Imatges de pàgina
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b. Observe also, a sibilant is generally inserted between the prepositions ^ST, Tj HK, h|ri, W^, anj the roots oir' to do' and tf ' to scatter;' see above under ■oft and *HT. Similarly, from ^ and «| is formed WTOi*' excrement.'

c. The final i of ^rftf, nfir, Tft, fir, is optionally lengthened in forming certain nouns from compound verbs; as, iHrfl«R, Rlfalt, M<D^I«, •fl+K.

785. In conjugating compound verbs formed with prepositions, neither the augment nor the reduplication change their position, but remain attached to the root*; as, TpNri, impf. of .ft, with tjft; ■^nftrgt, impf. of f^st, with Til; ^g^ffirff, impf. of WT, with ^; HfrMVW, perf. of fH, with jjfrT; ift-nl^U., perf. of ^, with H and T^.

a. In the Veda, as in Homer, prepositions may be separated from the root by other words; as, ^tt RT fttyil 'let them enter thee.'

786. Grammarians restrict certain roots to either Parasmai-pada or A'tmane-pada when in combination with particular prepositions or when peculiar meanings are involved f. Some instances have been already given at 243. a. Most of the examples specified by Panini in the 3d ch. of his 1st Adhyaya are here added. The 3d sing, present will be given, the termination either in ti or te marking the pada to which in each case the root is supposed to be limited.

W^ ' to throw' is generally Parasmai, and "35^ ' to reason' is generally Atmane,

but combined with any prep, may take either pada. ^i' to do;' anu-karoti, 'he

imitates;' pard-karoti, he does well;' adhi-kurute, 'he overcomes;' ut-htrute,

he informs against,' 'reviles;' ud-d-kurute, 'he reviles;' upa-kurute, 'he worships;' upa-s-kurute (784. b), ' he prepares;' upa-s-karuti, he polishes;' pardkaroti, ' he rejects;' pra-kurute,' he offers violence,' ' he recites (stories).'—■* ' to scatter;' apa-s-kirate (784. b), 'he (the cock) throws up earth;' but apa-kirati, 'he scatters (as flowers).'—W 'to go;' d-kramate, ' he (the sun) ascends;' but d-krdmati when not in the sense of ' the rising of a luminary, &c.;' vi-kramate,

he (the horse) steps out;' but ri-krdmati, ' it (the joint) splits in two;' ttpakramate or pra-kramate, ' he is valiant;' but upa-krdmati, he approaches;' and pra-krdmati, 'he departs.'-—?|ft 'to buy;' ara-krtn(te, pari-krinite, ' he buys;' vi-kri'nite, ' he sells;' but kri alone takes either pada.—-Tlfhr 'to play;' d-kridate or anu-kriifate, ' he sports ;' pari-kri(late, 'he plays about;' san-{sam)-kHdate, ' he

* There are a few exceptions to this rule in the Maha-bharata; as in ^i»s«^h.i^ (Mahii-bhar. Selections, p. 33).

t In Epic poetry, however, there is much laxity; e. g. TiJ and JTT^, which are properly Atmanc-pada, are found in Parasmai. Instances of passive verbs taking Parasmai terminations have been given at 353. b. On the other hand. l*^ 'to rejoice,' which is properly a Parasmai-pada verb, is found in the Atmane.

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