Imatges de pàgina
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959. Atidhriti (19 syllables to the half-line).

Of this there are 13 varieties. The commonest is—

1 a 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 la || 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 960. S'drdtila-vikridita, w v — \j \j \j \j \\ v^ v —

Caesura at the 12th syllable.

961. Eriti (20 syllables to the half-line). Of these there are 4 varieties; none of which are common.

962. Prakriti (21 syllables to the half-line).

1 a 3 4 5 6 7 II 8 9 10 11 ia 13 14 || 15 16 17 18 19 ao 11

963. Sragdhard, w | w ^ w w \j <*< — || — \s — — ««> — —

Caesura at the 7th and 14th syllables.

964. Of the remaining metres determined by the number of syllables in the half-line, Akriti has 23 syllables, and includes 3 varieties; Vikriti 23 syllables, 6 varieties; San-kriti 24 syllables, 5 varieties; Atikriti 25 syllables, 2 varieties; Utkriti 26 syllables, 3 varieties; and Dandaka is the name given to all metres which exceed Utkriti in the number of syllables.

965. There are two metres, however, peculiar to the Vedas, called Gdyatri and Ushnih. The first of these has only 6 syllables to the quarter-verse, and includes 11 varieties; the second has 7 syllables to the half-line, and includes 8 varieties.

a. Observe, that when the half-line is so short, the whole verse is sometimes written in one line.

b. Observe also, that great license is allowed in Vaidik metres: thus in the

966. Odyatri,

which may be regarded as consisting of a triplet of 3 divisions of 8 syllables each,

or of 6 feet of 4 syllables each, generally printed in one line, the quantity of each

syllable is very irregular. The following verse exhibits the most usual quantities:

1 1 3

but even in the ob verse of each division the quantity may vary.

ad class of Metres, consisting of two lines, determined by the number of Syllables * in the Whole Line (each whole line being alike, ardha-sama).

967. This class contains 7 genera, but no varieties under each genus. Of these the commonest are—

968. Vaitdliya (21 syllables to the whole line).

1 « 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II 11 11 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 11 I

W W — WW — W — W — || W V — — WW — W — W • |

There is a caesura at the loth syllable.

969. AupaMhandasika (23 syllables to the whole line).

The scheme of this metre is the same as the last, with a long syllable added after the 10th and last syllable in the line; the caesura being at the 1 ith syllable.

970. Pushpitdgrd (25 syllables to the whole line).

1 1 34 i 6 7 8 9 10 11 ia 11 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 I

w w w w w w — w — w — — v w u u — w w — w — w — • J

There is a caesura at the 12th syllable.

3d class of Metres, consisting of two lines, determined by the number of Feet in the whole verse (each foot containing generally four instants or mdtrds).

This class of metres is called J tilt.

971. Note—Each foot is supposed to consist of four instants, and to short syllable is equivalent to one instant, a long syllable to two. Hence only such feet can be

* This class of metres is said to be regulated by the number of feet or instants in the line, in the same way as the 3d class. But as each line is generally distributed into fixed long or short syllables, and no option is allowed for each foot between the spondee, anapest, dactyl, proceleusmaticus, and amphibrach, it will obviate confusion to regard this class as determined by syllables, like the 1st.

used as are equivalent to four instants; and of this kind are the dactyl (— w w),

the spondee ( ), the anapaest (w w —), the amphibrach (w — w), and the

proceleusmaticus (w w w w); any one of which may be employed.

Of this class of metres the commonest is the

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Each line consists of seven and a half feet; and each foot contains four instants, excepting the 6th of the second line, which contains only one, and is therefore a single short syllable. Hence there are 30 instants in the first line, and 27 in the second. The half-foot at the end of each line is generally, but not always, a long syllable; the 6th foot of the first line must be either an amphibrach or proceleusmaticus; and the 1st, 3d, 5th, and 7th feet must not be amphibrachs. The caesura commonly takes place at the end of the 3d foot in each line, and the measure is then sometimes called Pathyd. The following are a few examples:

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973. The Udgtii metre only differs from the Aryd in inverting the lines, and placing the short line, with 27 instants, first in order.

974. There are three other varieties:—In the Upagfti, both lines consist of 2; instants; in the Giti, both consist of 30 instants; and in the Arydgiti, of 32.

INDEX I.

Observe—The number* refer to the number of the rule.

Abstract nouns, 80. IX. X.XII.XXIII.

81. V. 85. IV.
Accentuation, 24.
Adjectives, 184; syntax of, 814.
Adverbial compounds, 760.
Adverbs, 712; syntax of, 917.
Affixes; forming nouns, substantive and

adjective, 80; forming adverbs, 718.
Agency, nouns of, 579.
Aggregative compounds, 746.
Akriti, a kind of metre, 964.
Alphabet, 1—26.
Anomalous compounds, 777.
Anubandhas, 75. e.
Anunasika, 7.

Anusbtubh, a kind of metre, 935.
Anusvara, 6.

Aorist, see Third preterite.
Aptotes, 71 J.
Ardha-visarga, 8. a.
Ardhakara, 10.
Arya, a kind of metre, 97a.
Aryagiti, a kind of metre, 974.
Ashti, a kind of metre, 953.
Atidhriti, a kind of metre, 959.
Atijagati, a kind of metre, 944.
Atikriti, a kind of metre, 964.
Atisakvari, a kind of metre, 950.
Atmane-pada, 243, 786.
Atyashti, a kind of metre, 953.
Augment ^1 a, 260, 260. a. b.
Avyayi-bhava compounds, 760.
Bahu-vrihi compounds, 761.

Base, of nouns, 74, 77; formation of
base of nouns, 79, 80—87; inflection
of, 88—183; of verbs, 244; formation
of the base of verbs, 256—517.

Benedictive, 242; terminations of, 246;
formation of the base of, 442; syntax
of, 890.

Cardinals, 198; declension of, 200.

Cases of nouns, 90.

Causal verbs, 479; terminations of, 480;
formation of the base of, 481; passive
form of, 496; syntax of, 847.

Candra-vindu, 7.

Classes, of nouns, 79; of verbs, see Con-
jugation.

Classification of letters, 18.

Collective or Dvigu compounds, 759;
nouns, 80. XII. XXIII.

Combination (euphonic) of vowels, 27;
of consonants, 39; of the finals of
verbal bases with terminations, 296.

Comparative degree, 191, 194; syntax
of, 829.

Comparison, degrees of, 191,192; syntax
of, 829.

Complex compounds, 770.

Compound consonants, 5.

Compound verbs, 782, 787.

Compound words, 733—737; Tat-puru-
sha or Dependent, 739; Dvandva or
Copulative (Aggregative), 746; Kar-
ma-dharaya or Descriptive (Determi-
native), 755; Dvigu or Numeral (Col-
lective), 759; Avyayi-bhava or Ad-
verbial (Indeclinable), 760; Bahu-
vtihi or Relative, 761 ; Complex, 770;
Anomalous, 777; changes undergone
by certain words at the end of, 778.

Conditional, 242; terminations of, 246,
247; formation of the base of, 456;
syntax of, 89 I.

Conjugational tenses, 241, 248.

Conjugations of verbs, summary of, 249;
three groups of, 257; first group of,
259; second and third groups of, 290.
1st conj, 261; examples, 587: 2d
conj., 307; examples, 644: 3d conj.,
330; examples, 662: 4th conj., 272;
examples, 612t 5th conj., 349; exam-
ples, 675: 6th conj., 278; examples,
625: 7th conj., 342; examples, 667:
8th conj., 353; examples, 682: 9th
conj., 356; examples, 686: loth conj.,
283; examples, 638.

Conjunction (euphonic), see Combina-
tion.

Conjunctions, 727; syntax of, 912.

Consonants, 1; method of writing, 4;
compound, 5; pronunciation of, 12;
combination of, 39.

Copulative compounds, see Dvandva.

Crude form or base, 77.

Dandaka, a kind of metre, 964.

Declension; general observations, 88;
of nau, a ship,' 94; of 1st class of
nouns in a, d, i, 103—109; of 2d
class in 1, no, 112, 114; of 3d class
in u, in, 113, 115; of nouns in t
and u, 123—126; of 4th class in ri,
127—130; of 5th class in / and d,
136—145; of 6th class in an and in,
146—162; of 7th class in as, is, and
us, 163—171; of 8th class in any
other consonant, 172—183.

Degrees of comparison, 191,192; syntax
of, 829.

Demonstrative pronouns, 223.

Dependent compounds, 739—745.

Derivative verbs, Mo.

Descriptive compounds or Karma-dha-

raya, 755.
Desiderative verbs, 498; terminations

of, 499; formation of the base, 500;

causal formof,5o6; nouns,80.XXII;

adjectives, 82, III.
Determinative compounds, see Descrip-
tive.
Devanagari alphabet, 1.
Dhriti, a kind of metre, 957.
Dvandva compounds, 746.
Dvigu compounds, 759.
Euphonic combination of vowels, 27;

of consonants, 39.
Examples of verbs, see Conjugations.
First preterite, 241, p. 121; terminations

of, 246, 247; formation of base of,

260, 261, 272, 278, 283,307,330, 342,
349. 353. 356: syntax of, 884-

Frequentative verbs, 507; Atmane-pada
frequentatives, 509; Parasmai-pada
frequentatives, 514 ; nouns, 80.XXII.

Future, first and second, 386; termina-
tions of, 246, 247; formation of the
base of, 388; syntax of, 886, 887.

Gayatri, a kind of metre, 965, 966.

Genders of nouns, 89.

Giti, a kind of metre, 974.

Guna change of vowels,27, 28.29; roots
forbidding Guna, 390.

Hard consonants, 18. a. A, 20.6, 39.

^ 1, rejected from itha in 2d sing, per-
fect, 370: roots ending in vowels
inserting i, 392; rejecting », 394;
optionally inserting or rejecting i,
395: roots ending in consonants in-
serting 1,399; rejecting!,400; option-
ally inserting or rejecting i, 415.

Imperative, 241, p. 121; terminations
of, 246,247; formation of the base of,

261, 272, 278, 283,307,330,342,349.
353'356J syntax of, 882.

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