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IT is surprising that there should have been any doubt as to Snodgrass being a real name, as people bearing it are still to be found in Glasgow, Paisley, and other parts of Scotland.

1. An account of the Snodgrass family of Cunninghamehead is given in Paterson's History of the Counties of Ayr and Wigtown,' iii. 209-10, which I will not repeat more than is necessary for the purpose of adding dates, &c. John, the first Snodgrass owner of Cunninghamehead, and builder of the house there, died 20 Oct., 1771. The eldest son Neil died 6 Oct., 1821, aged 81, his wife Marian having predeceased him 13 March, 1818. The second son William died at Irvine, 2 Nov., 1824, aged 83. The youngest son John became a lieutenant in the 82nd Regiment, 19 Dec., 1778, and was drowned at sea soon afterwards.

Neil Snodgrass of Cunninghamehead had three sons and three daughters. His eldest son David took the name of Buchanan. His second son John was a major in the H.E.I.C.S. The Major's only son William James married 18 Sept., 1845, at Dalchully House, Inverness-shire, Isabella Newman, dau. of Henry Bousfield, Esq., late surgeon Bengal N.I. The Major's eldest daughter Marion Elphinstone Coates was married at St. George's, Bloomsbury, 13 Sept.,

1849, to Theophilus Thompson, eldest son of Thomas Thompson, of Poundisford Park, Pitminster, Somerset. The Major's second daughter Eliza Ann died at Edinburgh unmarried, 30 Nov., 1862. Capt. James Persia, in October, 1814. Snodgrass, Neil's third son, died at Tabriz, The date of the Col. Reid was 21 July, 1806. marriage of Christina Snodgrass to Lieut.

2. So far as I know, no account has been given of the Snodgrass family of Paisley. John Snodgrass, Sheriff-Clerk of Renfrewshire, died 24 May, 1785. Hew Snodgrass, W.S., died at Newton, near Paisley, 31 April, 1807. Neil Snodgrass, late of Paisley, died in Jamaica, 14 May, 1818. I suspect that this was the cotton manufacturer of this name who on 24 July, 1807, married at Johnstone, Agnes, e.dau. of Mr. Robert Hodgart, merchant. How Snodgrass of Morant Bay died at Port Royal, Jamaica, 24 Oct., 1819. Lieut. Wm. Snodgrass, late of the 24th Regiment of Foot, died at Govan, 4. Dec., 1820. John Snodgrass, W.S., died at Paisley, 7 March, 1822.

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The Rev. John Snodgrass, D.D., & Presbyterian minister of Paisley, married Janet, eldest sister of General Sir Kenneth Mackenzie Douglas (a lady ignored by Burke), and died at Saltcoats, 19 June, 1797. She died at Eagleton, Williams' River, N.S.W., 30 July, 1852, aged 90. Their son Kenneth is the leader of a Portuguese regiment mentioned at 9 S. x. 72. There is no evidence to connect him with Gabriel Snodgrass, the shipbuilder of Chatham, or with an earlier Gabriel Snodgrass who was principal surveyor to the H.E.I.C. in the middle of the eighteenth century. Major Kenneth Snodgrass was in command of the 1st Battalion of the 13th Portuguese Regiment at the siege of San Sebastian, and was slightly wounded on 17 July, 1813, when the fortified convent of San Bartolomé and an adjoining work on a steep hill were carried by assault. On 31 Aug. the town itself was taken after some very hard fighting. Sir Thomas Graham wrote:

"The advance of the 1st Batt. 13th Reg. under Major Snodgrass, over the open beach and across the river......was made in the handsomest style under a very severe fire of grape. Major Snodgrass attacked and finally carried the small breach on the right of the great one.'

The Duke of Wellington also wrote:

"All reports concur in praise of the detachment from the 10th Portuguese Brigade under Major Snodgrass, which crossed the river Urumea, and which could be directed on them from the castle stormed the breach on the right under all the fire and town."

For this he was made Lieutenant-Colonel, was a benefactor and member of committee and given the command of the 1st Caçadores. of the Hospital. His name is inscribed He was slightly wounded 11 Dec., 1813, on the clock. I understand he resided in and severely wounded in attacking the Chesterfield Street, Mayfair, and died about heights above Orthes. He was made C.B. 1834. The Secretary of the Hospital wrote 4 June, 1815, and died on the Hunter River, to me some time ago, asking if I could give N.S.W., 14 Oct., 1853. information about this Thomas Snodgrass; but I could not, nor have I been able to trace any of his connexions. If any of your readers can supply me with information about him, I shall be much obliged.

His son John was born in Portugal in May, 1815. He became Major of the 96th Regiment 15 June, 1815. He married 23 Feb., 1843, at St. Luke's, Chelsea, Rachel, only dau. of his great-uncle Sir K. M. Douglas, and died at the Curragh, 27 Jan., 1856. She died 15 Jan., 1877.

Kenneth John Mackenzie Snodgrass, son of Peter Snodgrass, M.L.A. of Melbourne, was probably related to this family. He became a Winchester Commoner in the autumn of 1858. Is anything further known of him?

him

any

I have in my possession the last will and testament of a William Snodgrass of the London, dated parish of Christchurch, 5 Feb., 1775, who appears to have had two brothers, James and John; but whether they were relations of Thomas Snodgrass or not I do not know. I should also like to have some information about Gabriel Snodgrass, shipbuilder of Chatham, mentioned in 'N. & Q.' of 26 July, 1902.

3. John James Snodgrass, captain 91st Foot, received the brevet ranks of major and lieutenant-colonel on 13 Nov., 1826, The name Snodgrass has been fairly and 28 Dec., 1826, respectively. He became common in Renfrewshire for four hundred major 94th Foot, 3 Aug., 1830; lieutenant-years, as the local records show. The Rencolonel unattached, 28 June, 1833; and frewshire Poll Tax Roll of 1695 gives 36 An Adam Snodgrass D.Q.M.G. to the troops in Nova Scotia and persons of the name. its dependencies, 12 Sept., 1834. He married was one of the Friars Preachers and a Baillie · W. G. SNODGRASS. 3 Nov., 1823, Maria Macdonald, e.dau. of of Ayr in 1372. Riversdale, Kilmacolm, Renfrewshire. General Sir Archibald Campbell, Bt., G.C.B. Their son Archibald Campbell Snodgrass was born at Government House, Fredericton, New Brunswick, in the spring of 1832. He became captain 38th Regiment 29 Dec., 1854, and major 17 July, 1855, having acted as A.D.C. to his uncle Major-General Sir John Campbell, Bt., at the unsuccessful attack on the Redan, 18 June, 1855. He died at Milbank, near Southampton, 26 Nov., 1863.

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Dickens did not require to go beyond the City of London to come across the name of Snodgrass. In the Seamen's Hospital, Greenwich, there is a clock presented to that society by a Thomas Snodgrass who

This name had appeared in well-known fiction some time before the publication of 'Pickwick,' for the Rev. Charles Snodgrass figures frequently in 'The Ayrshire Legatees,' published anonymously in 1821 by

John Galt.

NEL MEZZO.

Perhaps this name was, or is, not so vastly uncommon. There was certainly a cadet at the R.M. Academy, Woolwich, in 1861-2, H. P. L. bearing that patronymic.

Exeter's Finance Clerk is Mr. Sidney Herbert Snodgrass; and a cousin of my own, resident in Brighton, bears the same HARRY HEMS.

surname.

Fair Park, Exeter.

THE TREATY OF TILSIT: COLIN A MACKENZIE (10 S. viii. 469, 510; ix. 31, 96, 135, 154, 171, 237).-The writer of a very able article in The Quarterly Review on (April, Recent Napoleonic Literature' 1908, see p. 425 to p. 431) refers to the British Agent at Tilsit, and remarks that "called forth a spirited the subject has controversy in Notes and Queries," and he points out that the statement of Dr. Rose land of a correspondent in 'N. & Q.' that

Mackenzie left Tilsit or Memel on 26 June There is a well-known tale (in Aikin's

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"A Mr. Mackenzie who came with Lord Granville will take this. He was to have been with the army to send information from thence, but as unfortunately he can be no longer useful he is going back."

The writer of the article says that the words quoted are "the most important" in the letter, and he adds that :

"From this it seems that Dr. Rose was mistaken when he wrote that Mackenzie left for London immediately after June 25,"

which was the day on which the Emperors

met on the raft.

Inner Temple.

HARRY B. POLAND.

DICKENS AND THE LAMPLIGHTER'S LADDER (10 S. ix. 389, 430, 471).—I remember seeing a lamplighter carrying the ladder to light his lamps, in 1882, at Burnham (Somerset). He assured my father that he could do his work quicker in that way than with the A. MORLEY DAVIES.

torch.

Amersham, Bucks.

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Evenings at Home,' I think it is) of an idle boy and a lazy boy. The former will not do the work set him, but will do everything else that comes to hand, good, bad, or indifferent. The latter simply does nothing. The active mental condition of the former will, indeed, inevitably lead, sooner or later, to some mischievous diversion, unless the mind is constantly engaged in more profitable employment; so that the terms may be considered virtually synonymous, or at least inseparable. This sequence is well illustrated by Dr. Watts's well-known lines :

For Satan finds some mischief still
For idle hands to do.

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Hawkshead Hall and Esthwaite Hall are quite a mile apart. This is mentioned lest the former be taken as, say, the centre of S. L. PETTY. a village, which it is not.

Minster is an alabaster effigy of Edwin In the north transept of Southwell Sandys, Archbishop of York. The effigy is of interest as it represents the Archbishop vested in alb and chasuble, although the date of his death is July, 1588, thirty years after Queen Elizabeth's accession. Nottinghamshire, in which Southwell is situated, formed part of the diocese of York from the seventh century to 1840 ('Southwell Minster,' pamphlet, 6 pp., Chesterfield: Edmunds, reprint from Derbyshire Times of 12 Jan., 1884). runs

The rime quoted at the second reference by MR. RATCLIFFE as sung in the North resembles to some extent one which the children of country villages in the Isle of Wight sing in their counting-out games. If it is unknown elsewhere, it may be worthy of preservation in your pages. It

thus:

Heeper, peeper, chimney-sweeper,
Had a wife and couldn't keep her.
Had another, couldn't love her,
O-U-T spells "out."

Y. T.

About twenty years since, when I visited Southwell Minster, the effigy was in the position above described.

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H. T. POLLARD.

"HER'S" (10 S. ix. 406).—I have remarked with surprise that in 'The Pocket " IDLE"=MISCHIEVOUS (10 S. ix. 350). Service-Book,' printed at the University -Had it not always this meaning, to a Press, Oxford, her's " is so rendered greater or less extent ? "Idle certainly in the Lectionary (see Job xxxix. 16), and does not mean the same as 'lazy.' One that "your's" disfigures many a page: is an active quality, the others a passive. we have, e.g.,

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'my spirit and your's

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DUNGHILL PROVERB (10 S. ix. 227, 413) -Some twenty-seven years ago dunghills were commonly to be seen in front of the houses in the streets of the villages round Morat in Switzerland. At times they were neatly, almost artistically arranged, and my impression is that a plaitwork of braided straw formed a border to them in such cases; but frequently they were mere "muckheaps."

In the kingdom of Württemberg I also observed dunghills before the doors in parishes near Tübingen.

Probably most English villages were in a similar condition early in the nineteenth century. A lady who was born in 1823 once told me that dunghills used to lie "all along the way through a certain village when she first remembered it. But she

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did not speak of the place as in any way exceptional; others were as bad.

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M. P.

"muck

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only say that they were very inferior etchers, spoiling all the fine work of the paper drawing by their inexpert and clumsy etching. This I judge by the print would not only be from the biting in, but the want of skill in drawing on the metal, which before 1840 was always copper. After about that date or 1850 it was nearly always zinc. I am referring to the prints for the juvenile

drama.

There is no doubt, I believe, that when wood engraving came in the artists did not engrave the drawings they made on the wood. Is there a book in which these matters are discussed? Jameson published hundreds of juvenile theatre prints, and on some the names of artist and etcher are stated. I will quote the following inscription on one in full, as it has other interest:

"Theatrical characters No 3.-Mr. Laurent as Rolla in the celebrated spectacle of Cora, as performed at The Royal Circus. Founded on the first part of Kotzebue's Death of Rolla, recently performed under the title of Pizarro, published by J. H. Jameson, 13, Dukes Court, Bow Street,

Covent Garden."

There is no date, but the water-mark is 1816. It is drawn by J. F. Roberts, and etched by C. Tomkins.

At the Truman sale of prints at Sotheby's Jameson's theatrical portraits for eleven Mr. Sabin bought for stock about twenty of guineas; they had notes by George Cruikshank stating whether or no he was the artist. RALPH THOMAS.

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With reference to the saying, "Where there's muck there's money,' does not, of necessity, mean manure. "MAKING BUTTONS long as I can remember, it has in the West (10 S. ix. 467).—This Riding of Yorkshire generally meant dirt. phrase occurs in Middleton's 'The Spanish The expression is often used as a sort of Gipsy' (Act IV. sc. iii.), where Sancho philosophical retort in Sheffield, when atten- exclaims, "O Soto, I make buttons!" tion is drawn, by a visitor, to a particularly meaning, apparently, "I am in a dreadful funk." dirty-looking manufactory-where "spoonHalliwell, in his 'Dictionary of buffing" is carried on, for instance. Archaic and Provincial Words,' quotes What a dreadful place!" the stranger may ob- from Florio, ed. 1611, pp. 209, 276, his serve. Such a remark meets with an instant tail makes buttons, i.e., he is in great fear. response, which, rendered in the recognized dialect of the district, reads: Ah, my lad, but tha' knows where there's muck there's money!" This, of course, implies that although the particular trade may be a dirty one, it is a money-making one.

Fair Park, Exeter.

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HARRY HEMS.

W. HEATH, ARTIST (10 S. ix. 385, 473).— I am glad to see MR. HERBERT CLAYTON'S note about the Heaths, a family of artists. I only wish he could have given a few more details and dates.

If what he says is correct that most of the early artists were etchers, then I can

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BLADUD.

494). Surely we are entitled to some better
GUIDE," ITS DERIVATION (10 S. ix. 171,
that it is from the "German weisen, to
explanation of guide than the statement
show." How did the German s pass into
d? The H.E.D.' (or
(or 'N.E.D.') gives
the correct solution. The E. guide is merely
borrowed from the French guider; and
the French guider begins with a gu, which
regularly represents a Teutonic w.
Guider
represents a derivative from a Teutonic
base wit-, which is preserved with sufficient
clearness in the Old Saxon verb witan, to
pay heed to. The idea of "seeing to "

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Their

led to that of "to watch over, to direct, Brunswick Square and Terrace Commisto guide." The Middle-English witen had sioners.' In 1858 Hove village, having a similar sense, as in the Ancron Riwle, begun to grow, was placed under a body p. 14: The vif wittes, thet witeth the called 'The West Hove Commissioners." hoorte alse wakemen," the five senses, In 1874 the two bodies were amalgamated which watch over the heart like watchmen. to form "The Hove Commissioners." The allusion to the German weisen must, jurisdiction was extended to the adjoining of course, be taken to mean that this German parish of Aldrington 26 Sept., 1893. In word is a more deflected form, ultimately 1894 the Commissioners were abolished deducible from the same Indo-Germanic and an Urban District Council formed. root *weid. The town continued to be governed under the Local Government Board till 1898, when it was incorporated by Royal Charter dated 8 August, and is now governed by a mayor, ten aldermen, and thirty councillors. The population of the borough of Hove in 1904 was 39,305. JOHN B. WAINEWRIGHT.

The question asked at p. 171 was quite different, viz., Is the E. guide derived from a word spelt akid, presumably Arabic, as is calmly asserted in a translation of the Moallakat? Of course not; but you can never cure an Englishman who is staggered by an accidental resemblance between an English and Eastern word of rushing, blindly enough, to a rash conclusion.

WALTER W. SKEAT.

This place derives its name from the fact of its having first constituted the endowment of Hova Ecclesia and Hova Villa, two prebends in the cathedral church of ChichesJ. HOLDEN MACMICHAEL.

MAGHULL YATES (10 S. ix. 469).—It is not improbable that the Stipendiary Magistrate for the Manchester County Division, J. M. Yates, Esq., K.C., might be able to supply ALTER EGO with the information MISTLETOE.

he seeks.

HOVE (10 S. ix. 450).-Hove is a parishter. of equal antiquity with Brighton, being mentioned in Domesday Book as Hov, and deriving from a Saxon word meaning "low-lying." The name Cliftonville was coined by the builders in the fifties for a few new streets to the east of the old village of Hove, but well within the parish boundaries. So to talk about "the Cliftonville end of Brighton being called Hove" is In addition to Singer's' Grammar' (Trübner, HUNGARIAN GRAMMAR (10 S. ix. 489).— absurd. The old name disappeared for 1882), the Ungarische Sprachlehre' in the all but parochial purposes from the fifties"Gyakorlati Beszélgetésekkel" series of to the eighties, West Brighton coming into favour, but was restored when incorporation korüt 15, might be found useful. It costs Rozsnyai Käroly of Budapest, Muzeumcame, the Post Office and railway company 60 fillér. joining hands with the municipality to give the new borough a separate existence from Brighton in name as well as fact. I thought and hoped the objectionable Cliftonville was obsolete.

PERCEVAL LUCAS.

A. C. T. asks for "information as to how the Cliftonville end of Brighton came to be called Hove.' A more pertinent inquiry would have been how a portion of the parish of Hove came to be called Cliftonville. Hove was a manor at the time of the Conquest, and has been a parish, at any rate, since the beginning of the thirteenth century, and probably before, whereas Cliftonville is a modern monstrosity in nomenclature. If what A. C. T. wants is an account of the origin of the modern borough of Hove, perhaps the following facts may be of service to him. In 1830 the east portion of the parish of Hove, adjoining Brighton, having been built over, was placed under the government of a new body called "The

M.

The best is still Csink's. It has long been out of print, but any capable second-hand bookseller should be able to procure a copy.

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L. L. K.

99 ANGEL OF AN INN (10 S. ix. 488).—Is it not possible that either of the two following explanations will meet the query? The room may have been the second floor, outside of which the sign of an angel was suspended, or it may have been one in which there was an open bed without bedposts, known as an angel-bed."

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J. HOLDEN MACMICHAEL.

Was not this a common name for one of the reception-rooms in inns in olden days? So Hostess Quickly speaks of her "Dolphinchamber," and Cherry, in the 'Beaux Stratagem,' cries: "Chamberlain, shew the Lyon and the Rose." It would be interesting to know whether all such rooms were called

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