Imatges de pàgina

kdded in the same way to passive participles; as, actus, actio; functus, junctio {yuktis). Greek exhibits analogous forms in %fv%i(, Vio~tic, oocrif.

a. A few masculine nouns are formed with ti: as, yati, 'a sage,' from yam, to restrain;' jndti, ' a relation,' from jhd; pati, 'a husband' (forpdti), from pd.

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the end of compounds: thus, >J^f. 'the earth,' «stM*»£m. 'the self-existent,' &c. See 135. a, 126.6.

83. Fourth Class.Masculine, Feminine, and Neuter bases in ti.

Formed by adding to Roots

I. 1} tri, forming, ist (nom. -td, -tri, Ari), nouns of agency of three genders, the same change of the root being required which takes place in the first future, and the same euphonic changes of t (see 386 and 581): thus, from kship, 'to throw,' ksheptri, 'a thrower;' from dd,'to give,' ddtri, 'a giver," from budh,'to know,' boddhri, 'a knower;' from sah, 'to bear,' sodhri, 'patient.' This corresponds to the Latin affix tor, and the Greek Top and rtep: compare dator, OoTrjp.

II. It tri, forming, adly (nom. -M), nouns of relationship, masculine and feminine; as, pi tri, 'a father,' mdtri, 'a mother.'

84. Fifth Class.Masculine, Feminine, and Neuter bases in n t

{and * d).

Formed by adding to Roots

I. Tt1 (nom. -t, in all genders), if the root ends in a short vowel.- forming nouns of agency, substantives and adjectives, of three genders; as, from kri, 'to do,' hit, 'a doer;' from ji,' to conquer,' jit, 'a conqueror.' This class of nouns are rarely used, except as the last member of compounds: thus, karmakrit, 'a doer of work.'

Roots already ending in t or d, taken to form adjectives or nouns of agency, fall under this class; as, from vid, 'to know,' dharmavid, ' one who knows his duty;' from V^ 'to eat,' BWIS 'an eater of flesh.' There are also a few nouns falling under this class, formed by prefixing prepositions to roots ending in t or d or the short vowel; as, from PflJvid,' to know,' «!«!<; f.'an agreement;' from Witdyut, 'to shine,' vidyut, lightning;' from^/>ad,'togo,' sampad, f.,'success;' TTfipHJ f..'a mystical philosophical work,' from W[ sad. So also, samit, {., conflict,' from i, 'to go,' with prep. sam.

One or two roots ending in R or T may stand by themselves as substantives: thus, W£ mud, f.. 'joy;' fal{4it, f 'the mind.'

The practice of using roots at the end of compounds prevails also in Greek and Latin; as in X€/»-v/l// (-w/3), /Sow-wX^f {-vXrry), Sec, arti-fex (-Jfe), carni-fex (-fie), phrases (-sid), &c. And there is a very remarkable agreement between Sanskrit and Latin in the practice of adding / to roots ending in short vowels: thus, corn-it (comes), 'a goer with;' equ-it (eques), 'a goer on horseback;' al-it (ales), 'a goer with wings;' super-stit (superstes), 'a stander by,' &c. Greek adds a similar t to roots with a long final vowel; as, a-yvvr, a-xroi>T, &c. (See Bopp's Comparative Grammar, ad edition, 907, 910.)

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88. Having explained how the crude base of nouns is generally formed, we have now to shew how it is inflected.

As, in the last chapter, nouns, substantive and adjective, were arranged under eight classes, according to the final of their bases (the first four classes comprising those ending in vowels, the last four those ending in consonants), so it will be the object of the present chapter to exhibit their declension or inflection under the

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