Imatges de pàgina
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But in those nouns which distinguish between strong and weak cases only, the weak will be indicated by both M and w.


Nom.Voc.*s(S) (Neut.M) Wm(s) (Neut.w) *mas(S) (Neut.S) Ace. w^«»! (S) (Neut.M.) —au (S) (Neut. w) —as (w) (Neut. S) Inst. ^ro (w) wrrj^bhydm (M) ftm M» (M)

Dat. ^ e (w) — bhydm (M) wra bhyas (M)

Abl. vm^as (w) — bhydm (M) — bhyas (M)

Gen. — as (w) wt^ os (w) wr* dm (w)

Loc. ^ i (w) — os (w) w su (M)

That is, the strong cases in both masc. and fem. are the Nom. Voc. sing. du. and pi. and the Ace. sing. du. The weaker or middle cases are those of the remainder whose terminations begin with consonants, and the weakest are those whose terminations begin with vowels. In neuter nouns the N. V. Ac. sing, are middle, the N. V. Ac. du. weak, but both N. and Ac. plur. are strong. Hence it follows that the ace. pi., and in neuter nouns the inst. sing., is generally the guide to the form assumed before the remaining vowelterminations. This division of cases has not been noticed before, because it is of no real importance for bases ending in vowels. That it applies to bases ending in ri is accounted for by the fact that these originally ended in ar.

b. In Panini the strong terminations are called sarva-ndma-sthdna (P. I. I, 42, 43), and the name bha is given to the base before the weak.


Masculine, feminine, and neuter bases itii^t and ^d.

This class answers to Latin words like comes (from a base comit), cubes (from a base equity), fevens (from ferent); and to Greek words like %«^'f (from B base year), Ktpa{ (from Ktpar), yapuis (from yaptevr).

136. Masculine and feminine bases in T^t, declined like ^fti{ haril, m. f., 'green' (declined at p. 68), and Trfcr sarit, f.'a river/

The reflective base does not differ from the crude base.

Observe—The nom. case sing, is properly harits, but * is rejected by 43. a. The same applies to all nouns ending in consonants. So aii>yji*.t>ni for atorifMV(; but it is remarkable, that Latin and Greek, when the final of the base refuses to combine with the * of the nom., often prefer rejecting the base-final: thus, X'V'f for yaptrf, comes for comits. In these languages the final consonant may frequently combine with the » of the nom.; as in lex (for leks), </>Ao{ (for d>\0Kf).

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137. Neuter bases in Tt* are declined like ^ft^Aari/, n., 'green.'

These only differ from the masculine and feminine in the N. du. pi., Ac. sing. du. and pi., the usual neuter terminations ^ (, \ i (see 97), being required, and ■ being inserted before the final of the base in N. Ac. pi.: thus,

N. Ac. V. ^fti^ harit, ^(Vfll hariti, ^ftfar harinti; I. ^ftjTT haritd, jftmr^haridbkydm, Ike.

138. Masculine and feminine bases in ?» d, like v*}ftr< dharma-vid, m. f., 'knowing one's duty'—a compound composed of the substantive dharma, 'duty,' and the root vid, 'knowing.' See 84.1.


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