication of that feature ; but the mouth of the last hour by seeking the company of my who was constantly endeavouring to acquire pally rested, for it was more a rent than an opening, the countrymen. I found them settled near the good reasons for what we saw, was of opinion, lower lip falling prone upon the chin, shewing an inside entrance of the house, in a large room, sup- that England being an island, it was necessary Můrwari was perfection. His voice was more like a croak ported at one end by two pillars, surrounded to save ground; for if all her houses, as in Per. than any other sound; and, altogether, when his features with chairs, and encumbered by a large wooden sia, were spread over the surface of her terriwere set into motion, and when, at the same time, he case mounted on four legs. Here they had tory, she would form one vast city, and no demon or angel, could ever for one moment dare to op: spread their carpets ; arranged their saddles room would be left for agriculture. But Perpose him."

and trunks ; hung up their carbines, swords, 1 sia being a country the limits of which were unknown, it signified little how much of her knees. And we found too that our own house woman who is not married to the man she surface was covered by buildings; there would was undergoing the same ceremony; for, to lives with ? It was as much as their repu. always be plenty to spare. And this remark, our astonishment, we discovered that women, tations were worth.' There was one person he argued, was confirmed by the well-known provided no doubt by the government for our to whom the ambassador offered various adcircumstance, that every man in Persia thought use, had slept under the same roof with us, vantages, if she would live with and educate it incumbent upon him to build a new house and were doing that which is the business of his slave, who became quite outrageous at such for himself, and leave the house of his father our ferashes, or carpet-spreaders.”

a proposal. She would walk and talk with to fall into ruin : whereas in England the son Their early visitors are whimsically painted; men in the open streets, look at men, take came into possession of his father's house, and but for the present we pass them by, as well as them by the arm, be visited by men, and felt himself bound to keep it in repair: as a royal audience, in order to give in this Num. nobody would think the worse of her for such naturally as in Persia the son becomes the ber the entertaining account of the calls of the doings; but she became all rage and fury the owner of his father's fur coat, and the daughter English dames.

moment it might be said of her, that she did of her mother's state trowsers, feeling them. “Our house was thronged with the women of the like with one of her own sex, who stood in selves bound to cherish and preserve them." London, and with those tongues of theirs, the predicament of the unoffensive Dilferîb.

“We passed," continues the author, " the which, as Saadi saith, 'make the heart to talk, Now, what should we say of such a woman in first night very ill. Each of us had a bed, and the foot to walk, without the mehmandari our country! Why, her hair would be cut the curtains of which were so pretty, that we of the head,' they set on foot a sort of pilgri. off, and she would be paraded throughout the longed to cut them up for alcoloks,* or to bind mage to the shrine of this unfortunate maiden. city on an ass, with her face to its rump, and them round our waist ; but we were unaccus. But in so doing, Allah! Allah! wonderful its tail in her hand, and then thrust out into tomed to their heavy coverings, and found, sights did they exhibit to us poor sons of the the open desert, as one soiled with impurities, after we had been a short time under them, faithful. Marvellous eyes ! without mercy, Such is the difference of manners in different that our coat and trowsers became disagree without compassion were they! I really saw countries !”. ably oppressive. We all agreed, that certain some beauties among them, before whom our

(A continuation in our next.) white pieces of loose linen, which accompanied blessed king of kings (upon whom be mercy each bed, would make excellent shirts ; and and peace !) would be happy to creep on his Ireland ; its Evils, and their Remedies. By Taki, the ferash, who had only one, deter. hands and knees. They, however, cared so M. T. Sadler. 8vo. pp. 414. London, 1828. mined immediately to improve his stock. The little about being seen, that it never occurred Murray. whole household was on the stir long before to them once to attempt to throw à veil over This is a valuable work; but there are some the Franks thought of moving ; but Mohamed their faces. Poor Franks ! thought we, to circumstances connected with it which are not Beg was much puzzled about the true hour for be restricted only to one for life! If our a little singular. In the first place, it is written saying his morning prayer, for we heard no divine prophet had set up his staff here, instead by a gentleman who, as far as we under. muessins to announce it from the mosques ; of the blessed regions of Mecca, he would have stand, is not connected in any way with Ireand besides, the nights were so much longer given his followers six instead of four. For land, and who at the present moment is than any we bad been accustomed to, that we my part, I died daily ; and as for our ambas- Mayor of the great manufacturing town of had almost settled amongst ourselves that the sador, we all saw how it would be ! His heart Leeds : secondly, although a very large book of sun never rose in this ill-conditioned city. We would become roast meat before another moon the kind (consisting of nearly 500 pages), it is had walked about the house for several hours was over, and he would soon be reduced to the stated to be merely a prelude, or an avant. almost in total darkness, and were in despair veriest Majnoon' that ever got thin upon courier, to a three-volume work on Population : waiting for the dawn, when, at length, we cheek nurture and eye food. "But day after and, thirdly, to add to all this singularity, the heard noises in the street, indicating that the day they came to see the Circassian, bringing Introduction, (which is extended to the space inhabitants were awake. During the whole with them all sorts of toys and presents ; all of fifty-eight pages,) is solely confined to the night, at intervals, we had watched the cries out of compassion, said they, to her imprisoned forthcoming volumes, and has no reference of what were evidently guards of the night, and deplorable state of slavery. Some gave her whatever to the present essay. who, like the keshekchis on the walls of the pictures, others dolls, others books. Dilferib Having premised so much, we shall proceed Arket announce that all is right; but those was grateful for their attentions, and deplored to the examination of the book itself. we now heard were quite different. At first, their degraded state ; but she became indignant The first object of Mr. Sadler's work is to we thought they might be muezzins appointed when they endeavoured to persuade her, and disprove two dogmas which are very common to cry out the Frangi azan, the invitation to even to attempt force, to wear their stockings. amongst a certain class of persons, viz. that the the inhabitants to arise and pray; and, indeed, To her astonishment they protested that no distresses of Ireland are owing to a superfluous looking at them through the twilight, we were thing could be more indecent than to appear population ; and that those distresses are mul. confirmed in our idea, for they were dressed in with naked feet. "How?' exclaimed Dilferid, tiplied and magnified by the universal use of black, as all the English men of God are; but you make such a point of covering your legs, the potato. . The principal arguments which we were evidently mistaken, because, although and still, in defiance of all modesty, you expose he adduces on this subject are the following: they uttered their cry in a variety of loud shrill your faces ! Strange ideas of decency you must first, that Ireland, instead of not producing tones, yet still no one seemed to rise a moment have indeed! All women's legs are alike. sufficient for the sustenance of its inhabitants, the sooner, or to have the least idea of praying There can be no immodesty in leaving them produces far more of the necessaries of life on their account. And still we were uncer-naked; for nobody, by seeing them, could than they ever consume, exporting as they do tain; for when the day had completely broken, know one woman from another; but the face, a greater quantity of edible products than proMohamed Beg came running in, in great joy, ti at sacred spot, sacred to modesty, sacred to bably any other country of equal extent in the exclaiming, · Muezzin! muezzin!' and point- the saze of none but a husband ; that which whole world; and that, Ireland suffered in ing to the top of one of the minars, which are ou shit to be covered with the most scrupulous former times from a contrary extreme-namely, seen on all the houses, we there saw one of delicacy; that you leave uncovered, to be a paucity of people. these street clergymen, crying out his profes- stared at, criticised, laughed at, by every im- “ With regard to the former,” as he obsion of faith with all his might."

indent varlet that chooses. Allah! Allah !' serves, “ it is singular enough, that in one and So much for the chimney-sweepers. esclaimed the offended Dilferib, to a young the same breath, Providence is arraigned for

“ As the day advanced, strange noises, such female infidel, who was one day pressing upon bringing too many human beings into existas we never hear in our cities, became audible. her acceptance a pair of long cotton stockings, ence, and for affording sure means of sustenta. Among others, we distinguished a bell, whose' Astafarallah! Allah forgive me! Are you tion to their increasing numbers by a stupen. sound, similar to that sometimes- heard from mad? Has your brain become diseased ? Give dous provision of nature, hitherto almost un. the churches of the Armenians, at Julfa and me free legs, a muffled face, and the favour of touched, rather than exhausted, and probably, Etchmiazin, made us again suppose that this the holy prophet, and say no more. Strange in reference to any future population of the might be the true mode of calling the Franks ill-luck has ours been that has brought us to a earth, inexhaustible. As it respects Ireland, to their devotions; but it appeared to be the country where the women cover their legs, and millions upon millions of acres, now totally signal for a general cleaning of houses and uncover their faces ! But with all their good waste and idle, a little industry, directed and house-doors. This operation was the business nature towards Dilferîb, there was part of aided by what is called capital, would enrich of women; and we imagined that it must have their conduct which we could in nowise un. with this subterraneous harvest, and at the something to do with their religion, for they derstand. Although they all freely came to same time clothe with cattle • a thousand of performed it as an act of penance, on their see her, yet not one would help to cheer her her barren hills,' so as to sustain and satisfy The under vest, usually made of flowered chintz.

solitude by procuring her a companion. Who many millions of human beings more than are The king of Persia's palace is so called.

would keep company,' said they, with al now often almost starved (ten times as many, is the lowest calculation of our ablest agricul. tempted to leave it for an establishment nearer fertile land in the world to each family, one tural authorities): but this natural expedient, the focus of the empire ; or, still more culpable, acre of which, we are assured on all hands, equally dictated by humanity, policy, and ne- who were thus enabled to spend their acquired would far more than suffice for the sustenance cessity, does not chime in with the current wealth beyond the boundaries of the British of each, as they are content to live; and, after notions. It is deemed more desirable to dis- dominions,—then and thus was it that the evils all, only two-thirds of the island is are yet under si pate British capital in expatriating British of absenteeism commenced, and, by the sure culture.” subjects ; in planting dubious friends, if not and constant operation of this adequate cause, We certainly agree with Mr. Sadler, that to future enemies, in distant quarters ; peopling the impoverishment of Ireland has been begun act in this arbitrary way towards those poor the northern deserts of America, or the arid and continued, and will never end, till, by some people is neither necessary nor justifiable; but, regions of Southern Africa, or even the con- means or other, this crying injury shall be notwithstanding all he has stated to the continent and remote islands of the Southern abated.”

trary, we are decidedly of opinion, that every Ocean; and thus, in a vast plurality of cases Having traced the' origin of absenteeism- opportunity should be taken by the landed terminating human misery, instead of relieving the poverty and wretchedness it occasions, as gentry of Ireland to encourage a better class of it. Such is the policy which is now beginning well as the injury it inflicts on society, he next tenantry, and not to hold out to the poorest of to be recommended from high places, even as proceeds to notice the expedients which have, the poor the prospect of a settlement, unless at it regards England : the very thews and at various times, been proposed in behalf of the same time they can give them the wheresinews' of the empire are to be transferred to Ireland ; and, first, emigration—or, as a cor- with-all to support the independence at which distant climes, in order to increase our internal respondent of Mr. Wilmot Horton's has re- they aim. prosperity and strength! Regarding the latter, cently called it," the emigration trade.” “I At page 169 our author commences his prothey may, indeed, differ a little at present; appeal to nature and to God,” are the eloquent positions in behalf of Ireland ; the first of which but, touching Ireland, the greatest unanimity terms in which he sums up his remarks on this is we give his own words :prevails : Ireland must be depopulated to be subject,—“ whether, in this country, human " I would have the legislature pass a law, enriched.”

beings are superfluous. Let the thirty millions by which the great English owners of Irish After noticing the circumstance, that the food of uncultivated acres, out of the seventy-seven estates should be empowered to cut off the en. of the native Irish was principally, if not ex. which these islands comprise, as well as those tail of their Irish property, in favour of the clusively, vegetable, long before the potato was boundless unimproved wastes of the ocean' by junior branches of their family, on condition known in Europe, he thus replies to those who which they are surrounded, to use Lord Bacon's that those on whose behalf it should be done are eternally dunning us with the remark, expression, finally answer this question. If you should be residents in the country, otherwise that all the miseries of Ireland are attributable want food, therefore, here it is to be obtained their interest, thus created, to revert back to to the food of the peasantry :- “ It is the in supplies that defy calculation; if you want the heir-at-law. For example, I would enable misfortune of the Irish, not to be able to labour, here it presents itself to an unlimited an Earl Fitzwilliam to will his Irish property, afford themselves any thing more palatable extent, and of the most practicable as well as under such limitation, to one or more of his than potatoes this is charged upon them as an beneficial kind. But our political economists, younger sons, any legal obstacle to the contrary evidence of their voluntary barbarism; they disgusted with proposals so obvious and natural, notwithstanding." cannot obtain labour (for reasons which will be turn from them, like Naaman did from the His next proposition is, “ that a reformed presently pointed out)—this is to brand them prophet, in contempt ; and require some great system of poor-laws should be instantly estawith the crime of idleness !"

and imposing remedies to be applied, some blished, founded upon the humane principle, · His next argument is that food has in- mysterious incantations to be pronounced, and but avoiding the errors, of those of England, in creased in much greater proportion than the cruel rites to be performed, in order to the re- being more completely adapted to the altered population; in proof of which, he adduces the lief of our country. Above all, it seems, we circumstances of the times ;—that there, as following facts: first, that in 1725, when Ire-are now to seek relief in an expedient which here, wealth should be compelled to assist desland“ only numbered seventy-one inhabitants has hitherto been regarded as one of the deepest titute poverty, in proportion to its means ; but on a square mile, she imported grain, in ordi- of human punishments, and the most unequi- that, dissimilar to our practice, that assistance nary times, to the amount of twenty or thirty vocal proofs of the divine displeasure, the ex. should, in all cases, excepting in those of actual thousand quarters annually; but when her pulsion and final dispersion of part of the tribes incapability from age or disease, be connected population on the same space became trebled, of our Israel.” “And who, let me again ask,” with labour.” she not only (of necessity) subsisted that num- he adds, “is it proposed to send forth ?- The introduction of the poor-laws into Ire. ber, and certainly not worse than at the former Helpless infancy? I believe not. Decrepit land is a very important point; and as it is period, but actually exported a surplus of much age and incurable disease ?_Certainly not ; we one which has already excited, and is likely to above a million quarters !"- And secondly, are hardly, as yet, prepared to remove the poor excite, great attention, we shall enter into it a that a century ago, the population, then being from our presence when debilitated by weak- little more fully than we otherwise should feel but a little more than two millions, could not ness and disease; as it is said was the practice ourselves justified in doing. supply itself with grain ; but that now, with of the Romans, who exposed such in the isle of We believe, at least we hope it will be its inhabitants trebled, it is not only enabled so Esculapius. No. The emigrants are to be admitted, that the poor of these islands_we to do, but to export at least ten millions of composed of the able-bodied, the young, and mean the aged and infirm, and those who are bushels, as well as six times the amount in the healthful—in a word, the élite of the em- incapable of exertion-are entitled to some re. cattle (perhaps about thrice as many head), as pire ; these are to be bribed, starved, and con- lief, and are not to be allowed to perish in the at the former period.".

veyed out of the country. Such are they whom streets; or, as the poet has it, to be On the subject of absenteeship, the ancient the standard of emigration is unfurled to col. “ Deserted in their utmost need, enemy of Ireland, or, as it has been called, lect, and a bounty of a sixty-pounds' loan By those their former labours fed." “ the cut-purse of the empire,” our author is offered; and while it is mustering its recruits, We shall, therefore, only refer our readers equally clear and convincing. He attributes its language is, ' let the dead bury their dead; to Mr. Sadler's book for the various facts which the origin of it to the extent of the forfeitures follow thou me!"”.

he has deduced from America, from the Nether. which took place in early times, and at various His next inquiry is as to the expediency of lands, and from almost every country in Europe, periods; and which have been estimated by enlarging or incorporating farmsa measure in favour of such a measure; and having so done, Lord Clare to amount to more than eleven- which he decidedly opposes, as being cruel to we shall merely offer a few observations on the twelfths of the whole island. These forfeitures, the present inhabitants, immoral in its effects, objections which have been started at various it is well known, fell principally upon ancient the cause of constant outrages and insurrec. times to this charitable provision. English proprietors, who were successively dis- tions, and unnecessary as a remedial measure. A great deal has been said of late respecting possessed several times over. “ Had the pro. In proof of the inutility of banishing these the increase of pauperism, and the enormous perty in Ireland, forfeited from time to time, poor persons from their homes, and thus leaving expense it occasions; but it would seem, by a been conferred upon those who were residents them, as in many cases they would be, without table which is given at p. 245 of this volume, in the country, or likely to remain so, such the means of procuring shelter,-he states the and which has every appearance of being found. spoliations, though inflicting great individual following facts :- “ There are in Ireland ed on correct data, that, compared with the suffering, would not, perhaps, have materially 6,801,821 persons : calculating that there are public revenue 150 years ago, the poor-rate impoverished it: but when they were bestowed between five and six persons to every family, nearly amounted to one-half; whereas, at the upon those who did not reside in it, upon a and supposing that there were neither town present period it comes to little more than mere unregarded engagement that they would nor city in the whole island that there were one-tenth. And as to the comparative numdo so; or who, residing there, were, in conse- no manner of employment or pursuit but agri. ber of paupers : about the Revolution, thay quence of these accessions of fortune, too often culture,--there are still ten acres of the most amounted to one-fourth of the people ; at pre.

within.'"

sent, their relative number is diminished to Religious Discourses. By a Layman. 8vo.

" When the observance (he thus poetically one-twelfth.

pp. 79. H. Colburn.

illustrates his subject) of the minute ceremonial The increase of the population of Ireland, as The history of this production has been fre- was substituted instead of love to God, and duty compared with that of England, has been men- quently stated. The two Discourses were to our neighbours, the system resembled some tioned as an almost insurmountable difficulty written by Sir Walter Scott for the use of a ancient tree, which continues to shew green in the way of the introduction of poor-laws young friend about to enter upon the ministry; boughs and a stately form to those who regard into Ireland: let us attend to the fact. The but whose course of life being altered, the it only on the outside, but when carefully population of Ireland appears by the returns to kind-hearted author has permitted him to use examined proves rotten and false at heart, have increased in thirty years 6! per cent; them in the way of publication, instead of and valueless excepting as a matter of outward while the increase in the population of Eng- delivering them from the pulpit. This consent land for a like term, supposing it to augment is announced in the following words :

• All green and wildly fresh without, but worn and gray from 1821 to 1831 as it has done from 1811 to

“ They were never intended for publication, 1821, will amount to 55 per cent. In other as nobody knows better than yourself ; nor do

In answering the objections of Sceptics, it words, every hundred individuals in England I willingly consent that they should be now does not appear to us that the author establishes will in the course of those thirty years have given to the press, as it may be thought that very triumphantly his proposition respecting multiplied into 155, as in Ireland they have I have intermeddled with matters for which the law of Moses being fulfilled, 'not destroyed, into 161

a difference, on the whole, of about I have no commission. I have also to add, by the advent of our Saviour. 3,16 per cent, to be distributed through the space that they contain no novelty of opinion, and

" It was not (he contends) the offer of the of thirty years.

no attempt at brilliancy of composition. They Gospel to the Jews, but their ignorant and Amongst the many grounds which our author were meant, I may remind you, to shew that prejudiced rejection of that inestimable gift, adopts for the introduction of the poor-laws a rational and practical discourse, upon a par- which occasioned the destruction of Jerusalem, into Ireland, is the following : that the want ticular text, was a task more easily performed and the desolation of Judah ; even as the storm of such a provision, by compelling these poor than you, in your natural anxiety, seemned at and overthrow of a besieged city is not procreatures to resort to this country in droves, or, the time disposed to believe. I am afraid duced by a message offering the inhabitants aus Doctor. Chalmers terms it, like “ hosts of that those who open this pamphlet with ex- easy terms of safe submission, but by their own locusts,” is a grievous injury to the working- pectations of a higher kind, will be much dis- obstinacy in refusing to accept what was merci. classes of England ; and in order, at the same appointed. As, however, you seem to be of fully tendered. But another answer remains, time, to correct this evil, and to punish the opinion, that the publication might be attended comprehending within brief compass the great persons to whom it is in a great measure attri- with much benefit to you, I make no objection and awful mystery of Christianity. Christ did butable, he proposes that the property of ab- to it, and shall be glad to hear that it suits not come, as we have already seen, to destroy the sentees' (properly such) should contribute in your purpose.”

law; but, secondly, he came to fulfil it. That at least a two-fold proportion to this national The first Discourse is a comparison between which is fulfilled can in no sense be said to be charity.

the Jewish and Christian dispensations, from destroyed, even though by means of its being It appears by a table which is given towards the text of Matthew, v. 17:

fulfilled it should cease to exist. Thus, the the latter part of the volume, that of the nine

" Think not that I am come to destroy the law or the crop of the husbandman is destroyed, if it teen millions and a half of acres which Ireland prophets; I am not come to destroy, but to fulfil." perish through tempest in the field; but if it contains, there are at this moment 4,900,000 As we too are laymen, it might be thought is gathered into the garner, and put to the uncultivated and perfectly capable of improve- we intermeddled with matters for which we proper uses of man, it is not in any sense dement. This might afford employment to mul- have no commission, were we to enter upon stroyed, though consumed; but, on the contitudes in that country; and surely we may any criticisms here: we shall, therefore, contrary, the purposes of its being reared are legiadd, in the words of Dir. Sadler, " It is far tent ourselves with a few examples, and a very timately fulfilled. And in this sense the law Jess wild a scheme, and infinitely more pa- few remarks.

of Moses being fulfilled in Christ Jesus, retriotic a one, to clear the wilds and drain the Sir Walter Scott shews why the Sadducees, mains no longer binding on his faithful fol. bogs of our own country, than those of Canada ; and still more inveterately the Pharisees (the lowers. He hath gathered in the harvest, and while the expense would be beyond measure Atheists and the Epicureans of Israel), opposed invites them, for his sake and in his name, to less; the capital meantime would be preserved the doctrines, and persecuted the person, of partake of the bread of life, which by their to the country, however expended ; and the Jesus Christ.

own exertions they could never have obtained.” public interest in it amply secured by the “ They could not endure the friendly zeal of We confess that we do not think this fruitful domains which would thus, from time the Divine Physician, when he rent from their reasoning carries perfect conviction with it: to time, be pledged to the country.”

wounds the balsams with which they soothed, perhaps, a regular churchman could have There is a curious fact mentioned by Mr. and the rich tissues under which they concealed adduced stronger arguments; but we are no Sadler, with reference to the alleged over-them, and exhibited festering and filthy cancers, casuists, and merely quote for the sake of populousness of Ireland, namely, that there is which could be cured only by the probe, the illustrating the pamphlet before us, touching less poverty where the population is great, knife, and the cautery. Hence they were, which, so much public curiosity is felt. We than where it is less. For instance, Ulster, from the beginning of our Saviour's ministry therefore close this Discourse with one other which is the most populous province in Ireland, until its dreadful consummation, (in which they short extract. is decidedly the most affluent; while Con- had a particular share,) the constant enemies of “In no sense, therefore, was the ancient naught, on the other hand, the worst peopled, the doctrine and of the person of the blessed Mosaic law destroyed. It may be compared is confessedly the most wretched part of the Jesus. Under his keen and searching eye, the to the moon, which is not forced from her country. And the same may be said with re- pretensions which they had so long made in sphere, or cast headlong from the heavens ; gard to the two other provinces.

order to be esteemed of men, were exposed but which, having fulfilled her course of That the population is too great, as com- without disguise ; their enlarged garments and brightness, fades away gradually before the pared to the employment which the country extended phylacteries, their lengthened prayers, more brilliant and perfect light of day.” at present affords, there can be no doubt ; but their formal ceremonial, and tithes of mint and The second Discourse is upon the first six sufficient is stated in the publication before us, anise, were denounced as of no avail, without verses of the first Psalm, and tends to demon. to prove that the resources of Ireland are quite the weightier matters of the law — justice, strate the blessedness of the righteous, and the sufficient to raise her in the scale of nations, mercy, and faith. Feeling thus their own unhappiness of the wicked. It is a sensible and that they only require to be placed in the sanctimonious professions held up to contempt, moral inculcation ; but seldom (any more than proper view, to enable the public to benefit and their pretensions to public veneration at the preceding) aspires to eloquence. The fol. by them. And here it is that we think Mr. once exposed and destroyed, the Pharisees be- lowing are two extracts which we can most Sadler's book will render a very essential ser- came the active and violent opposers of those readily detach so as to convey an adequate idea vice, by turning public attention into the doctrines to which the Sadducees, with sullen of the whole. After pointing out the dangers proper channel, instead of allowing it to centre apathy, seem to have refused a hearing. It was of frequenting the society of the ungodly, and on one point exclusively — a point of great the Pharisees who maligned the life of our listening to the theory of sin; and, secondly, of importance certainly, but one which can never blessed Lord; who essayed to perplex the wis- acquiescing in their practices; Sir Walter says : be discussed without exciting feelings of ani- dom of Omnipotence by vain and captious ** Thirdly. Nor sitteth he, whom the psalm. mosity and ill-will, and from which the most interrogatories ; and who, unable to deny those ist describes, in the seat of the scornful. There sanguine can expect nothing that is likely to miracles by which the mission of Christ was is a grave and delusive reasoning which · give general satisfaction.

authenticated and proved, blasphemously im- causeth to err—there is an example of sin puted them to the agency of demons.' which is more seductive than sopbistry--but

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there is a third, and to many dispositions a yet genuine nor the certain reward of the righteous, certainly produced many who, in point of mili. more formidable mode of seduction, arising so neither is temporal adversity the constant tary talent, were and are quite his equals ; but from evil communication. It is the fear of requital of the ungodly. On the contrary, we it cannot, and perhaps never could, boast of ridicule, a fear so much engrafted on our have seen the wicked great in power, and Hou- one more beloved, not by his own personal nature, that many shrink with apprehension rishing like a green bay-tree; yet could we friends alone, but by every individual that from the laugh of scorners, who could refute have looked into his bosom at that moment of served under him. It would be affectation to their arguments, resist their example, and defy prosperity, how true we should have found deny that Sir John Moore, during his disas. their violence. There has never been an hour the words of the Psalmist! The sophistry trous retreat, issued many orders in the highest or an age in which this formidable weapon which he borrowed from the counsels of the degree painful to the feelings of honourable has been more actively employed against the ungodly, gives no assurance of happiness, and men, who felt that their conduct had not Christian faith than our own day. Wit and leads him to no solid or stable conclusion; the merited them. His warmest admirers have ridicule have formed the poignant sauce with wit with which the scorner taught him to acknowledged this, and his best friends have which infidels have seasoned their abstract gloss over his infidel opinions, has lost its lamented it; but,'in all probability, no one reasoning, and voluptuaries the swinish messes brilliancy_behind him there is remorse; before would have lamented it more heartily than of pollution which they have spread unblush- him there is doubt. While the godly is fast himself, had he lived to review, in a moment ingly before the public. It is a weapon moored on the Rock of Ages, he is in a stormy of calmness, the general conduct of this camsuited to the character of the apostate spirit sea, without a chart, without a compass, with paign: because there never lived a man poshimself, such as we conceive him to be

out a pilot. The perturbed reasoning, the sessed of a better heart, nor, in ordinary cases, loving nothing, honouring nothing, feeling secret fears, of such a one, make his thoughts of a clearer judgment. neither the enthusiasm of religion nor of indeed like the chaff which the wind drives to " The truth is, that Sir John Moore, with praise; but striving to debase all that is ex- and fro, being as worthless and profitless as many of the qualities requisite to constitute a cellent, and degrade all that is noble and praise- they are changeable and uncertain. A pe on, general, was deficient in that upon which, more worthy, by cold irony and contemptuous sneer. distinguished as much for his excesses at one perhaps than any other, success in war must ing. We are far from terming a harmless period of his life, as he was afterwards for his ever depend. He wanted confidence in himself gratification of a gay and lively spirit sinful or repentance, mentioned after his happy change, -he was afraid of responsibility-he undereven useless.

It bas been said, and perhaps that one day, when he was in the full career rated the qualities of his own troops, and with truth, that there are tempers which may of wit and gaiety, admired by the society of greatly over-rated those of his adversary: Yet be won to religion, by indulging them in their which he appeared the life, while all applauded let justice be done. He acted under circumnatural bent towards gaiety. But supposing it and most envied him, he could not forbear stances at once difficult and trying. He was true that a jest may sometimes hit him who groaning inwardly, and saying to himself, harassed by being made, in some degree, deflies a sermon, too surely there are a hundred

co that I were that dog !

pendent upon the opinions of others : whilst of cases for one where the sermon cannot remedy looking on one which chanced to be in the support from the authorities in the country, as the evil which a jest has produced. According apartment.* Such were the secret thoughts of well military as civil, he was from the first to our strangely varied faculties, our sense of one who had followed the counsel of the un- absolutely destitute.

Sir John Moore was, ridicule, although silent, remains in ambush, godly, walked in the way of sinners, and sat moreover, a brave and high-spirited soldier. and upon the watch during offices of the deepest in the seat of the scornful. Regretting the of this the most satisfactory proof was fursolemnity, and actions of the highest sublimity; past, sick of the present, fearing the future, nished, by his refusal to act upon a suggestion and if aught happens to call it into action, the having little hope beyond a gloomy wish for made to him by some of the oldest and most sense of the ludicrous becomes more resistless annihilation, he was willing to exchange all experienced generals in his army, and his defrom the previous contrast ; and the considera- the privileges and enjoyments of wit, under- clining to enter into any convention for the tions of decorum, which ought to restrain our standing, and intellectual superiority, for the quiet embarkation of his troops. He preferred mirth, prove like oil seethed upon the flame. mean faculties and irresponsible existence of the honour of his army to its safety; and by There is also an unhappy desire in our corrupt a beast that perishes. He must have been preserving the one, he provided for the other nature, to approve of audacity even in wicked- indeed like chaff tormented by the wind, ere

also.” ness, as men chiefly applaud those feats of he could have formed a wish at once so dread- Next year, the curtain again drew up on a agility which are performed at the risk of the ful and so degrading !”

new scenema wider and a better field offered artist's life. And such is the strength and

We have only room to say - Amen.

itself to the enterprise and skill of Sir Arthur frequency of this unhallowed temptation, that

Wellesley. His first great exploit was the there are perhaps but few, who have not at one time or other fallen into the snare, and

Narrative of the Peninsular War. By the

passage of the Douro, where, says the writer, laughed at that at which they ought to have

Marquess of Londonderry.

his bravery and excellent arrangements were

rewarded by a victory which would alone im. trembled. But, O my soul ! come not thou into

(Second notice.)

mortalise any other individual, had another their secret, nor yield thy part of the promised Pursuing the noble author's narrative, we been so fortunate as to obtain it. The evenblessing, for the poor gratification of sitting in find that in every encounter the superiority the seat of the scorner, and sharing in the un.

of the British cavalry was demonstrated, † and profitable mirth of fools, which is like the all was sealed by the battle of Corunna, where wheeled off to approach it by a different route it was crackling of thorns under a pot !" Sir John Moore fell; and his character is thus the enemy. The picket was instantly charged,

and all,

not long before his lordship's party fell in with a picket of “ If the righteousness of the just is drawn by the author :

except one mari, were either cut down or made prisoners. times followed by temporal prosperity, the “ Perhaps the British army has produced circumstances, as the escape of the whole;

for the alarm

But the escape of one was as injurious, under existing wickedness of the profane is yet more fre- some abler men than Sir John Moore ; it has was given, and, before the 15th could approach the place,

the enemy were ready to receive them. It was now broad quently attended by temporal punishment. • See Doddridge's Life of Colonel Gardiner.

daylight; and, as our troops drew near, the French were The cause of this is obvious: he that does not † " Whilst the columns of infantry were filing off in seen formed in what appeared to be an open plain, at no fear God, will not regard man. He that has

the direction of Toro and Benevente, the cavalry enjoyed great distance from the town. The 15th were wheeled

several opportunities of again trying its strength with that into line in a moment; and as there was no time to be disbelieved or defied the divine commandment, of the

enemy. In every instance the superiority of British lost, they followed their leader at a brisk trot, with the has only the fear of temporal punishment left soldiers was well asserted; and in a variety of skirmishes intention of charging; but when they were yet fifty yards to prevent him from invading the laws of nel, one major, with upwards of a hundred privates, and them, and that the French had availed themselves of society; and the effect of this last barrier must sixty horses. It was in truth a glorious spectacle to see other inequalities in the ground, of which, when some

A pause was now be strong or weak, in proportion to the strength with what perfect confidence of success the smallest patrol way off, they had not been aware. of passion and the greatness of temptation. selves in number ; and it was no less gratifying to find, again in motion. The regiment, wheeling to its left, soon And hence that frequent introduction to the that a mere numerical superiority

in no single instance found out a convenient spot for crossing; and though the history of great crimes, that the perpetrators Melgar Abaxo is distant about three leagues from Saha- were again in line and advancing to the charge, within began their course by disuse of public worship, gun, in which place a corps of seven

hundred French five minutes from the commencement of the check. breaking the Lord's day, and neglect of private aistance from the main body for the French army, it was strove to gain the lank of another, but they were only a devotion ; and thus opened the way for them- deemed practicable to cut them off, and Lord Paget de- few. selves to infamy and to execution. How many termined, at all events, to make the attempt. He accord-coming down at full speed upon their opponents, who in a higher class of society languish under ingly put himself at the head of the 19th and 15th hussars, stood to receive

the shock, they overthrew them in an diseases, which are the consequence of their avas civehea middle of a cold wintry night, when the ground instant. Many were killed upon the spot, many more own excesses; or suffer indigence and contempt, they had ridden about two-thirds of the way, Lord Paget soners, including two lieutenant-colonels. On this occathrough their own folly and extravagance! 10th, to pursue the course of the Cea, and to enter the men, whilst that of the French fell not short of seven

divided his force; and desiring General Slade, with the sion the English cavalry amounted only to four hundred But, as prosperity in this life is neither the town by that side, he himself, followed by the 15th, hundred.”

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