Imatges de pàgina

as, $r ia becomes i in ^f s6a; ^ d with n y becomes «r dya; T d with v dh becomes £ ddha; re d with * AA becomes & ddAa; 7 / with ^ r becomes ^r tra or a tra; <t A with I t becomes MI Ma.

a. Observe, that when T r comes in the middle of a conjunct consonant, it takes the same form as at the end; thus, *JTgry, Qgr: and that in one or two words, where it precedes the vowel ri, it is written above the initial form of that vowel in the crescent shape; thus, PT^nT nirriti, ' the goddess of destruction.' When conjunct consonants commencing with * are followed by the vowels i, i, e, ai, o, au, or by a nasal symbol (see 6), then * is properly written on the right of all; thus, TO rni, Vjf rni, ^ rke, Wf rkau, ^T rkam.

b. In a few words initial vowels follow other vowels; e. g. 'lliil, IM'I, Pririd.


6. Anusvara ("m), i. e.' after-sound,' always belongs to a preceding vowel, and can never be used like a nasal consonant to begin a syllable. It is denoted by a simple dot, which ought to come either over the vowel after which the nasalization is sounded, or on the right of the vowel-mark; thus, ^ karn, m kum, N kim, iff kim. It properly denotes a weaker and less distinct nasal sound than that of the five nasal consonants. These latter are actual and full consonants, which may be followed by vowels, whereas Anusvara is rather the symbol of the nasalization of the vowel which precedes it. It should be noted, however, that it partakes of the nature of a consonant, inasmuch as in conjunction with a following consonant it imparts prosodial length to a preceding short vowel.

a. Observe, that Anusvara must take the place of a final R m when the three sibilants 3f $, ^ sh, w s, and the aspirate s h (see f. and 7. b. next page) follow; and also generally when T r follows (except Tf^T^sam-rdj,' a sovereign;' and see e. next page), being then expressible by m; thus, It ^ra tarn iairum, K TT»TPf tarn rdjdnam.

b. Anusvara is also sometimes used as a short substitute for any of the five nasal consonants ^ m, ^ n, m n, R n, * m, when no -vowel intervenes between these and a following consonant in the middle of the same word (thus the syllables ink, itid, and, hit, imp are correctly written w, ^, *n^, ^f, TR,' and sometimes more shortly ^, ^, WS, ^, fi{); but Anusvfira is more usually substituted for these nasals when final and resulting from the euphonic adaptation of the final m of accus. cases sing., nom. cases ncut., some adverbs and persons of the verb to a following word; see 59.

c. Anusvara is even used, though less correctly, for the final ^ m of such words when they stand in a pause (i. e. are not followed by another word); and has often been so used in this grammar for the convenience of typography.

d. But Anusvara is not admitted as a substitute for the original final *T n of a pada or inflected word (as in accus. cases plur., loc. cases of pronominals, the 3d part, plur. and pres. part, of verbs, &c, see 54), unless the next word begin with i, t, t, or their aspirates, when, by 53, a sibilant is interposed before the initial letter.

c. And in the case of roots ending in «T n or T m, these final nasals, if not dropped, pass into Anusvara before terminations or affixes beginning with the sibilant or h, but are not changed before semivowels; thus RR + Wn = A*ha,

ir^+ T = *rar (617), *r^+^rfir=Tfrfir, *w + *j=»t«t (602), «r^ + T: = »w.

/. Hence it appears that Anusvara is peculiarly the nasal of the three sibilants S^/, M^sh, TV, and the aspirate ^ h; and that the true Anusvara always occurs before these letters. When it so occurs in the middle of simple words, as in ^T3T, ^M^irt, it would be better to represent it in English type by n; thus, ania, anhati, not amia, amhati. In order, however, not to multiply perplexing distinctions we have preferred in the grammar to make m the equivalent for Anusvara both in the middle and end of words (except only in the word Sanskrit, which is now Anglicised).

7. That Anusvara is less peculiarly the nasal of the semivowels is evident from e. above. Hence, before y, I, and v, 1 m final in a word (not a root) may either pass into Anusvara or assimilate itself to these letters; thus WT + TT = WW or tFBPT, 1(1^+ f5fas= 4 c?Hi or «4a\«i; but in the latter case the nasal origin of the first member of the double letter is denoted by another nasal symbol called Anundsika (i. e. 'through the nose,' sometimes called Candra-vindu, the dot in the crescent'), which is also applied to mark the nasality of a final R I deduced from a final R n when followed by initial "Pi I, see M.

a. And this Anundsika * is not only the sign of the nasality of ^y, ^ /, and ^ v, in the preceding cases, but also marks the nasality of vowels, though in a less degree than Anusvara, see 11. g.

b. Observe—A final >^ m before V^hm, jf An, w hy, Tr hi, 5^ hv, may either be changed to Anusvara or undergo assimilation with the second letter of the initial compound; thus fa Otflfn" or ftw JT^TfiT, fcR 5^ or f%T ?7T, fi fTC or faritf 92» &c, (see 7, above).

8. The symbol Visarga, 'rejection,' (called so as symbolising the rejection or suppression of a letter in pronunciation,) usually written thus :, but more properly in the form of two small circles %, is used to represent a weaker aspiration than the letter ^ h, and that generally, but not always, at the end of a word*. It expresses an euphonic transition of final w s and T r into a kind of breathing. This symbol Visarga is never the

* Visarga is, of course, liable to appear in the middle of compound words. Nor can it be called final in the loc. plur. of nouns in x; as, 'mm. See p. 95.

representative of ? h, but rather of a final aspirate, which, under certain circumstances, takes the place of final * and r. It may be conveniently represented by the English h. At the same time it should be borne in mind that Yisarga (/<) is less than h, and is in fact no consonant, but only a symbol for s and r whenever the usual consonantal sound of these letters is deadened at the end of a sentence or through the influence of a k, p, or a sibilant commencing the next word. Observe, however, that all those inflections of nouns and persons of verbs, which as standing separate from other words are by some made to end in Visarga, may most conveniently be allowed to retain their final use; only bearing in mind that this s is liable at the end of a sentence, or when followed by certain consonants, to pass into a weak breathing, as in the French les or the English isle, viscount; in all which cases it might be expressed by Visarga, thus b &c. So again, in French infinitives, such as aller, the final r is silent; and in many English words, such as bar, tar, the sound of r is very indistinct; and these also might be written in Sanskrit with Visarga, *rjh alleh, in bah, &c.

a. An Ardha-visarga, 'half-visarga,' or modification of the symbol Visarga,, in the form of two semicircles X, is sometimes employed before k, kit, and p, ph. Before the two former letters this symbol is properly called Jihvd-muliya, and the organ of its enunciation said to be the root of the tongue. Before p and pk its proper name is Upadkmdniya, and its organ of utterance is then the lips.

b. The Ardha-visarga is very rarely, if ever, seen in classical Sanskrit. In the Vedas the Upadhmaniya occurs, but only after an Anusvara or Anunasika: thus, *T X si IV or n X *nft, and in this case also the symbol Visarga may be used for it.

The following are other marks:

9. The Virdma,' pause' or' stop,' placed under a consonant (thus H k), indicates the absence of the inherent * a, by help of which the consonant is pronounced.

Observe—Virama properly means the pause of the voice at the end of a sentence. By the natives it is employed like a mark of punctuation at the close of a sentence ending with a quiescent consonant, while the mark 1 is the only means of denoting the close of a sentence ending in a vowel, all the preceding words being written without separation, because supposed to be pronounced without pause. When, however, by simply extending the functions of the Virama we can make Sanskrit typography conform to modern European ideas so as to enable proper spaces to be left between distinct words in such a sentence as the following; safe rid duhkakardv ddydv anlimus tupade pade; it seems better to break through the native rule which however theoretically correct would oblige us to write the first five words of the same sentence thus, sakridduhkakardvddydvantimastu. See r. 26.

10. The mark i {Avagraha, sometimes called Ardhdkdra, half the letter a), placed between two words, denotes the elision or suppression (abhinidhdna) of an initial *j a after ? e or ?ft o final preceding. It corresponds to our apostrophe in some analogous cases. Thus, Ttsfq te 'pi for it ^rftl te api.

a. In books printed in Calcutta the mark S is sometimes used to resolve a long d resulting from the blending of a final d with an initial a or d; thus TTTf STr^Tj for TNT >«M3<4, usually written irVTT^T. Sometimes a double mark SS denotes an initial long WT, The mark S is also used in the Veda as the sign of a hiatus between vowels, and in the pada text to separate the component parts of the compound or of other grammatical forms.

b. The half pause I is a stop or mark of punctuation, usually placed at the end of the first line of B couplet or stanza.

c. The whole pause II is placed at the end of a couplet like a full stop.

D. The mark of repetition ° indicates that a word or sentence has to be repeated. It is also used to abbreviate a word, just as in English we use a full point; thus V° stands for mt, as chap, for chapter.


11. The vowels in Sanskrit are pronounced for the most part as in Italian or French, though occasional words in English may exemplify their sound.

a. Since "S a is inherent in every consonant, the student should be careful to acquire the correct pronunciation of this letter. There are many words in English which afford examples of its sound, such as vocal, cedar, zebra, organ. But in English the vowel w in such words as fun, bun, sun, more frequently represents this obscure sound of a; and even the other vowels may occasionally be pronounced with this sound, as in her, sir, son.

b. The long vowel vn d is pronounced as a in the English father, bard, cart; \ i as the t in pin, sin; t i as the i in marine, police; 7«as the u in push; "3 u as the u in rude.

c. The vowel ^ ri, peculiar to Sanskrit, is pronounced as the ri in merrily, where the t of ri is less perceptible than in the syllable ri, composed of the consonant r and the vowel i*. ^ ri is pronounced nearly as the ri in chagrin, being hardly distinguishable from the syllable if ; but in the case of the vowels ri and ri there is a mere vibration of the tongue in the direction of the upper gums, whereas in pronouncing the consonant r, the tongue should actually touch them (compare 19 and 20): E e as the e in prey; ^ft o as in so; % ai as ai in aisle; WT au as au in the German baum or as ou in the English our. 75 Iri and "?£ Iri do not differ in sound from the letter pi / with the vowels ri and ri annexed, but as before remarked the vowel «j Iri only occurs in one root, viz. Tjjtj klrip, 'to make;' and its long form is not found in any word in the language. As to the Vaidik 35 Ira or la, see 16. a.

d. Hence it appears that every simple vowel in Sanskrit has a short and a long form, and that each vowel has one invariable sound; so that the beginner can never be in doubt what pronunciation to give it, as in English, or whether to pronounce it long or short, as in Latin.

e. Note, however, that Sanskrit possesses no short e and 0 in opposition to the long diphthongal sounds of e and 0.

/. In comparing Sanskrit words with Greek and Latin, it will be found that the Sanskrit V a usually answers to the Greek 0 as well as to 6 (especially in vocative cases); and rarely to a. In Latin, the Sanskrit ^ a is represented by u as well as by a, e, and o. Again, the Sanskrit ^STa is generally replaced by the Greek i) or », rarely by a long alpha. In Latin it is represented by long a or even by long e.

9. Although for all practical purposes it is sufficient to regard vowels as either short or long, it should be borne in mind that native grammarians give eighteen different modifications of each of the vowels a, i, u, ri, and twelve of Iri, which are thus explained :—Each of the first four vowels is supposed to have three prosodial lengths, a short (krasva), a long (dfrgha), and a prolated (pluta); the long being equal to two, and the prorated to three short vowels. Each of these three modifications may be uttered with a high tone, or a low tone, or a tone between high and low; or in other words, may have the acute, or the grave, or the circumflex accent. This gives nine modifications to a, i, u, ri; and each of these again may

* That there is not, practically, much difference between the pronunciation of the vowel ri and the syllable ft ri may be gathered from the fact that some words beginning with I are also found written with it, and vice versa; thus, ftft and air, ftftr and ^jPi, ft*T and ^T- Still the distinction between the definition of a vowel and consonant at 19 and 20 should be borne in mind. There is no doubt that in English the sound of ri in the words merrily and rich is different, and that the former approaches nearer to the sound of a vowel.


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