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The house exist in its original state? foundations still to a large extent can be traced, and materials from it can be seen in the neighbouring walls and cottages. W. P. D. S.

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"LADY CHARLOTTE GORDON."-What was the real name of the author who wrote The Mysteries of the Court of Denmark'

in 1863 ?

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J. M. BULLOCH.

This is given in the American Century Dictionary' as a name for "a small glass tube containing sulphuric acid, and surrounded by an inflammable mixture which it ignited on being pressed; formerly used for affording a ready light.' Can any reader of N. & Q. give information about this device, or refer to any book in which it is described or spoken of?

1849, to Theophilus Thompson, eldest son of Thomas Thompson, of Poundisford Park, Pitminster, Somerset. The Major's second daughter Eliza Ann died at Edinburgh unmarried, 30 Nov., 1862. Capt. James Snodgrass, Neil's third son, died at Tabriz, Persia, in October, 1814. The date of the marriage of Christina Snodgrass to Lieut.Col. Reid was 21 July, 1806.

2. So far as I know, no account has been

given of the Snodgrass family of Paisley. John Snodgrass, Sheriff-Clerk of Renfrewshire, died 24 May, 1785. How Snodgrass, W.S., died at Newton, near Paisley, 31 April, 1807. Neil Snodgrass, late of Paisley, died in Jamaica, 14 May, 1818. I suspect that this was

the cotton manufacturer of this name who on 24 July, 1807, married at Johnstone, Agnes, e.dau. of Mr. Robert How Snodgrass of Hodgart, merchant. J. A. H. MURRAY. Morant Bay died at Port Royal, Jamaica, Lieut. Wm. Snodgrass, 24 Oct., 1819. Lieut. late of the 24th Regiment of Foot, died at Govan, 4. Dec., 1820. John Snodgrass, W.S., died at Paisley, 7 March, 1822.

Replies.

SNODGRASS AS A SURNAME.

(10 S. ix. 427.)

IT is surprising that there should have been any doubt as to Snodgrass being a real name, as people bearing it are still to be found in Glasgow, Paisley, and other parts of Scotland.

1. An account of the Snodgrass family of Cunninghamehead is given in Paterson's History of the Counties of Ayr and Wigtown,' iii. 209-10, which I will not repeat more than is necessary for the purpose of adding dates, &c. John, the first Snodgrass owner of Cunninghamehead, and builder of the house there, died 20 Oct., 1771. The eldest son Neil died 6 Oct., 1821, aged 81, his wife Marian having predeceased him 13 March, 1818. The second son William died at Irvine, 2 Nov., 1824, aged 83. The youngest son John became a lieutenant in the 82nd Regiment, 19 Dec., 1778, and was drowned at sea soon afterwards.

Neil Snodgrass of Cunninghamehead had His eldest three sons and three daughters. son David took the name of Buchanan. His second son John was a major in the H.E.I.C.S. The Major's only son William James married 18 Sept., 1845, at Dalchully House, Inverness-shire, Isabella Newman, dau. of Henry Bousfield, Esq., late surgeon Bengal N.I. The Major's eldest daughter Marion Elphinstone Coates was married at St. George's, Bloomsbury, 13 Sept.,

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The Rev. John Snodgrass, D.D., & Presbyterian minister of Paisley, married Janet, eldest sister of General Sir Kenneth Mackenzie Douglas (a lady ignored by Burke), and died at Saltcoats, 19 June, 1797. She died at Eagleton, Williams' River, N.S.W., 30 July, 1852, aged 90. Their son Kenneth is the leader of a Portuguese regiment mentioned at 9 S. x. 72. There is no evidence to connect him with Gabriel Snodgrass, the shipbuilder of Chatham, or with an earlier Gabriel Snodgrass who was principal surveyor to the H.E.I.C. in the middle of the Major Kenneth Snodeighteenth century. grass was in command of the 1st Battalion of the 13th Portuguese Regiment at the siege of San Sebastian, and was slightly wounded on 17 July, 1813, when the fortified convent of San Bartolomé and an adjoining work taken on a steep hill were carried by assault. On 31 Aug. the town itself was after some very hard fighting. Sir Thomas Graham wrote:

"The advance of the 1st Batt. 13th Reg. under Major Snodgrass, over the open beach and across the river......was made in the handsomest style under Major Snodgrass a very severe fire of grape. attacked and finally carried the small breach on the right of the great one.'

The Duke of Wellington also wrote :

"All reports concur in praise of the detachment from the 10th Portuguese Brigade under Major Snodgrass, which crossed the river Urumea, and stormed the breach on the right under all the fire which could be directed on them from the castle and town."

For this he was made Lieutenant-Colonel, was a benefactor and member of committee and given the command of the 1st Caçadores. of the Hospital. His name is inscribed He was slightly wounded 11 Dec., 1813, on the clock. I understand he resided in and severely wounded in attacking the Chesterfield Street, Mayfair, and died about heights above Orthes. He was made C.B. 1834. The Secretary of the Hospital wrote 4 June, 1815, and died on the Hunter River, to me some time ago, asking if I could give N.S.W., 14 Oct., 1853. him any information about this Thomas Snodgrass; but I could not, nor have I been able to trace any of his connexions. If any of your readers can supply me with information about him, I shall be much obliged.

His son John was born in Portugal in May, 1815. He became Major of the 96th Regiment 15 June, 1815. He married 23 Feb., 1843, at St. Luke's, Chelsea, Rachel, only dau. of his great-uncle Sir K. M. Douglas, and died at the Curragh, 27 Jan., 1856. She died 15 Jan., 1877.

Kenneth John Mackenzie Snodgrass, son of Peter Snodgrass, M.L.A. of Melbourne, was probably related to this family. He became a Winchester Commoner in the autumn of 1858. Is anything further known of him?

I have in my possession the last will and testament of a William Snodgrass of the parish of Christchurch, London, dated 5 Feb., 1775, who appears to have had two brothers, James and John; but whether they were relations of Thomas Snodgrass or not I do not know. I should also like to have some information about Gabriel Snodgrass, shipbuilder of Chatham, mentioned in 'N. & Q.' of 26 July, 1902.

3. John James Snodgrass, captain 91st Foot, received the brevet ranks of major and lieutenant-colonel on 13 Nov., 1826, The name Snodgrass has been fairly and 28 Dec., 1826, respectively. He became common in Renfrewshire for four hundred major 94th Foot, 3 Aug., 1830; lieutenant-years, as the local records show. The Rencolonel unattached, 28 June, 1833; and frewshire Poll Tax Roll of 1695 gives 36 D.Q.M.G. to the troops in Nova Scotia and persons of the name. An Adam Snodgrass its dependencies, 12 Sept., 1834. He married was one of the Friars Preachers and a Baillie 3 Nov., 1823, Maria Macdonald, e.dau. of of Ayr in 1372. W. G. SNODGRASS. General Sir Archibald Campbell, Bt., G.C.B. Riversdale, Kilmacolm, Renfrewshire. Their son Archibald Campbell Snodgrass was born at Government House, Fredericton, New Brunswick, in the spring of 1832. He became captain 38th Regiment 29 Dec., 1854, and major 17 July, 1855, having acted as A.D.C. to his uncle Major-General Sir John Campbell, Bt., at the unsuccessful attack on the Redan, 18 June, 1855. He died at Milbank, near Southampton, 26 Nov., 1863.

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fiction some time before the publication of This name had appeared in well-known 'Pickwick,' for the Rev. Charles Snodgrass figures frequently in The Ayrshire Legatees, published anonymously in 1821 by

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John Galt.

uncommon.

NEL MEZZO.

Perhaps this name was, or is, not so vastly There was certainly a cadet at the R.M. Academy, Woolwich, in 1861-2, bearing that patronymic. H. P. L.

Exeter's Finance Clerk is Mr. Sidney Herbert Snodgrass; and a cousin of my own, resident in Brighton, bears the same HARRY HEMS.

surname.

Fair Park, Exeter.

THE TREATY OF TILSIT: COLIN A MACKENZIE (10 S. viii. 469, 510; ix. 31, 96, 135, 154, 171, 237).—The writer of a very able article in The Quarterly Review on Recent Napoleonic Literature' (April, 1908, see p. 425 to p. 431) refers to the British Agent at Tilsit, and remarks that the subject has "called forth a spirited controversy in Notes and Queries," and he points out that the statement of Dr. Rose and of a correspondent in 'N. & Q.' that

Mackenzie left Tilsit or Memel on 26 June There is a well-known tale (in Aikin's

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for London with Leveson-Gower's dispatch is incorrect. The writer in The Quarterly Review further points out that although the correspondent referred to and Dr. Rose differ as to the date of Mackenzie's arrival in London, they approximately agree as to the date of his departure. "We venture to think," says the writer, they are both wrong as to when he (Mackenzie) started." He then gives his reason for this opinion, which I think it is desirable to record in N. & Q' as completing the controversy. In the Stafford House Letters,' edited by Lord Ronald Gower, there is a letter written from " Memel on July 3rd, 1807," by Lord Gower to his mother, which concludes as follows:

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Heeper, peeper, chimney-sweeper,
Had a wife and couldn't keep her.
Had another, couldn't love her,
O-U-T spells "out."

Y. T.

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Evenings at Home,' I think it is) of an idle boy and a lazy boy. The former will not do the work set him, but will do everything else that comes to hand, good, bad, or indifferent. The latter simply does nothing. The active mental condition of the former will, indeed, inevitably lead, sooner or later, to some mischievous diversion, unless the mind is constantly engaged so that in more profitable employment; the terms may be considered virtually synonymous, or at least inseparable. This sequence is well illustrated by Dr. Watts's well-known lines:

For Satan finds some mischief still
For idle hands to do.

8, Royal Avenue, S.W.

J. FOSTER PALMER.

May not Dr. Watts's lines be accountable URLLAD. for the difference?

ARCHBISHOP SANDS (10 S. ix. 289, 357).— Mr. H. S. Cowper, F.S.A., the historian of Hawkshead, Lancashire, writes:

"And but a few days ago we found it stated in a new edition of Black's Guide' that Archbishop Sandys was born here. He was, however, born at Esthwaite Hall."-"Hawkshead, its History,' &c., 1899, p. 23, foot-note.

Hawkshead Hall and Esthwaite Hall are quite a mile apart. This is mentioned lest the former be taken as, say, the centre of S. L. PETTY. a village, which it is not.

In the north transept of Southwell Minster is an alabaster effigy of Edwin Sandys, Archbishop of York. The effigy is of interest as it represents the Archbishop vested in alb and chasuble, although the date of his death is July, 1588, thirty years after Queen Elizabeth's accession. Nottinghamshire, in which Southwell is situated, formed part of the diocese of York from the seventh century to 1840 ('Southwell Minster,' pamphlet, 6 pp., Chesterfield: Edmunds, reprint from Derbyshire Times of 12 Jan.,

1884).

About twenty years since, when I visited Southwell Minster, the effigy was in the position above described. H. T. POLLARD.

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"HER'S (10 S. ix. 406).-I have remarked with surprise that in 'The Pocket “IDLE"=MISCHIEVOUS (10 S. ix. 350). Service-Book,' printed at the University -Had it not always this meaning, to a Press, Oxford, "her's' is so rendered greater or less extent ? Idle certainly in the Lectionary (see Job xxxix. 16), and lazy." One that your's disfigures many a page; others a passive. we have, e.g., "my spirit and your's

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does not mean the same as is an active quality, the

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DUNGHILL PROVERB (10 S. ix. 227, 413) -Some twenty-seven years ago dunghills were commonly to be seen in front of the houses in the streets of the villages round Morat in Switzerland. At times they were neatly, almost artistically arranged, and my impression is that a plaitwork of braided straw formed a border to them in such cases; but frequently they were mere "muckheaps."

In the kingdom of Württemberg I also observed dunghills before the doors in parishes near Tübingen.

only say that they were very inferior etchers, spoiling all the fine work of the paper drawing by their inexpert and clumsy etching. This I judge by the print would not only be from the biting in, but the want of skill in drawing on the metal, which before 1840 was always copper. After about that date or 1850 it was nearly always zinc. I am referring to the prints for the juvenile drama.

wood engraving came in the artists did not There is no doubt, I believe, that when wood. Is there a book in which these engrave the drawings they made on the matters are discussed ? Jameson published hundreds of juvenile theatre prints, and on stated. I will quote the following inscripsome the names of artist and etcher are tion on one in full, as it has other interest :

"Theatrical characters No 3.-Mr. Laurent as Rolla in the celebrated spectacle of Cora, as performed at The Royal Circus. Founded on the first part of Kotzebue's Death of Rolla, recently performed under the title of Pizarro, published by J. H. Jameson, 13, Dukes Court, Bow Street,

Covent Garden."

There is no date, but the water-mark is 1816. It is drawn by J. F. Roberts, and etched by C. Tomkins.

Probably most English villages were in a similar condition early in the nineteenth century. A lady who was born in 1823 once told me that dunghills used to lie "all along the way through a certain village when she first remembered it. But she At the Truman sale of prints at Sotheby's did not speak of the place as in any way Jameson's theatrical portraits for eleven Mr. Sabin bought for stock about twenty of exceptional; others were as bad.

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M. P.

"Where
muck

""

So

spoon

guineas; they had notes by George Cruik-
shank stating whether or no he was the
artist.
RALPH THOMAS.

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With reference to the saying, there's muck there's money, does not, of necessity, mean manure. long as I can remember, it has in the West "MAKING BUTTONS (10 S. ix. 467).—This Riding of Yorkshire generally meant dirt. phrase occurs in Middleton's 'The Spanish The expression is often used as a sort of Gipsy' (Act IV. sc. iii.), where Sancho philosophical retort in Sheffield, when attenexclaims, 'O Soto, I make buttons! tion is drawn, by a visitor, to a particularly meaning, apparently, "I am in a dreadful dirty-looking manufactory-where " funk." Halliwell, in his Dictionary of buffing" is carried on, for instance. What and Provincial Words,' quotes Archaic a dreadful place! the stranger may ob- from Florio, ed. 1611, pp. 209, 276, his Such a remark meets with an instant tail makes buttons, i.e., he is in great fear. response, which, rendered in the recognized dialect of the district, reads: "Ah, my lad, but tha' knows where there's muck there's money!" This, of course, implies that although the particular trade may be a dirty one, it is a money-making one.

serve.

Fair Park, Exeter.

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HARRY HEMS.

W. HEATH, ARTIST (10 S. ix. 385, 473).I am glad to see MR. HERBERT CLAYTON'S note about the Heaths, a family of artists. I only wish he could have given a few more details and dates.

If what he says is correct that most of the early artists were etchers, then I can

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BLADUD.

GUIDE," ITS DERIVATION (10 S. ix. 171, 494). Surely we are entitled to some better explanation of guide than the statement that it is from the " German weisen, to show." How did the German 8 pass into d? The H.E.D.' (or 'N.E.D.') gives the correct solution. The E. guide is merely borrowed from the French guider; and the French guider begins with a gu, which regularly represents a Teutonic w. Guider represents a derivative from a Teutonic base wit-, which is preserved with sufficient clearness in the Old Saxon verb witan, to pay heed to.

66 The idea of seeing to "

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led to that of "to watch over, to direct,
to guide." The Middle-English witen had
a similar sense, as in the Ancren Riwle,
p. 14:
"The vif wittes, thet witeth the
heorte alse wakemen,' the five senses,
which watch over the heart like watchmen.
The allusion to the German weisen must,
of course, be taken to mean that this German
word is a more deflected form, ultimately
deducible from the same Indo-Germanic
root *weid.

The question asked at p. 171 was quite different, viz., Is the E. guide derived from a word spelt akid, presumably Arabic, as is calmly asserted in a translation of the Moallakat ? Of course not; but you can never cure an Englishman who is staggered by an accidental resemblance between an English and Eastern word of rushing, blindly enough, to a rash conclusion.

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WALTER W. SKEAT.

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HOVE (10 S. ix. 450).-Hove is a parish of equal antiquity with Brighton, being mentioned in Domesday Book as Hov, and deriving from a Saxon word meaning low-lying.' The name Cliftonville was coined by the builders in the fifties for a few new streets to the east of the old village of Hove, but well within the parish boundaries. So to talk about the Cliftonville end of Brighton being called Hove" is absurd. The old name disappeared for all but parochial purposes from the fifties to the eighties, West Brighton coming into favour, but was restored when incorporation came, the Post Office and railway company joining hands with the municipality to give the new borough a separate existence from Brighton in name as well as fact. I thought and hoped the objectionable Cliftonville PERCEVAL LUCAS.

was obsolete.

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A. C. T. asks for "information as to how the Cliftonville end of Brighton came to be called Hove.' A more pertinent inquiry would have been how a portion of the parish of Hove came to be called Cliftonville. Hove was a manor at the time of the Conquest, and has been a parish, at any rate, since the beginning of the thirteenth century, and probably before, whereas Cliftonville is a modern monstrosity in nomenclature. If what A. C. T. wants is an account of the origin of the modern borough of Hove, perhaps the following facts may be of service to him. In 1830 the east portion of the parish of Hove, adjoining Brighton, having been built over, was placed under the "The government of a new body called

Brunswick Square and Terrace Commis-
In 1858 Hove village, having
sioners."
begun to grow, was placed under a body
called "The West Hove Commissioners.
In 1874 the two bodies were amalgamated
Their
to form "The Hove Commissioners.'
jurisdiction was extended to the adjoining
parish of Aldrington 26 Sept., 1893. In
abolished
1894 the Commissioners were
and an Urban District Council formed.
The town continued to be governed under
the Local Government Board till 1898, when
it was incorporated by Royal Charter dated
8 August, and is now governed by a mayor,
ten aldermen, and thirty councillors. The
population of the borough of Hove in 1904
JOHN B. WAINEWRIGHT.
was 39,305.

This place derives its name from the fact of its having first constituted the endowment of Hova Ecclesia and Hova Villa, two prebends in the cathedral church of ChichesJ. HOLDEN MACMICHAEL. ter.

MAGHULL YATES (10 S. ix. 469).—It is not improbable that the Stipendiary Magistrate for the Manchester County Division, J. M. Yates, Esq., K.C., might be able to MISTLETOE. supply ALTER EGO with the information

he seeks.

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