Imatges de pàgina
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mr+daya remains MN nirdaya, 'without pity;' and ftrr.+^T nir+rasa is m «.♦* m'rasa, 'without flavour.'

d. After the analogy of 65. a, final ar before initial r drops its own r, and lengthens the preceding a; as tJ»TT+T^fiTpunar+rakshali becomes ^TT TT^fif pund rakshati, 'again he preserves.'

e. But in opposition to 64 and 66, final WE ar, unlike ^Rf da, remains unchanged before any soft letter (consonant or vowel): thus HIiR + WJJprdtor-f-dia remains uiiU.131 prdtardsa, 'morning meal;' tpT* + Trrfirpunar + ydti remains tprr. Trrfir punar yiiti,' again he goes.'

73. tr at the end of the first member of a compound, before ^ i, *t p, and their aspirates, may either become Visarga, by 63, or more usually follows 69, and passes into Bs, which is liable to become 'R sh by 70 : 'thus ftrt+'"S3 nir+phala becomes (n■»•<>» nishphala, 'without fruit.' In the case of eTT.+W dur+kka, V!M is more common than g""

73. T r may optionally double any consonant, except ? A, that immediately follows it: thus format nir+daya may be written either f«i3«« nirdaya or ftT^l nirddaya, 'merciless;' but it does not double a sibilant followed by B vowel, as in MR 71. a. It is said that A may have the same effect as r in doubling a consonant immediately following; but this is not observed in practice.

a. The doubling of consonants, when they come in contact with others, is constantly allowable in Sanskrit, though not usual in practice. Thus, in any conjunction of two (or even more) consonants preceded by a short vowel (or even occasionally a long vowel), especially if a semivowel be the last letter in the compound, the first letter, provided it be not ^. or w, may be doubled; thus V% may be written for p, ^Id for HUM (see 40. a), ^TTcRni for it^I'VW, but the more simple form is preferable.

The following table exhibits the more common combinations of consonants at one view. Observe, that in the top line of initial letters the aspirated consonants have been omitted, because it is an universal rule, that whatever change takes place before any consonant, the same holds good before its aspirate.

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* n is only doubled if preceded by a short vowel.

t A final n before & and,/ is often allowed to remain unchanged.

CHAPTER III.

ON SANSKRIT ROOTS, AND THE FORMATION OF THE CRUDE BASES OF NOUNS.

Before treating of Sanskrit nouns (Ofil or 'mm), it will be advisable to point out in what respect the peculiar system adopted in their formation requires an arrangement of the subject different from that to which we are accustomed in other languages.

74. In Sanskrit nouns (including substantives, adjectives, pronouns, and numerals) there is this great peculiarity, that every one of them has two distinct states prior to the formation of the nominative case; viz. 1st, a root (dhdtu); 2dly, coming directly from the root, a state which is called the crude form or crude base [prdtipadika); that is to say, a state antecedent to inflection, and anterior to any of the cases, even the nominative. This crude form or crude base of the noun is sometimes termed the inflective base, because it generally coincides with this inflective base or anga * (Pan. I. 4,13), i. e. with that changed form of the root, which serves as the basis for the construction of the case t

In the first place, then, let us inquire what is the root?

There are in Sanskrit about two thousand elementary sounds {dhdtu), out of which, as out of so many blocks, are carved and fashioned, not only all the nouns, but all the verbs which exist in the language.

a. Though the root may be compared to a rough block, or to the raw material, out of which nouns and verbs are constructed, yet the student must understand that in the dialect of the Vedas, and even in modern classical Sanskrit, roots are not unfrequently used by themselves as substantives and adjectives, and are very commonly so used at the end of compounds. See 84, 87, and 172.

* The an-ga or inflective base though often identical with the crude form or crude Ijase is not always so; thus, in the model of the 1st class of nouns masculine, the crude base is siva, but the inflective base is not only siva, but also Hvd, five, and seven.

t The crude word, before declension, is called prdtipadika (or sometimes s'tibda), whereas pada is the name for the inflected word, or base and case-affix together.

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