Imatges de pàgina
PDF

ON THE USE OF THE PARTICLE ^fir. 927. All the languages of the East are averse to the use of the obliqua or alio. In Sanskrit it is rarely admitted; and when any one relates the words or describes the sentiments or thoughts of another, the relator generally represents him as speaking the actual words, or thinking the thoughts, in his own person.

a. In such cases the particle ^TiT (properly meaning ' so,' 'thus') is often placed after the words quoted, and may be regarded as serving the purpose of inverted commas; thus, f$l«ll 3Tg: ^TT<jpTT ^*PT ^fif 'the pupils said, "We have accomplished our object;'" not, according to the English or Latin idiom, the pupils said that they had accomplished their object.' So also, *«5><»iO ^Wt ~^f H«I 'your husband calls you " quarrelsome,"' where ^cos.*'<3 is in the nominative case, as being the actual word supposed to be spoken by the husband himself in his own person. So again, *PWP^ f^rrtTWHT J?i( *rif Mfujiut *PT V7J M*rt'-*r»d 'all the birds praise you in my presence, saying, " He is an object of confidence,"' where the particle ^vfT is equivalent to 'saying,' and the word nrora^Wni! is not in the accusative, to agree with «jHiiri, as might be expected, but in the" nominative, as being the actual word supposed to be uttered by the birds in their own persons. In some cases, however, the accusative is retained before ^fif, as in the following example from Manu: 'STsJ «rraH ^H^ TTJ: 'they call an ignorant man " child."' But in the latter part of the same line it passes into a nominative; as, ■ftTBTf T^ TJ •!««<; 'but (they call) a teacher of scripture "father."' II. 153.

928. In narratives and dialogues ^fil is often placed redundantly at the end of a speech. Again, it may have reference merely to what is passing in the mind either of another person or of one's self. When so employed, it is usually joined with the indeclinable participle, or of some other part of a verb signifying ' to think,' 'to suppose,' &c, and may be translated by the English conjunction ' that," to which, in fact, it may be regarded as equivalent; thus, WWZ\ M«ci qis^iii ^Trl HiVs<iq ' having ascertained that it is a monkey who rings the bell;' g«i< -ti^fd: ^TOfllT jfit nfitT. TW^T 'his idea was that an increase of wealth ought again to be made;' V^ft S^ t^f <!ril£$U HTOTT s^fir mT« MMUI 'reflecting in his mind that I am happy in possessing such a wife.' The accusative is also retained before ^fir in this sense; as, RTW jfn" Hf^T ' thinking that he was dead." In all these examples the use of ^fn" indicates that a quotation is made of the thoughts of the person at the time when the event took place.

929. Not unfrequcntly the participle 'saying,' 'thinking,' 'supposing,' &C-, is omitted altogether, and ^uT itself involves the sense of such a participle; as. ■^Tc5^ sfq ^ SWifft fl«P«T ^fir >jf*ni: ' a king, even though a child, is not to be despised, saying to one's self, " He is a mortal;"' ^fl^l^l^ *TT fajj^ 3[fil Tt

[ocr errors]

CHAPTER X.

EXERCISES IN TRANSLATION AND PARSING.

930. STORY OF THE SAGE AND THE MOUSE, FROM ' THE HITOPADESA,' TRANSLATED AND PARSED.

ist sentence. ^rftrT iffrnTO *^^ f1M\«M TJ^MMI *i\H ^t«7t I 'There is in the sacred grove of the sage Gautama a sage named Mahatapas (Great-devotion).'

• • ©\ • • o v

fPf* I 'By him, in the neighbourhood of his hermitage, a young

mouse, fallen from the beak of a crow, was seen.'

3d. rmt ^rp^i 7R Tjfarn ^ftarrsw ^ntfvw: i

'Then by that sage, touched with compassion, with grains of wild rice it was reared/

4th. rf^Hcrit jjftft yif<iJH ^PflFFT fkZTfft

3T| Rm €^« I 'Soon after this, a cat was observed by the sage running after the mouse to devour it.'

5th. rf *jfa^ vftrTO ^TTcTfal rTOTWRTr^ ^H

^f^TI ffa«fit "^fc^t feT<^: ^rf- I 'Perceiving the mouse terrified, by that sage, through the efficacy of his devotion, the mouse was changed into a very strong cat.'

6th. ^ fete*: ff^ f^Hfif I HIT: ^fT- *jH: I

'The cat fears the dog: upon that it was changed into a dog. Great is the dread of the dog for a tiger: then it was transformed into a tiger.'

'Now the sage regards even the tiger as not differing at all from the mouse.'

8th. w: *R rHWI "SRra rf ^TTO STJT ^R=iT I'

'Then all the persons residing in the neighbourhood, seeing the tiger, say.'

9th. #r *jf?RT irfa^ts^i ^ivirii rftrr: i • By this

sage this mouse has been brought to the condition of a tiger.'

loth. XTfT^^ft\ ^ ^TSi: ^^Rt Sf^FPTT^l« The tiger overhearing this, being uneasy, reflected.'

nth. "m^%. ^pr ^fH*TT sfl'farfoii m&% 33. *ro ^^nj^MH ^nflfi^t Ft TOTftp*ra I * As iong as it

shall be lived by this sage, so long this disgraceful story of my original condition will not die away.'

12th. iffT *T*TT C^t^J flfff fnj H*J*lrf: I' Thus reflecting, he prepared (was about) to kill the sage.'

i3th. ^fVi^T TTCZI f^^tf^H ^TrTT SR Jj(M<fl H3

"ir«4 ^}^)| IJJ^^i Tim "^\f{' I 'The sage discovering his intention, saying, "Again become a mouse," he was reduced to (his former state of) a mouse.'

931. Observe in this story: 1st, the simplicity of the style; 2dly, the prevalence of compound words; 3dly, the scarcity of verbs; 4thly, the prevalence of the past passive participle with the agent in the instrumental case for expressing indefinite past time, in lieu of the past tense active with the nominative: see 895, with note.

932. First sentence.—Asti,' there is,' 3d sing. pres. of the root as, 2d c. (see 584). Gautamasya,' of Gautama,' gen. case m. (103). Amines, ' of the sage,' gen. case m. (no): finals remains by 62. Tapo-vane,' in the sacred grove,'or'grove of penance,' genitively dependent compound (743); the first member formed by the crude noun tapas, ' penance,' as being changed to o by 64; the last member, by the loc. case of vana, 'grove,' neut. (104). Mahd-tapd, great-devotion,' relative form of descriptive compound (766); the first member formed by the crude adjective makd (substituted for mahat 778), 'great;' the last member, by the nom. case of tapas, 'devotion,' neut. (164): final * dropped by 66. a. Xdma, 'by name,' an adverb (713). Munih, 'a sage,' masc, nom. case (no): final * passes into Visarga by 63.0.

Second sentence.—Tena, by him,' instr. case of the pronoun tat at 320. Asrama-sannidkdne, in the neighbourhood of his hermitage,' genitively dependent compound (743); the first member formed by the crude noun ttirama, 'hermitage;' the last member, by the loc. case of sannidhdna, neighbourhood,' neut. (104). The final a of tena blends with the initial a of drama by 31. Mushika-sdrakah, a young mouse,' or the young of a mouse,' genitively dependent compound (743); the first member formed by the crude noun mushika, B mouse;' the last, by the nom. case of s'dvaka, 'the young of any animal' (103): final 8 becomes Visarga by 63. Kdka-mukhdd,' from the beak (or mouth) of a crow,' genitively dependent member formed by the crude noun kdka, a crow;' the last, by the abl. case of mukha, 'mouth,' noun of the first class, neut. (104); t being changed to d by 45. Bhrashto, fallen,' nom. case, sing. masc. of the past pass. part, of the root bhrams (544. a): as changed to o by 64. Dftshtaft, 'seen,' nom. case, sing. masc. of the past pass. part, of the root dru.- final s becomes Visarga by 63. a.

Third sentence.—Tato,' then,' adv. (719): as changed to 0 by 64. Dayd-yuktena, touched with compassion,' instrumentally dependent compound (740); the first member formed by the crude noun dayd, ' compassion;' the last, by the instr. case of yukta,' endowed with,' past pass. part, of the root yuj (670). Tena, see second sentence. Martina, ' by the sage,' instr. case m. (110). Nfcdra-kanaUi, with grains of wild rice,' genitively dependent compound (743); the first member formed by the crude noun m'rdra, wild rice;' the second, by the instr. plur. of kana .final * becomes Visarga by 63. Samvardhitah, 'reared,' nom. case, sing, of the past pass. part, of causal of vridh with sam (549): final s becomes Visarga by 63. a.

Fourth sentence.—Tad-anantaram,' soon after this,' compound adverb; the first member formed with the pronoun tat, 'this,' at 220; the second, by the adverb anantaram, 'after,' at 751 and 917. Mushikam, ace. case m. (103). Kkdditum,' to eat.' infinitive mood of the root khdd (458, 868). Anudhdvan, ' pursuing after,' running after,' nom. case, sing. masc. of the pres. part. Par. of the root dhdv,' to run,' with the preposition anu, 'after' (5:4). Viddlo, 'a cat,' noun of the first class, masc. (103), nom. case: as changed to 0 by 64. Munind, see third sentence. Dfish{ah, see second sentence.

Fifth sentence.—Tain, ace. case, masc. of the pronoun tat at 220, used as a definite article, see 795. Mushikam, see fourth sentence. Bhitam, 'terrified,' ace. sing. masc. of the past pass. part, of the root bh( (532). Alokya, ' perceiving,' indeclinable part, of the root lock, with the prep, d (559). Tapah-prabkdtdt, 'through the efficacy of his devotion'(814), genitively dependent compound (743); the first member formed by the crude noun tapas, 'devotion,' s being changed to Visarga by 63; the second, by the abl. case of prabkdva, noun of the first class, masc. (103). Tena, see second sentence. Munind, see third sentence. Muskiko, nom. case: as changed to o by 64. Balishlko, ' very strong,' nom. case, masc. of the superlative form of the adj. balin, 'strong' (see 193): as changed to o by 64. Viddlah, see fourth sentence: final s becomes Visarga by 63. Kritah, ' changed,' 'made,' nom. case, sing, of the past pass. part, of the root kri at 682: final 1 becomes Visarga by 63. a.

Sixth sentence.—Sa, nom. case of the pronoun tat at 220, used as a definite article (795): final s dropped by 67. Viddlah, see fourth sentence. Kukkurdd, 'the dog' (103), abl. case after a verb of fearing' (855): t changed to d by 43. Bibhtti, ' fears,' 3d sing. pres. tense of the root bhi, 3d c. (666). Tatah, 'upon that,' adv. (719): as changed to ah by 63. Kukkurah,' the dog,' nom. case (103): final s becomes Visarga by 6^. Kritah, see fifth sentence. Kukkurasya, ' of the dog,' gen. case (103). Vydghrdn, ' for the tiger' (103), abl. case after a noun of 'fear' (814. e): t changed to n by 47. Mahad, great' (142), nom. case, sing, neut.: t changed to d by 45. Bhayam,' fear' (104), nom. case. Tad-anantaram, see fourth sentence. Vydghrah, nom. case: final s becomes Visarga by 63. Kritah, see fifth sentence.

Seventh sentence.—Atha, ' now,' inceptive particle (727. c). Vydghram, ace. case. Api, 'even,' adv. Miishika-nirvisesham, ' as not differing at all from the mouse,' relative form of dependent compound (762); the first member formed by the crude noun mushika; the second, by the ace. case of the substantive visesha, 'difference,' with nir prefixed: or it may be here taken adverbially, see 776. Pafyati, 3d sing. pres. tense of the root dris, 1st c. (604). Manih, see first sentence.

Eighth sentence.—Atah, 'then,' adv. (719). Sane, 'all,' pronominal adj., nom. case, plur. masc. (237). Tatra-sthd, ' residing in the neighbourhood,' compound resembling a locatively dependent; the first member being formed by the adverb tatra (720),' there,' or ' in that place;' the second, by the nom. plur. masc. of the participial noun of agency of the root sthd, to remain' (587): final * dropped by 66. a. Jands,' persons,' noun of the first class, masc. gend. (103), nom. case, plur.: final s remains by 62. Tarn, ace. case of the pronoun tat (220), used as a definite article (79.j). Vydghram, 'tiger,' noun of the first class, masc. gend. (103), ace. case. Drishtvd, ' having seen,' indeclinable past participle of the root drii (556). Vadanti, 'they say,' 3d plur. pres. of the root vad, 1st c. (599).

Ninth sentence.—Anena, 'by this,' instr. case of the pronoun idam at 224. Munind, see third sentence. Miishiko, nom. case: as changed to 0 by 64. o. Ayam, ' this,' nom case, see 224: the initial a cut off by 64. a. Vydghratdm, the condition of a tiger,' fern, abstract noun of the first class (105), ace. case, formed from the substantive rydghra, 'a tiger,' by the affix td (80. XXIII). Kitah, 'brought,' nom. case, sing. masc. of the past pass. part, of the root m'at 532.

Tenth sentence.—Etaf, this,' ace. case, neut. of etat at 223: / changed to 6 by 49. Clirutrd, 'overbearing,' indeclinable participle of the root s'm (676 and 556); see 49. Vydghrah, nom. case: final * becomes Visarga by 63. Sa-ryatho, ' uneasy,' relative form of indeclinable compound, formed by prefixing saha to the fem. substantive ryathd (769): as changed to 0 by 64. a. Atintnyat, 'reflected,' 3d sing. impf. of tint, 10th c. (641): the initial a cut off by 64. a.

Eleventh sentence.— Vdrnd, 'as long as,' adv. (713): / changed to d by 45.

« AnteriorContinua »