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Chronicles of the Canongates "By the Author I TA LX and other Poems.


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stood on the brink of.a precipice, and had a of the youth of them suffered cruel death, both | Isle of Guernsey. In the very same column, most difficult and delicate part to play. Before men, women, and children (which is to be Feb. 16, is the following entry: - Mertine we dismiss entirely the memorable year 1555, noted), were such as had never, by the sacri. Bucer and Paules Phageus bones digged up, we cannot avoid noticing a very extraordinary fice of baptism, or by confirmation, professed, and with their bookes burnt. Also Peter denunciation of what were denominated here- nor were ever taught or instructed, or ever Martyrs wives bones removed and in a dunghil tical books; and that by royal proclamation. had heard of any other kind of religion, but burnt.' Of Lord Burghley's disgust at the They were as follow : -- all the writings of only of that, which by their blood and death execution of so many persons in the last two Luther, Ecolampadius, Zuinglius, Calvin, in the fire they did as martyrs testify.'-And or three years of Mary's reign, we have some Pomeran, John A‘Lasco, Bullinger, Bucer, comparing those who suffered under Elizabeth, proofs, in the style he uses, in marking the Melancthon, Bernardinus, Ochine, Erasmus, with those who suffered under Mary, merely facts in his Journal: 1556, June. Three perSarcerius, Peter Martyr, Hugh Latimer, Ro- for religion, he very justly adds, and beside sons burnt at Stratford at one fire, and in the bert Barnes, Justin Jonas, Hooper, Coverdale, that, in their opinions, they differ much from compass of the yere were burnt above 80 perTyndal, Cranmer, William Turner, Theodore the martyrs of Queen Mary's time; for though sons, whereof many were maydens. 1537. In Basil, Frith, Roy ; add to these, Hall's Chro- they [i. é. Queen Mary's martyrs) continued this yere were burnt about London above 04, nicle, and the Communion Service of Edward in the profession of the religion wherein they whereof 20 were women. 1558. In June now VI.; and as there were then books of this were christened, yet they never at their death burning in Smythfeild seven at one fire. Anno character and description in all languages, they denied their lawful queen, nor maintained any 6 Mariæ, July, at Braynford six at one fire.' were denounced, whether in Latin, Dutch, of her open and foreign enemies, nor procured The Reformation having undergone a five English, Italian, or French, or coming from any rebellion or civil war, nor did sow any years' interruption by the accession of Mary, Zurich, Strasburg, Frankfort, Wezel, Embsedition in secret corners, nor withdraw any it is not to be wondered that the Romanists den, or Duisburgh."

subjects from their obedience, as those sworn should, in excuse of the troubles of this short Treating of the oft-controverted question, 80 servants of the pope have continually done.' reign, have indulged in comparisons between stanch argued by Roman Catholic and Pro. This is the testimony of Lord Burghley him- the Popish and Protestant severities, and should testant' writers, whether the persecutions of self, as to the things he had witnessed or known have often insisted in their books and writings, Mary or of Elizabeth were the most bloody, in Queen Mary's days, and it was well he was that the early reformers manifested, upon of

in the way to witness them, that he might be casion, as much intolerance, and as severe a “ As a matter of comparison between two able so justly and correctly to distinguish be- spirit of religious persecution, as is to be laid systems of religion, equally accused of in- tween the victims of popish bigotry, and those to the charge of their own party." tolerance and a spirit of persecution, it may who suffered by just process of law, under the Our author goes further into the evidence, not be amiss to introduce in this part of our next [Protestant] sovereign, for plots, treasons, and decides in favour of the reformed religion memoirs a very extraordinary report of Lord and conspiracies, and in no instance for re- but we are at the end of the discussion, and Burghley, which has been cited by a writer of ligion alone ; and even then in that great dis- can only again speak of the Life of Burghley great eminence and accuracy, as the testimony proportion of threescore in twenty-five years, as a work of the highest national interest, of an observing and honest man, thoroughly to three or four hundred in five. The followa acquainted with the matters of those times, ing may be exhibited as the total, according to and who lived in the middle of them.' It is Strype, of those who were actually burned for The Last of the Greeks; or, the Fall of Con. of the more importance to the readers of religion under Mary:

stantinople. A Tragedy. By Lord Mor. modern history, even at this very time, than

peth. 8vo. pp. 79. London, 1828. Ridg. we could ourselves have suspected, till we read

Total 288, besides those that

in the pages of an author often cited, and

dyed of famyne, &c. In
sondry prisong.

Ir is always pleasing to see men of rank and oftener than would have been the case, had

influence in the character of authors. Should he not written so well, the following excuse The particulars of the above are all set down in they do nothing else, they shew a love of liteof the rigours of Mary's reign : She practised the place referred to, viz. Strype’s Ecclesiasti. rature; and when their higher duties may only what the Protestants taught ; it was ra- cal Memorials, under Mary, vol. iii. part ii

. prevent them from indulging their tastes, it is ther her misfortune than her fault that she catalogue No. lxxxv. But this is by far the to be hoped, that they will never cease to was not more enlightened than the wisest of lowest calculation, according to Burnet, (vol. ii. remember what honours are still within their her contemporaries.'* After this, some com- part i. 658, 659,) who in another part cites power, as the friends and patrons of the literaparisons surely are even now necessary. Was Lord Burghley's estimate of near 400 sufferers, ture they have loved and cultivated. not, we would simply ask, her amiable brother, by imprisonment, torment, famine, and fire, The present drama is highly creditable to Edward VI., her contemporary, and did not adding, on this, says Strype, we may depend.' Lord Morpeth's talents. It is without exaghe endeavour, as much as possible, to en. There is a curious manuscript at Hatfield gerations, without strained effects, and perhaps lighten her ? But to return to Lord Burghley. House, which appears to have been presented to rather tame from the good taste which dictated In his celebrated treatise on the Execution of the first Earl of Salisbury, very fairly written this pure course. But if it want brilliancy for Justice, written in 1583, in vindication of by Francis Burton, stationer, and exceedingly the stage, it is not deficient in poetical feeling. Queen Elizabeth from the slanders of some circumstantial as to the names and condition The story, indeed, of the Last of the Palæologi most inalignant libels put forth by the popish of the sufferers, places of execution, &c., is not eminently susceptible of dramatic power : party, he gives the following account: To whence the following comparison is drawn. there are no loves, no treasons, no conspiracies, make the matter (against Queen Elizabeth] Those who died only for religion and a good no false friends, to involve the interest. A more horrible or lamentable, they recite the conscience,' in the less than six years of Queen brave and Christian sovereign defends his last particular names of all the persons put to Mary, amount to 278. The seminary priests post and falls: this is too slight a foundation death, which, by their own catalogue, exceed and Jesuits who suffered for treason, in the for more than a scene ; for the affection of not, for these twenty-five years or more, above full forty-four years and upwards of Queen Evanthe, the treachery of Giustiniani, and the the number of threescore; forgetting, or ra- Elizabeth's reign, 56. Those executed for attachment of other characters, are merely incither with their stony and senseless hearts not treason in the first six years of James, 6. dents which have little or no consequence upon regarding, in what cruel sort, in the time of Total in fifty years, 62. There follows an the catastrophe. Having thus nothing of drama Queen Mary, which little exceeded the space account by J. W., in which, though Burton to criticise, we shall sufficiently fulfil our duty of five years" (the queen majesty's reign being had detected many errors, the bead roll of those by presenting a few detached extracts from the five times as many), there were by imprison. who suffered under Elizabeth and James is composition before us. The prologue, after ment, torments, famine, and fire, of men, swelled to 143. But even this, deducted from alluding to the death of Byron in Greece, adds, women, maidens, and children, almost the 278, leaves a difference of 135 fewer in fifty with truth as well as poetry, number of four hundred; and of that number, than in six years. The sad circumstance to " But hark! another and a louder wait above twenty that had been archbishops, which Lord Burghley alludes, and which is,

O'er the far billow loads the western gale.

Land of the wise, the eloquent, the free, bishops, and principal prelates or officers in the we apprehend, past all doubt, of the new-born Weep for a stranger, worthy e'en of thee; church, lamentably destroyed ; and of women infant being thrown back into the fire, appears Whose lips drank deep of all thy springs; whose mind above threescore, and of children above forty; under the following entry: — * Katherine

Learned of thy lore to fascinate mankind;

Who loved thee in his boyhood's careless hour,
and amongst the women some great with child, Caweches, Guilian Gilbert, Peroline Massey, Who pitied in his high career of power,
out of whose bodies the child by fire was ex- and the said Massey's infant breaking vio-

Who would have saved-on thine Achaian shore, pelled alive, and yet also cruelly burnt. Ex. lently out of the mother's wombe into the

Moum, Freedom, moum--for Canning is no more." amples beyond all heathen cruelty: and most fire, was taken out thereof, and presently The

son of Thomais (an old woman) is slain • Lingardo

thrown in againe and burnt, July 18, in the lin a sally, and the rest is thus pathetically told:

1555 ........ 71

........ 89
1557 ........ 88
1558 -..... 40


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No. 588.




testant. This is rendered very obvious by his “ It might be very difficult to ascertain ex. Memoirs of the Life and Administration of the escape from trouble when his patron the Duke actly how Sir William contrived to keep so well Right Hon. William Cecil, Lord Burghley, of Somerset was brought to the scaffold ; a with all parties, as seems undoubtedly to have

The credit he obtained imme. Secretary of State in the Reign of Edward circumstance which has been urged against him been the case. VI., and Lord High Treasurer of England

as proving that he was a trimmer and false diately on the accession of Elizabeth, is suffici. in the Reign of Queen Elizabeth: contain adherent; but which Dr. Nares, with his natural ent proof of his having espoused her interests,

attachment to the hero of his story, warmly and yet we find him so well with the queen, ing an Historical View of the Times in which and vehemently denies. We are not sure that that though not admitted into office about the he lived, &c. &c. By the Rev. Edward he entirely exculpates Burghley on this point; court, he was one of the number who presented, Nares, D.D. Regius Professor of History in the University of Oxford. Vol. I. 4to.

and, indeed, during all his long life, it is very and received in return, the new year's gifts 80 Pp. 792. London, 1828. Saunders and Otley.

evident that this able statesman took very good common in those days. In the Memoirs of This elaborate and important work, in the care of himself.

Lord Burleigh, so often referred to, we have good old solid form of nearly eight hundred of the learned author towards his leading cha- Mary's reign, and the other towards the close.

We have alluded to the allowable partiality two accounts of him, one at the beginning of quarto pages, would, under any circumstances, preclude a just compass of criticism in a Review the general spirit in which the work is written, on good authority.Sir William Cecil entered

racter; and it may be as well here to mention We shall copy both, as they seem to be founded like ours. The multitude of great historical, which is honestly and candidly set forth in Dr. very early into negotiations with this princess biographical, religious, and political questions Nares's own words : which it embraces and discusses, would require

(Elizabeth), of which some whispers were research and limits equal to its own, in order

“ As to the author's own principles, a con- brought to the then reigning queen. But she to bring them fairly into notice and consider. sideration of some weight, in a work where had such a confidence in Sir William's loyalty,

controversial topics were in no manner to be that she refused to hear any accusations against ation; and they defy digestion and brevity: avoided, he is ready to declare that he has not him. There seems to have been a reason for But in addition to these difficulties, time presses sought to qualify himself for an historian in the this, which I do not find any of our historians upon us: even deliberately to peruse a pro- negative manner prescribed in a motto prefixed have mentioned. The queen was very desirous duction of such extent and magnitude, is a task to the Memoirs of Horace Walpole ; · Pour être that Cardinal Pool should come over into which requires both leisure and labour. Be bon historien, il ne faudroit étre d'aucune England as the pope's legate, and the pope these circumstances our apology for the very religion, d'aucune pais, d'aucune profession, accordingly sent him with that character; but imperfect view we can give of Dr. Nares's great d'aucune partie.' Believing such negations to be the emperor, having his son's match with the and valuable performance. The present is the first of the two volumes perhaps quite the contrary, he acknowledges, to his eminency's journey, till it was finished.

no securities against dangerous prejudices, but queen much at heart, procured a stop to be put into which the author has divided his publicar that he prides himself upon being an English- This delay was furthered by the practices of the two. For though it treats of the rise and man; an English Protestant; a Church of Gardiner and his creatures, who took much carly progress of the Reformation, from the be- England man; a Divine. And he is the more pains to represent Pool as a weak man,

and ginning of the 16th century to the death of ready to say so, that if he himself should be unfit to manage state affairs. Mary, Queen of England, and consequently

found to have written under the influence of however, among Queen Mary's council not a throws much light upon an era of almost un

too strong prejudices, the reader may not be few who desired to see more moderate meaparalleled national and universal importance, hastily betrayed into wrong conclusions. As a sures taken than were then in use; with these it does not enter upon that part of the life of sider himself as such, he sincerely hopes he they so far prevailed, that Lord Paget, Mr.

controversialist, if necessarily obliged to con- Sir William associated himself, and at last Lord Burghley in which his character was most shall be acquitted of all uncharitable senti. Hastings, and Sir William Cecil, were sent to nating; and therefore it does not present us ments; he has, as fairly as he could, sought bring over the cardinal ; which accordingly with that mass of new information drawn from only to combat misrepresentations by counter- they did on the 23d of November, 1554. This family archives and private papers, which we discoveries' of truth, and to defend his own set in the same light; but it is well to notice it

statements; to set aside false imputations by transaction has been before related, and partly look for when the reign of Elizabeth is brought principles against those of others, by a com- again on two accounts; first,

that it gives Sir upon the tapis. Still, however, there is much to recommend this volume - -a needful founda-parison and appreciation of fruits and conse- William the full credit of being, as early as

he could shew himself in the reign of Mary, of tion for what is to come to the attention of the quences.” public, as it not only deriveș value from the

This explicit and manly exposition must not the moderate party; and secondly, that the diligent inquiries of the author, but from only disarm any criticism of virulence, but will bringing in Cardinal Pole was actually a plan his having consulted the immense multitude of serve as a true key to the writer's sentiments. of the moderates, to obviate greater evils. We Burghley and other manuscripts, which his To us he appears to have fully and fairly ad- shall now

pass to the second

paragraph. After undertaking demanded for its adequate exe- found in his vast work, we are sure they will ment of 1555, as before related; , it says,

hered to his promise; and if errors are to be noticing Sir William's conduct in the parlia. cution. Cecil's youth, during the latter years of not be found to be errors of wilful misrepre-Throughout

the remaining part of this reign

Sir William was passive in respect to the ad. Henry VIII., kept him from being very promi- sentation, perversion, or concealment. nent in the dangerous politics of that day ; nor volume is composed, it has no pretensions to interests of the Lady Elizabeth, whose cause

he With regard to the style in which this ministration, though active in regard to the secretary to Edward VI. That he was friendly high polish or elegance; but it is, on the con- espoused, and whose councils he directed. Sir to the Reformation throughout, affords a suť. trary, very plain and unaffected, with something John Cheke, his near relation, in his exhort. ficient reason for his being no favourite with the best of all possible

qualities, that of clearly to have felt an apprehension that he was in

of antiquated signs upon it, though it possesses atory letter, still extant, has been supposed Mary; though it seems that his moderation and perspicuously expressing the sunse of the danger of complying

too far. But this does in the fatal conten tions of Romanist and Pro-author, and putting his facts and arguments not actually appear from his letter. Indeed, he

lucidly before the reader. Having said so seems rather to place a confidence in Sir Wil. In his preface, Dr. Nares tells, that "he found he much, now only remains for us to give an liam, that he would disappoint his fears. The had done but little, when he had carefully read and ex- extract or two as specimens of the publication. letter is to us, we confess, an extremely obscure thousand closely printed pages for the second volume Speaking of the close of Mary's reign, it is one; but, at all events, expresses in one partislane."

cular a very clear conviction that Sir William

There were,

stated in

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article of this kind, being a foreigner, noble, warm and languid sort of penchant for Mr. some of the above friends, with a cold blooded
sad, (an odd recommendation to a French- Piers. Attachment, however, was undertaken, and polite dismissal from the affection of the
woman, at least according to our old ideas if one may so say, by both on calculation; by lady, signed by her own hand, reduced him
of them— but so it was,) sentimental, sar. Piers to fill the void in his heart, by the lady again to apathy and ennui. The sketch of this
castic. And be it said, that for some years to fill the void in her time,—so that it pro- liaison would be too absurd for fiction, yet it
subsequent to the peace, a young Englishman mised little durability, and little interest, is drawn from the life. Piers drove off, in not
of breeding somewhat outshone the youths moreover, in reciting. If pleasure, however, very bad spirits, for the baths of Mont d'Or
who filled a similar rank in France. There is not always to be drawn from the repre- in Auvergne.”
were two classes of these French gallants, and sentation of simple truth, something better As a painter of national character, this author
it would be difficult to determine which was may. Calculation and prudence are scarcely is not only agreeable but admirable ; as we
most gauche. There were, first, the pure better managers of love affairs than vulgar could instance many sketches to prove. But
aristocratic brood, that had been nurtured close instinct. So at least the pair of would-be we have done enough to point public attention
in the palaces of the Fauxbourg St. Germain : lovers felt, reflecting after a time, that, if to his work, which will be found to possess this
few of them had breathed the pure air either the heart was given to mislead, the head was excellence; though the writer is too diffuse, and
of heaven or of life, having been tied, from sometimes no less so. The Baronne loved tran- does not perhaps individualise enough, for a
the age of four to that of twenty-four, to their quillity and calm of mind. She would have at story-teller.
maman's apron-string, never allowed to stir least folded Cupid's wings, if she would not
abroad, lest they should catch the epidemic of have cut them, and probably converted the Narrative of the Peninsular War, from 1808
revolutionary ideas. Many, notwithstanding, little god into a soft pillow for repose. to 1813. By Lieut.-Gen. C. W. Vane, Mar-
had scampered off to fill the ranks of the Now Mr. Piers wanted excitement; and the quess of Londonderry, G.C.B. G.C.H. Colo-
imperial armies; and these formed a mixed deity was to him a vulgar cherub, without nel of the 10th Royal Hussars. 4to. pp. 684.
and neutral race. Those, however, whom his weapons, his quarrels, his agitations, his London, 1828. Colburn.
neither the conscription nor their own spirit paroxysms both of pleasure and of pain. He, We last week introduced to our readers the
had emancipated, were truly the queerest of had he been a poet, would have sung his Cupid commencement of Col. Napier's historical work
beings, with all those gentle, douce, and as a fury, clothed in love's attributes and on the War of the Peninsula, which has been
doucereur manners of the old people of the beauty. Hymen, in short, had he been em- rapidly followed in publication by an episode of
old school; yet infantine in their ways, their ployed on this occasion, could not have brought the same glorious war, from the observation of
ideas, and their jests. They paid compliments, together a more ill-assorted pair. When hos- another gallant officer, also an eye-witness and
wore a kind of demi-ruffles, and were only tile influences come in contact, the disturbing conspicuous actor in the grand drama of this
rescued from being utter nonentities by their power is always more powerful than the lulling. immortal contest. Without going so profoundly
national vivacity. "The second class were the Hence Piers had more effect in breaking the into general causes and effects, or taking such
heroes and Bonapartists, those ennobled by Baronne's tranquillity, than her impassibility broad political or philosophical views of the
their exploits and red ribands, and in many could have in calming him. Never was one period, as his precursor, Lord Londonderry
instances claiming alliance with the first (by so craving in the way of sentiment as he. De- speaks with a soldier's skill of what he saw and
means of a De if possible), whom they at the voured by anguish for the slightest cause, or heard, and with a brave man's modesty of what
same time affected to despise. With these believing himself so, he accused his mistress he did in this struggle. Indeed his personal
gentry, certain formulæ of politeness were of a total want of affection, because she did experience, combined with his military details,
joined with the rude manners and brusque not share in his griefs. She was unreasonable must render his book a great favourite with
tone of the camp. 'Twas like the embroidery enough to demand a cause, ere she could do military readersand though we do not think
on their ill-cut habits, making bad taste and so; and he declared her to want that pene- so highly of those portions of it which are occu.
deformity more conspicuous. To rivals as to tration which feeling gives. Such, however, pied with a preliminary essay on the state of
enemies 'these were certainly formidable an- was the influence which their friendship or affairs previous to the breaking out of hostili.
tagonists. But they sadly wanted polish or affection in the first instance gave him over ties, and with interspersed reflections on points
refinement. They were fine gallant fellows; her, and which his exaggerated passions and where the author was not immediately con.
but then there were a multitude of them all modes of expression increased, that the poor cerned, we are not disposed to deny even to
the same. The ideal as well as the real of lady did actually endeavour to be impassioned those portions the merit of able writing and
such heroes was common-place. Amongst these, as himself. She gave in to his caprices, and impartiality. On the contrary, it is a striking
a Briton's character offered all the charms of affected the femme aur sentimens. The at-corroboration of the truth of both productions,
variety; his refinement in all things, from tempt, however, was difficult to one who had to see how closely the “ radical" and the aris-
the minutiæ of every-day life to even his taste never met but with good fortune. Her years tocratic tory agree in their opinions and state-
and imagination, his real sentiment and af. had been a series of blessings,-she had been ments, wherever they treat of the same matters.
fected apathy, his almost oriental gravity and born rich, tenderly nurtured, highly married, With regard to the style, as his lordship, in an
gentleness united, and lastly the impossibility young a widow, endowed with beauty. The unassuming preface, alludes to the friend who
of unheroizing his character by entering upon thing was impracticable. And as a lady of put his materials into literary shape, it can be
the trifling topics which absorb the said Bri- her acquaintance observed, although she had no betrayal of secrecy to mention the name of
ton's interest, maugre his gravity and under. found a Léonce, there was not stuff either Mr. Gleig, the popular author of the New Or.
standing, at home. To a French belle it would in her character or life to make a Delphine. leans Campaign, and of the Subaltern, as the
be idle to talk Bond-street or secret biography, The consequence was, the lady lost her em-noble lord's coadjutor in this respect; and
make a digression to Newmarket or Tatter- bonpoint. Her character as a woman of sense thence to express no surprise at its being well
sall's, or even to utter a Pæan over so many suffered somewhat_but what of that? She and forcibly executed.
head of game bagged in a season, and counted was one of those whose beauty depends upon The volume sets out with a coup d'æil, of
as scrupulously, on the same principle like fulness of person and feature ; and on this about a hundred pages, descriptive of the state
wise, as an Indian doth his scalps. All this account the diminution of her person alarmed of affairs in France, Spain, and Portugal, before
precious puerility, that fills the beads and a host of friends, whom a diminution of her the appearance of the British army in the latter
mouths of the class self-denominated the better character would have slightly affected. They country. Over this we shall slightly pass, as
sort in England, was foreign even at Paris. interfered, expostulated. She wept, the first offering little of novelty to the reader. Lord
Each possessor, however rich in such specie, tears they had ever seen from her, and ex. L. notices—what we hope has passed away,
felt it would not pass. Many had no other; postulated in her turn. She vowed she loved, even since his ink was wet-" the rancorous
and the lively beau felt his nattling powers of and preferred her affections to her beauty. jealousy which our enemies—those, at least,
conversation benumbed in French air. Thus They replied, that her beauty was of a kind who were our enemies--still entertain towards
did we preserve somewhat of our ancient cha- which could not afford to be sentimental at us:" — but speaks with just reprobation of
racter of a 'most thinking people.' With the price of being thin. Moreover, they as- Buonaparte's unprincipled conduct towards the
such as Piers, however, this embargo put sured her that she was very ill; whereupon weak and vicious rulers of Spain, as well as of
upon nonsense, forcing them to produce their the Baronne believing, took to her bed. The the atrocious invasion of Portugal under Junot,
sense, had a most beneficial effect, and, by despairing Piers flew to her hotel ; but the where, with the proclamations of friends and
un-Englishing them, made them men of the porter had been made secure in his faith, and protectors, the actions of fiends and destroyers
world and men of taste. This is certainly the lover was denied admittance. This to were horribly exemplified. We have never
somewhat of a digression, in order to account him was the happiest point in his wooing ; seen it remarked, but it has often occurred to
for the very simple circumstances of the fair inasmuch as it excited him, and put him in us, that much of the thirst for blood in the
Baronue's having entertained a very luke. la passion. However, a cold-blooded visit from French Revolution, and much of a similar disa

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