Imatges de pàgina
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with Latin, and frequently with Greek, as the Sanskrit m may be euphonically changed to n (v), if influenced by a dental following (see observation, p. 22). In the ace. pi. s appears in all three languages; and when the Sanskrit ends in n, as in the first class of nouns, this n is probably for us, since a preceding a is lengthened to compensate for the rejection of s. Compare some Vedic ace. plurals; cf. also

rf

Bopp's Comp. Gr. § 236, iwovs ace. pi. in the Cretic dialect; and Gothic forms, such as balgins, simuns. In inst. pi. bhis is preserved in the Latin nobis, nobis, and the Greek '(v) f°r fat (vaZ-qbtv = naubhis). The ais which belongs to Sanskrit nouns in a is probably the contraction of dbhis, since in the Vedas ebhis for dbhis is found for ais, as vrikebhis for vrihais, &c. &c. The termination ais probably answers to the Latin dat. and abl. plural in is, just as bhis and bhyas answer to the Latin bus. In the gen. sing, all three languages have preserved the s (ndvas, navis, vrjoi for vafof); and in the gen. pi. dm is equivalent to the Greek <ev, and the Latin um (■<1<^T = irooZv, pedum). In loc. sing, the Sanskrit » is preserved in the dative of Greek and Latin words (ftrf^l= WKTl—Compare the expression ryj amy Vvkti —11 Pi =navi). In loc. pi. su answers to the Greek at ('^W = vavai). Sanskrit bases in a prefix t to su; so that vrikaishu (29. b) = XvKotcrt. The voc. sing, in Greek is generally identical with the base, and the voc. dual and pi. with the nom., as in Sanskrit: thus Aoye is the voc. sing, of Aoyoj, rpiypef of Tpivjpijs, yapiev of yapUif, fiaxrikev of fiaai\ev(, &c.

98. In the following pages no attempt will be made to bring back all nouns to the general scheme of terminations by a detailed explanation of changes and substitutions in every case. But under every one of the eight classes a model noun for the masculine, feminine, and neuter, serving for adjectives as well as substantives, will be declined at full; and under every case of every noun the method of joining the final letter of the base with the proper terminations will be indicated in English letters.

99. The student must, however, understand, that the division into eight classes, which here follows, is not meant to imply the existence of eight separate declensions in the sense understood by the classical scholar, but is rather intended to shew, that the final letters of the crude bases of nouns may be arranged under four general heads for vowels, and four for consonants; and that all Sanskrit nouns, whatever may be the final of their bases, are capable of adaptation to one common scheme of nearly similar caseterminations.

a. In the same manner it will appear in the sequel, that the ten classes into which verbs are divided do not imply ten different conjugations, but rather ten different ways of adapting the bases of verbs to one common scheme of tenseterminations; and just as in nouns the commonest declension is formed by bases in a and d, so in verbs the commonest conjugation or group of conjugations (see 257) is formed by bases in a and a. There is no reason why the same system of generalisation should not have been carried out by Latin and Greek grammarians, had the formation of nouns and verbs from roots and crude bases been traceable with equal clearness in these languages.

100. The classical scholar may, if he please, satisfy his own ideas of declension, by regarding masculine and neuter nouns in a, like Hva of the first class, as his 1st declension; feminine nouns in a and (, like sin! and muff of the first class, as his 2d declension; masculine and feminine nouns in i and u, like tact, matt, bkdnu, and dhenu, of the second and third classes, as his 3d declension; and all the remaining nouns, including the neuters of those in i and u, and all those contained in the last five classes, as his 4th declension. These four declensions may be traced in regular order in the following pages, and will be denoted by the capital letters A at 103; B at 105; C at 110; D at 114.

101. Observe, that in declining the model nouns, under every inflection, the base with the sign +, and after it the termination, will be exhibited in English letters. Moreover, the number of the rule of Sandhi which must come into operation in joining the final of the base with the initial of the termination will generally be indicated. For it is most important to remember, that the formation of every case in a Sanskrit noun supposes the application of a rule of Sandhi or 'junction;' and that declension in Sanskrit is strictly 'junction/ i. e. not a divergence from an upright line (rectus), but a joining together of a base with its terminations.

102. Not unfrequently, however, before this joining together takes place, the original final of the base is changed to its Guna or Vriddhi equivalent (see 27), or to some other letter (see 43. b. c. d. e), so that the inflective base often varies from the original crude; and not unfrequently the original termination of the scheme is changed for some other termination, as indicated at 197.

In order, therefore, that the student, without forgetting the original final of the crude base, or the original termination of the memorial scheme, may at the same time observe, 1st, whether in any particular instances the final of the base undergoes any or what modification—2dly, whether the original termination suffers any change—it will be desirable that, whenever in exceptional cases the final vowel of the base is to be gunated or vriddhied, or otherwise changed (whenever, in fact, the inflective base differs from the crude base), this changed form of the crude base be exhibited in place of the original form: thus, at 103, under the genitive dual Oeayot, iire+os denotes, that before the base Ava is joined to the termination o», the final letter a is to be changed to e; and the number indicates the rule of Sandhi which must come into operation in joining sire and 0$ together. Similarly, whenever the original termination has to be modified, it will be desirable that the termination be exhibited in its altered form: thus, at 103, under the accus. sing., fwa + m denotes, that the base is to be joined with m, substituted for the original termination am. See the table, page 69.

SECTION I.

INFLECTION OF NOUNS, SUBSTANTIVE AND ADJECTIVE, WHOSE BASES END'IN VOWELS, OR OF THE FIRST FOUR CLASSES OF NOUNS.

FIRST CLASS OF NOMINAL BASES INFLECTED.

Masculine and neuter bases in v a; feminine bases in VT a and t 1.

Note, that this class comprises by far the greater number of nouns, substantive and adjective, in the language. It answers to a common class of Latin and Greek words in us and of, um and cv, a and a; such as lupus, hvKQf (= Sans, vrikas, nom. of vrika); donum, OwpOY; terra, %«pac ( = Vtl); and to adjectives like bonus, aya$ot, &c.

103. (A; see r. 100.) Masculine bases in a, declined like fjre&i-'a, m., 'the god Siva,' or as an adjective, 'prosperous.'

The final of the base is lengthened in D. Ab. sing., I. D. Ab. du., G. pl. ; and changed to e in G. L. du., D. Ab. L. pl. : n is euphonically affixed to the final in G. pl. Hence the four inflective bases diva, diva, five, fivdn.

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104. Neuter bases in a, declined like f^T? diva, n., 'prosperous.'

The final of the base is lengthened and assumes n in N. Ac. V. pi.

f^" Sive f^tTftr Sivdni

97. &va+{. 32. jivd+n+i

The vocative is firm Siva, %% sive, f^Wtftl &i>ani; all the other cases are like the masculine.

105. (B; see r. 100.) Feminine bases in a, declined like f^RT Siva, f., 'the wife of Siva,' or as an adjective, * prosperous.'

The final of the base is changed to e in I. sing., G. L. du.; yd it inserted in D. Ab. G. L. sing.; and n in G. pl. Hence the inflective bases stvd, &ve.

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106. Feminine bases in f, declined like mt) narff, f., 'a river.'

The final of the base becomes y before the vowel-terminations, by 34; d is inserted in D. Ab. G. sing.; the final of the base is shortened in V. sing.; and n is inserted in G. pl.

fT^t until TOT nadyau

audi is rejected) nadi-\-au. 34.

nadyau

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