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Anna, see ninth sentence. Jieitaryam, 'to be lived,' nom. case, neut. of the fut. pass. part, of the rootj'ip (569, 905.0, 907). Tdvat, ' so long,' adv. correlative to ydvat (713. a). Idam,' this,' nom. case, neut. of the demonstrative pronoun at 224. Mama, of me,' gen. case of the pronoun aham, 'I,' at 218. Svarupdkhydnam,
story of my original condition,' genitively dependent compound (743); the first member formed by the crude noun srarupa, 'natural form' (see 232); the second, by the nom. case of dkhydna, noun of the first class, neuter (104): m retained by 60. Akfrti-karam, 'disgraceful,' accusatively dependent compound (739); the first member formed by the crude noun akirti, 'disgrace;' the second, by the nom. case, neut. of the participial noun of agency kara, 'causing,' from kri, to do' (580). Na, 'not,' adv. (717.0). Paldyishyate, 'will die away,' 3d sing. 2d fut. Atm. of the compound verb paldy, formed by combining the root i with the prep, pard (783).
Twelfth sentence.—Iti,' thus,' adv. (717.*; see also 928). Samdlofya,' reflecting,' indeclinable part, of the compound verb sam-d-lo6 (559), formed by combining the root lot with the prepositions sam and d (784). Munim, ace. case. Hantun,
to kill,' infinitive mood of the root Aon (458, 868, and 634). Samudyatah, ' prepared,' nom. case, sing. masc. of the past pass. part, of the compound verb sam-ud-yam, formed by combining the root yam with the prepositions sam and
Thirteenth sentence.—Munis, nom. case: final * remains by 62. Tasya, 'of him,' gen. case of the pronoun tat (220). Ciktrshitam,' intention,' ace. case, neut. of the past pass. part, of the desiderative base of the root kri, ' to do' (550 and 502), used as a substantive (896. 6). Jhiitrtl, 'discovering.' indeclinable part, of the root jhd (556 and 688). Pvnar, 'again,' adv. (717. f): r remains by 71.?. Mushiko, nom. case: as changed to 0 by 64. Bkava,' become,' 2d sing. impv. of the root bhu (585). Ity answers to inverted commas, see 927. a: the final i changed to y by 34. Vkttd, ' saying,' indeclinable part, of the root rat (556 and 650). Mushika, nom. case: final s dropped by 66. Eva,' indeed,' adv. (717).
SENTENCES AND FABLE TO BE TRANSLATED AND PARSED. 933. Note—The numbers over the words in the following sentences and fable refer to the rules of the foregoing grammar.
wo i*\. I, Hot tie « <rt
Aft* til 111 flOT A *(• • ftp?
SCHEME OF THE MORE COMMON SANSKRIT METRES.
ist class of Metres, consisting of two lines, determined by the number of Syllables in the half-line (Vritta).
Note—It may be useful to prefix to the following schemes of metres a list of technical prosodial terms: Tt^ = the fourth part of a verse; WO = an instant or short syllable; fPH = four instants; *rfir = a pause; *J^ or 1 = a long syllable
(—); <T$ or ?S = a short syllable (w); TT = a spondee ( ); c5W = a pyrrhic
(w w); Tr$ = a trochee (-w); c?*T = an iambus (w —); 1 = a molossus
( ); W = a dactyl (— w w); 'T = a tribrach (wow); *I = a bacchic
(w ); T^ = a cretic (— w —); W = an anapaest (w w -); TT = an anti
bacchic ( w); W = an amphibrach (w — w).
Shka or Anushtubh (8 syllables to the half-line or Pada).
935. The commonest of all the infinite variety of Sanskrit metres is the S'loka or Anushtubh. This is the metre which chiefly prevails in the great epic poems.
It consists of four half-lines of 8 syllables or two lines of 16 syllables each, but the rules which regulate one line apply equally to the other; so that it is only necessary to give the scheme of one line, as follows:—
,33456 7 8 j| 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
Note—The mark • denotes either long or short.
The 1 st, 2d, 3d, 4th, 9th, 10th, nth, and 12th syllables may be either long or short. The 8th, as ending the half-line, and the 16th, as ending the line, are also common. Since the line is considered as divided into two parts at the 8th syllable, it is an almost universal rule that this syllable must end a word, whether simple or compound'.
The 5th syllable ought always to be short. The 6th may be either long or short; but if long, then the 7th ought to be long also; and if short, then the 7th ought to be short also. But occasional variations from these last rules occur.
The last 4 syllables form two iambics; the 13th being always short, the 14th always long, and the 15th always short.
Every S'loka, or couplet of two lines, ought to form a complete sentence in itself, and contain both subject and predicate. Not unfrequently, however, in the Ramayana and Mahabharata, three lines are united to form a triplet.
936. In the remaining metres determined by the number of syllables in the half-line, each half-line is exactly alike (same) ; so that
* There are, however, rare examples of compound words running through a whole line.
it is only necessary to give the scheme of one half-line, or quarter of the verse (Pada).
Note, that in printed books each quarter of the verse, if it consist of more than 8 syllables, is often made to occupy a line.
937. Trishfubh (11 syllables to the half-line).
Of this there are 21 varieties. The commonest are—
113 45678 9 to 11
938. Indra-vajrd, — — w — — w w — w — •
1234S6789 10 11
939. Upendra-vajrd, w — w — — w w — w — •
There is generally a caesura at the 5th syllable. Note—The above 2 varieties are sometimes mixed in the same stanza; in which case the metre is called Upajdti or AkhydnaM.
1 1 3 4 s 6 7 8 9 10 11 II
940. Rathoddhatd, -w-www-w-w
941. Jagati (13 syllables to the half-line).
Of this there are 30 varieties. The commonest are—
1 1 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
942. Vamia-tthavila, w — w — — w w — w — w -r*
it 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II If
943. Druta-vilambita, www — w w — w w — w T
944. Atijagati (13 syllables to the half-line).
Of this there are 16 varieties. The commonest are—
1 1 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 is 13
945. Mahju-bhdshini, w w — w — www — w— w-r
1 a 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
946. Praharshinf, ___ w w w w - w — w - -r
1 2 3 4 5 6 7-8 9 10 11 12 13
947. Rutird orPrabhdvati, w — w — www w — w — w —
948. Sakvari or Sakkari or Sarkari (14 syllables to the half-line).
Of this there are 20 varieties. The commonest is—
1 a 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 I 949. Va*anta-tilakd, — — w — www — w w— w— — I
950. Atiiakvari or Atiiakkarl or Atiiarkari (15 syllables to the
Of this there are 18 varieties. The commonest is—
1 33 4 S 6 7 8 || 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 || 951. MdlM or Mdnini, www www--||-w--w-— |;
There is a caesura at the 8th syllable.
* The mark "T" is meant to show that the last syllable is long at the end of the half-line, but long or short at the end of the line.