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either *( a or vn au; some begin with a vowel, and end in one or two consonants*; and some begin and end with one or two consonantsf, inclosing a medial vowel; so that a root may sometimes consist of only one letter, as ^ i, 'to go;' and sometimes of five, as "S, "and, 'to move;' Irj pratth, 'to ask.' It is probable that those roots which consist of simple letters, such as w, w, \, ftf, *^, &c., are the most ancient; and that those which have compound consonants, such as ^^ &c, are less so. Those which have cerebral letters, such as 757 ' to roll,' are probably derived from the aboriginal language of India.
o. There are a few polysyllabic words recognised as roots, but they are generally the result of the accidental conjunction of a preposition with a monosyllabic root; that is to say, the preposition has been so constantly used in conjunction with the root, that it has at length come to be regarded as part of the root: thus in the roots «l|l^ sun-gram, 'to fight,' and ^iqJI^. avadMr, 'to despise,' the prepositions « sain and ^1* ava have combined with the root in this manner. A few other polysyllabic roots are the result of the reduplication of the radical syllable; (as, ^ivji daridrd, 'to be poor;' Wljdgri, 'to be awake;' -^«ai«^ iakax, 'to shine;' ^^1 vtvi, 'to go,' 'pervade;') and the few are derived from nouns; BS, ■*Trr_' to play,' from •Jin. kumdra, 'a boy.'
6. R n and IT s at the beginning of a root are liable, according to 58 and 70, to be changed to HT n and B sh. Hence most of these roots J are exhibited in Native Grammars as beginning with VS and w, because the Indian system requires that in exhibiting any general type of a class of words, that form should be taken which may occur even under the rarest circumstances. But in this Grammar, roots of which the initials are «T n and It s will be exhibited as beginning with these letters, by reason of their more frequent occurrence.
c. According to Indian grammarians, roots are either uddtta or anuddtta (see r. 24). Uddtta roots take the inserted ^t in certain tenses (see r. 391), m«ddtta roots reject this inserted vowel (Panini VII. 2, 10). Modern native grammarians attach to roots certain symbolical letters or syllables (called anubandkas, 'appendages,' or technically ^i') to indicate peculiarities in their conjugation,
* Rule 43, which requires that if B word ends in a conjunct consonant, the last member shall be rejected, is not applicable to roots, unless they are used as complete words in a sentence. Nevertheless, in the case of roots ending in a consonant, preceded by a nasal, the latter is often euphonically dropped, as W^ becomes WV.
t One root, Wnityut, 'to drop,' begins with three consonants.
X But not all, ex. gr. the " of roots containing ^, ^, or T generally remains, as in W, Bg^; as also the » of IJ^, P^, BTW, and afew others; and it few may be written with either ■ or m.
which anubandkas or its may either have the uddtta accent to shew that the verb takes the Parasmai-pada (243) terminations only (such verbs being then called uddttetah); or the anudtitta to shew that it takes the Atmane-pada only (such verbs being anuddttetah); or the svarita to shew that it takes both (such verbs being svaritetah). See Panini I. 3, 12, 72, 78. The following is a list of Panini's anubandkas (with one or two added by Vopadeva): ^T indicates that the past participle affixes (530, 553, called nishthd in native grammars) do not take the inserted i, P. VII. 2, 16. ^ that a nasal is inserted before the last letter of the
root in all the tenses; thus nid i shews that the present is nindtlmi &c, P. VII. 1, 58. ^C that the 3d pret. is formed in two ways, either with form I (418)
or form II (435); thus ghush ir shews that the 3d pret. is either aghoshisham Ike. or aghusham &c, and this' ir that the 3d pret. is either adrdksham or adarsarn. t
that the past participle (530, 553) is formed without i, P. VII. 2, 14. T
that the indeclinable participle (555) may optionally reject t, while the past part, always rejects it, P. VII. 2, 56, 15. ^ that» may optionally be inserted in
the non-conjugational tenses, P. VII. 2, 15. N that in the caus. 3d pret.
the radical long vowel must not be shortened, P. VII. 4,2. ^that the vowel
may be either lengthened or shortened in the cause. 3d pret. 'W that the 3d
pret. takes form II (435) in the Parasmai, P. III, 1, 55. ?that Vriddhi is not
admitted in the 3d pret. Parasmai, P. VII. 2, 5. Vu that the past pass. part,
is formed with na instead of ta, P. VIII. 2,45. Yu that a root is anuddtta, i. e.
that it rejects the inserted i. T that a root is inflected in the Atmane, P. I.
3, 13. It that a root is inflected in the Parasmai and Atmane, P. I. 3,
73. ft? that the past part, has a present signification, P. III. 2,187. Z
that a noun with the affix athu may be formed from the root; thus tu-kshu indicates that kshavathu may be formed from kshu, P. III. 3, 89. J that a noun with the affix Irima may be formed from the root; thus du kri indicates that kritrima may be formed from hi, P. III. 3, 88. 11 indicates that the vowel a must not be lengthened in forming the causal, that in the 3d sing. 3d pret. pass, (technically called din, 475) and index. part, of repetition (567, technically named nam nit the vowel can be optionally lengthened or shortened, and that nouns of agency in a (580) can be formed from causal bases having short radical vowels, P. V. 4, 93, 93,94. *l that a noun may be formed from the root by adding the affix d (80. XXII), PHI. 3, 104.
76. The learner is recommended to study attentively the commonest of these roots, or elementary sounds, as given at 74. b. He may rest assured, that by pausing for a time at the root, his progress afterwards will be more rapid, when he ascends to the branches which spring from it. For it must never be forgotten, that every word in Sanskrit, whether substantive, adjective, verb, or adverb, stands in close filial relationship to some radical sound. In fact, every root is a common bond of union for a large family of words, which might otherwise appear unconnected; and words which, when viewed apart from the root, are isolated symbols, demanding a separate effort of memory for each separate idea which they express, fasten themselves readily on the mind when regarded as so many parts of one original idea, so many branches of a common stock.
Thus, to take any one of the foregoing roots — as, for example, budh, 'to know'—we shall find that from it may be drawn out with great regularity, ist, a set of simple substantives; 2dly, of simple adjectives; 3dly, of simple verbs: thus, bodhaat bodhana, 'knowledge' buddhi, 'intellects' bodhaka, 'an informer;' bauddha, 'a Buddhist;' budha, 'wise;' buddhimat, 'intellectual;' and the following verbs, bodhati,' he knows;' budhyate,'it is known;' bodhayati, 'he informs;' bubhutsate or bubodhishati, 'he wishes to know;' bobudhyate, 'he knows well.' And the simple idea contained in the root may be endlessly extended by the prefixing of prepositions; as, prabodha, 'vigilance," prabudhyate, 'he awakes,' &c.
v. In the next place we are to inquire what is the base or crude form of the noun. The student should understand, at the outset, the meaning and use of this form. It is an intermediate state between the root and nominative case, the naked form of the noun, which serves as the basis on which to construct its eight cases, beginning with the nominative. In a Greek or Latin dictionary we look for the noun under the nominative case; but in Sanskrit we look for it under its crude state. Thus, bodha, bodhana, tat, pafUan, bhavat, are the crude bases under which the nominative cases bodhas, bodhanam, sas, pania, bhavdn, are to be sought. And here it may be observed, that the base of a noun is no mere grammatical invention. It is, perhaps, more practically useful than the cases derived from it. It is that form of the noun which is always used in the formation of compound words, and in this respect may be regarded as the most general of cases. And since every Sanskrit sentence contains more compound words than simple, it may with truth be said, that the crude base is the form under which the noun most usually appears.
We may conceive it quite possible that Greek and Latin grammarians might have proceeded on a similar plan, and that they might have supposed a root hey, from which was drawn out the nouns Ae'?<?, Aef/KO?, Ae/rrof, KaraXoyvj, eAAoyof, and the verbs Aeya>, KtnaXeyu, (Xkayiw: so also, a root scrib, from which was derived the nouns scriptio, scriptum, scriptor, scriptura; and the verbs scribo, perscribo, ascribo.- or a root nau, from which would come nauta, nan's, imuticus. navalis, navigo, &c. Again, they might have supposed a crude base to each of these nouns, as well as the root; as, for instance, Ae£< and \(%iko of Ae'^? and Xt^tKOf, and navi of Davis; and they might have required the student to look for him; under Aeff, Aeystf under Aey, navis under navi, and navigo under nau. Further than this, they might have shewn that the base was the form used in the formation of compound words, as in te%U(oypouf>of and naviger. But Greek and Latin are too uncertain in their construction to admit of such an analysis being completely carried out.
78. It will be perceived from the foregoing remarks that the consideration of Sanskrit nouns must divide itself into two heads: 1st, the formation of the base; 2dly, the inflection or declension of the base; that is, the adaptation of the crude base or modified root to a common scheme of case-terminations.
a. In fact, it will appear in the sequel, that the same system applies both to nouns and verbs. As in verbs (see 248) the formation of a verbal base from a root precedes the subject of verbal inflection or conjugation, so in nouns it is necessary to the clear elucidation of the subject that the method of forming the nominal base from the root should be explained antecedently to declension.
b. Indeed, it must be remembered that nouns, substantive and adjective, in Sanskrit are classified into separate declensions, accordr ing to the finals of their crude bases, not according to the finals of their cases; and it becomes essential to determine the form of the final syllable of the nominal base before the various declensions can be arranged.
79. The crude bases of nouns are formed either by adding certain affixes to the root, the vowel of which is liable, at the same time, to be gunated or vriddhied (which nouns are called kridanta, primary derivatives); or by adding certain affixes to the bases of nouns already formed (which nouns are then called taddhita, secondary derivatives). When, however, the root itself is used as a noun, no affix is required, but the root is then also the base. Hence it follows that the final syllable of nominal bases will end in almost any letter of the alphabet. Those bases, however, that end in vowels may be conveniently separated under four classes, each class containing masc, fem., and neuter nouns; the 1st ending in *i a, tn «, and t i; the 2d in ^ t; the 3d in T u; and the 4th in ^ ri. Those that end in consonants may also be arranged under four classes; the 1st, 2d, and 3d, ending in Tt / (and ^ d), «T n, and j^s, respectively (compare 44); and the 4th comprising all other final consonants.
a. It will be afterwards shewn, that the first class of nouns, comprising bases in a, d, and i, is by far the most numerous; just as the first group of verbs, comprising bases ending in a and d, is the most numerous and important. See 109.
Bearing in mind, therefore, that Sanskrit declension consists in building up a system of cases on a base, by attaching the caseterminations to that base—bearing in mind, moreover, that the whole distinction of declensions depends on the distribution of the bases of nouns under eight classes, according to their final syllables—we are now to explain more precisely, under each of these classes, the method of forming the nominal crude base by regular derivation from the root.
Observe—It is not intended that the student should dwell long on the following pages printed in small type. He is recommended to read them over rapidly, and to note carefully the final letters of the base under each of the eight classes.
Observe, moreover, that although all the bases of Sanskrit nouns, without exception, are derived from roots, there are many in which the connection between the noun and its source, either in sense or form, is not very obvious *. The following rules have reference only to those bases whose formation proceeds on clear and intelligible principles.
FORMATION OF THE CRUDE FORM OR BASE OF NOUNS.
80. First Class.—Comprising Masculine and Neuter bases isna;
Feminine in *rt a and t i.
Formed by adding to Roots—
[Note—Primary derivatives from roots are called in native grammars kridanla, while those from nouns already formed, or ucondary derivative/, are called taddhita.] I. We, forming, 1st (nom. -as), after Vriddhi of medial a of a root, and Guna
* This applies especially to nouns formed with the unddi affixes, so called from the affix un (i. e. u with an indicatory n), by which the words kdru, vdyu, &c, are formed in the first Sutra. The import of these derivatives is not generally in accordance with the radical meaning, and even when it is so, usually receives an individual signification; thus kdru, though it involves the general idea of doing, means especially ' an artizan.' It is difficult to acquiesce in the derivation of some of these unddi words: thus purusha, a man,' is said to come from our, to precede;' ndku, 'an ant-hill,' from nam, 'to bend;' kapila, 'tawny,' from kam, ' to love,' &c.