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sam-pra-vadante, 'they speak together;' but sam-pra-vadanti, they (the birdsj sing together;' apa-vadate. ' he reviles improperly;' but apa-vadati, he speaks against.' Without prep, vad is Atmane, to be learned in interpreting' (the S'astras), or ' to be earnest in the study of any thing' (as agriculture, &C.). —M, to carry;' pra-vahati, 'it (the river) flows along.'—the 'to know;' sam-vitte, he is
conscious,' sain-vidate or sam-vidrate, 'they are conscious' (308). ""l 'to
enter;' see 243. a. Wt 'to swear;' sapate, 'he swears at' (with dat.).
T to hears' snm-srinoti, he hears (the speech);' but sam-srinute, he hears
well' (intransitively). WT ' to stand;' ava-tishthate, he waits patiently;' pra
tishthate, he sets out;' vi-tishthate,' he stands apart;' san(for sam)-tishthate, he stays with;' upa-tishthate, he worships,' 'he attends on.' Without prep. sthd takes the Atmane when it denotes adhering to,' depending on,' as tishthale Krishndya, ' he places his trust in Krishna;' but upa-tishthati, he waits on' (not in a religious sense, and governing an accus. c); ut-tishthate, he aspires'(as to
salvation'); but ut-tishthati,'he rises' (as 'from a seat'). Wt, 'to strike;' d-hatt
(see 654), ' he or it strikes' ('himself or itself,' the object being omitted); but
d-hanti vrishabham,' he strikes the bull.' ^ ' to sound ;' sam-svarate, it sounds
clearly' it ' to seize;' anu-harate, he takes after (the disposition of his father
or mother),' otherwise anu-harati.—^ ' to call;' upa-hvayate or ni-ktayate or vi-hvayate or sam-hvayate, ' he calls,' he invokes;' d-hvayate, he challenges' (as an enemy); but d-hvayati, ' he calls (his son).'
a. Some casuals are also restricted to either Parasmai or Atmane, according to the preposition prefixed or the meaning involved; thus the causal of *T? with Mr, meaning ' to bewitch,' is limited to the Atman. So also, *TW ' to be greedy,' when its causal means 'to deceive,' is restricted to the Atmane: and the causal of 1^, meaning ' to deceive,' takes the Atmane; meaning to avoid,' the Parasmai. Again, "<f in the causal, when joined with tnitkyd, and signifying to pronounce badly,' takes the Parasmai; but only in the sense of doing so once. In the sense of causing a false alarm' it requires the Atman; but the above specimens will suffice to show the little profit likely to be derived from pursuing this part of the subject farther.
Compound Verbs formed by combining Adverbs with the roots
Zf kri and >T bhu.
787. These are of two kinds; 1st, those formed by combining adverbs with 75 ' to make' and « ' to become;' 2dly, those formed by combining nouns used adverbially with these roots.
a. Examples of the first kind are, ^rpraj ' to adorn;' uuftiuh ' to make manifest' (see 72); ^rf^R ' to eject;' Ttt^; ' to place in front,' 'to follow;' fajrf^ ' to deprive;' *na ' to entertain as a guest;' WHWi ' to revere;' WTBJT3T, WJ^, 'to become manifest,' &c.
788. In forming the second kind, the final of a crude word, being
790. Compound adverbs are formed, 1st, by combining adverbs, prepositions, and adverbial prefixes, with nouns in the nom. or accus. singular neuter; idly, by placing adverbs, or adjectives used as adverbs, after the crude base of nouns.
a. The first kind are identical with indeclinable compounds; see 760.
791. Most of the adverbs at 731 may be placed after the crude base of nouns; thus, 'ain't 'near the child;' carpi 'tor the sake of protection;' jrsrrif' for the sake of offspring;' Nay ' on what account?' Sl^tilUMM-al 'after uttering a sound.' See also 777. d.
792. The indeclinable participle ^TITWt' having begun,' is joined with 'HIT, 'today' (n«ii«.dl), in the sense of 'from this time forward;' and with the crude of words to express ' beginning from;' see 925. JWTTI is used adverbially in the same sense; as, M^nnjfir ' from birth upwards;' fl^nwffl ' from that time forward."
793. Sanskrit syntax, unlike that of Greek and Latin, offers fewer difficulties to the student than the other portions of the Grammar. In fact, the writer who has fully explained the formation of compounds has already more than half completed his exposition of the laws which regulate the order, arrangement, and collocation of the words in a sentence (vdkya-vinydsa, vdkya-viveka, paddnvaya).
794. Observe—In the present chapter on Syntax, that the subject may be made as clear as possible, each word will be separated from the next, and vowels will not be allowed to coalesce, although such coalition be required by the laws of combination. When compounds are introduced into the examples, a dot will often be placed underneath, to mark the division of the words. Much vagueness and uncertainty, however, may be expected to attach to the rules propounded, when it is remembered that Sanskrit literature consists almost entirely of poetry, and that the laws of syntax are ever prone to yield to the necessities of metrical composition.
795. There is no indefinite article in classical Sanskrit; but vrfaff (228) and in modern Sanskrit 5«ir (238) are sometimes used to supply the place of such an article; thus, *!<+fwH TT^f' in a certain country," vfigir^OTTTFR ' a certain jackal/ The definite article may not unfrequently be expressed by the pronoun H (220); thus, *r M^v: may mean simply 'the man,' not necessarily 'that man.'
CONCORD OF THE VERB WITH THE NOMINATIVE CASE.
796. The verb must agree with the nominative case in number and person; as, Wf «Mlfiu ' I must perform.'
a. Other examples are, Wf ^nvf? 'do thou attends' F e^TTTT 'he gives;' ^BrpjT f?: 'we two say,' mum 'T. 'the pigeons said;' TT»TT »raft I H'Hij: 'the king and minister went;' TR^ l«^i*l fflYiTC 'as long as the moon and sun remain;' ^T f^MUrt 'do you two reflect;' ^1^ w«un 'do ye come:' Kijhi: Ui*M 'good men are honoured;' ^ifn" <i<«i; 'the wind blows;' TifTnr $l$ll$! 'the moon rises;' *yi«rn troj' the flower blossoms.'
b. Observe—The verb is commonly, though not always, placed last in the sentence.
797. When a participle takes the place of the verb, it must agree with the nominative in number and gender; as, n »nn ' he went;' VI JtWT' she went;' ~n\h<( 3«Mi<f) ' the two women spoke;' TTWT 771: * the king was killed;' SHHlfn ftCTTftf ' the bonds were cut.'
a. Sometimes, when it is placed between two or more nominative cases, it agrees with one only; as, *S^^ OTftfinn JW 'his wife and son were awakened.'
ft. Very often the copula, or verb which connects the subject with the predicate, is omitted; when, if an adjective stand in the place of the verb, it will follow the rules of concord in gender and number; as, *PT JtW 'wealth is difficult of attainment;' ^HHT fAJ^IU 'we two have finished eating.' But if a substantive stand in the place of the verb, no concord of gender or number need take place; as. «♦*!<;: IJ^IT ^rnr^T ' successes are the road to misfortune.'
CONCORD OF THE ADJECTIVE WITH THE SUBSTANTIVE.
798. An adjective, participle, or adjective pronoun, qualifying a substantive, when not compounded with it, must agree with the substantive in gender, number, and case; as, Ttvj: V&K 'a good man;' »n^ yw 'great pain;' 5^3 «n7*3 TTjhj 'in these beforementioned countries;' srYfiff fa a I fin 'three friends.'
CONCORD OF THE RELATIVE WITH THE ANTECEDENT.
799. The relative must agree with the antecedent noun in gender, number, and person; but in Sanskrit the relative pronoun generally precedes the noun to which it refers, this noun being put in the same case with the relative, and the pronoun * follows in the latter clause of the sentence; as, vrtf Vrhj "^fs: *» WtS^TW ' of whatever man there is intellect, he is strong.'
a. The noun referred to by the relative may also be joined with IT, as <**** ^ffc H •Tft "WSVISI; or may be omitted altogether, as TT^ llfrfHM "rTTT TWffH 'what you have promised, that abide by;' *imi*i OlIAlfw Tf^Tinftl TTI (mckjiv: understood) f»isil«l fnTTCSfT ' by those (birds) whose young ones were devoured an inquiry was set on foot;' V. Htl^ ftm<H4 UIMJJI* *TO FnT^ TTBl'n' A*l\\ f^Tr^TBrcf: ^JTP^' he who would obtain all objects of sense, and he who despises them, of the two the despiser is the best.'
800. The relative sometimes stands alone, an antecedent noun or pronoun being understood, from which it takes its gender and number; as, "Mfll ftr *u W V*W ■^TPITn^ ' Of what use is scriptural knowledge (to one) who does not practice virtue?' VPT fii *H T c^lfn ' What is the use of wealth (to him) who does not give?'
a. Sometimes, though rarely, the antecedent noun precedes the relative in the natural order; as, T WT KnlT TWT WITT W JJ«lfrt ' she is not a wife in whom the husband does not take pleasure.'
801. niifl and min stand to each other in the relation of demonstrative and .