Imatges de pàgina

substantive becoming susceptible of three genders, like an adjective (sec 108, 119, 130, 134. a). We have given the name relative to compounds when thus used, not only for the obvious reason of their being relatively and not absolutely employed, but also because they usually involve a relative pronoun, and are sometimes translated into English by the aid of this pronoun, and are, moreover, resolved by native commentators into their equivalent uncompounded words by the aid of the genitive case of the relative (*IW). Thus, Tf nrfj is a Descriptive compound, meaning 'great wealth,' and may be used adjectively in relation to M*>M«x, thus H^l^H: ^j^: 'a man who has great wealth;' or to *j-fl, thus qgiiMT ^' a woman who has great wealth;' and would be resolved by commentators into 1W or mm T?^ >R. In English we have similar compounds, as 'high-minded,' 'left-handed,' and the like, where the substantive terminating the compound is converted into an adjective.

Relative form of Tat-purusha or Dependent Compounds. 762. Many Dependent compounds (especially those that are instrumentally dependent at 740) are already in their own nature relative, and cannot be used except in connexion with some other word in the sentence. But, on the other hand, many others, and especially those which are genitively dependent, constituting by far the largest number of this class of compounds, are in their nature absolute, and yield a sense complete in itself. These may be made relative by declining the final substantive after the manner of an adjective; thus, Vfgjdifrffl, -fir^, Air, 'moon-shaped' (see 119), from the absolute compound ^^raftw 'the shape of the moon.'

a. Other examples are, tjq^Hfl, "it, "t, 'whose form is godlike' (see 108); WfltBHI1H, -w, -?, 'splendid as the sun' (108); ^ftrTTT^f, -PT, -ej *, 'elephant-footed' (see 57); til'lUnlM, -ttt, -nf, 'ending at the Bear' s 441 MM, -m, -m, 'terminated by death;' TR*r;j4t*lHM, -m, -R, or ll^WT, -m, -*f, 'headed by Karna;' fqujisii "tini, -m, -R, 'named Vishnusarma' (see 154); g4Ul«!«|4l, -*ft, -w, 'lotus-eyed' (see 778); HKKNUUUUI, -WT, "W, 'called Narayana;' Vhj*tp5*^, -wt, -ej, 'founded on wealth;' rtBj^wifn (agreeing with ViiCi), 'money to the amount of a lac;' JI<I.^WH, -*3T, "if, 'having a club in the hand,' or ' club in hand;' ^l^TTTfinW, -fio*T, -fiff, 'arms in hand;' vTraTfRW, -^TT, -w, 'net in hand;' JJ«M#(V|im«, -w, -V, 'on the subject of

* Tf^ may be substituted for VfiJ in compounds of this kind, but not after <f*H"H. See 778.

flowers,' 'relating to flowers;' mM.IW^, -PT, -t, 'having meditation for one"a chief or highest occupationr' IlPgStl, -m, -Wj 'having his knowledge.' These examples are not distinguishable from absolute dependent compounds, except by declension in three genders.

b. Note—Parallel compounds are found in Greek, e. g. nrTro-y\v7<TO(, ' having a tongue like a horse.'

763. Many of them, however, are not found, except as relatives; and if used absolutely would yield a different sense; thus, ^snmww means ' the face of Karna,' but when used relatively to UHM«,' the kings headed by Karna.' So also «IK^H)*< signifies ' the eye of the spy,' but when used relatively to trirr, ' a king who sees by means of his spies.' See 166. c.

764. The substantive WTfif, ' a beginning,' when it occurs in the last member of a compound of this nature, is used relatively to some word expressed or understood, and yields a sense equivalent to et cetera. It is generally found either in the plural or neuter singular; as, JJ^SpfTW ' Indra and the others' (agreeing with the nom. case *}«j« expressed or understood,' the gods commencing with Indra'); IP •**!<; Ill of Agni and the others' (agreeing with <(1iimii understood, of those above-named things of which Agni was the first'); ^w<ti<:"ir«i 'the eyes, &C.' (agreeing with xX^ q 1 f*u 'the senses commencing with the eyes'). When used in the neut. sing, it either agrees with ^TH, 'the aforesaid," understood, or with a number of things taken collectively, and the adverb iti * may be prefixed; as, tj^iUiivifJ; ' the word demon, &C.' (agreeing with T''"'' understood,' the aforesaid sentence of which devdn is the first word'); qi1jf>;*ii 'by liberality, &C.' (agreeing with some class of things understood, ' by that class of things of which liberality is the first'). See also 772.

a. It may occasionally be used in the masc. sing.; as, «iin*iil<:* " brooms, &C.' (agreeing with 31hjr« ' furniture').

b. Sometimes tllRj* is used for Wlf^; as, IJT'TTf'T* ' gifts. he. :' and sometimes ^rW; as, ^rjWT: <j*J* 'the gods of whom Indra is the first.'

c. The feminine substantive UHfif ' manner,' ' kind,' may be used in the same way; thus, sT^TPJTPK WTTW'the gods, Indra and the others:' TTTf wiif^if^TPprhri 'of those villagers, &C.'

d. Observe—The neuter of Wtfiy may optionally take the terminations of the masculine in all but the nom. and accuB. cases; thus, F««mnq*<N' of elephants, horses, &C.' (agreeing with *A*a. gen. neut. of T^ 'an army').

Relative form of Dvandva or Copulative Compounds. 765. Copulative (or Aggregative) compounds are sometimes used

* Sometimes eram is prefixed; as, VIHUjlftr HrtlMlftl 'lamentations beginning thus.'

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-TT, -T, 'having no food;' l^pftt, -*ft*T, -fa, 'fearless' (133. b); ITOrfaVW, -VTj -V, 'of that kind,' 'in such a state;' S *fJS*l, "fiPT, -ff, 'weakminded;' J^T^ifinf, -fiTF, -fif, 'ill-natured' (see 72); «IJ«M, -?T% -#, 'handsome-faced;' ^^fs«, -'fe'T, -fijf, 'of good understanding.' Some of the ahove may be regarded as relative forms of Descriptive compounds, formed with indeclinable prefixes; see 756. Similar compounds in Greek and Latin are, av-yftepof, ev-brjtof, in-imicus, in-felix, dis-similis, semi-plenus.

e. Observe—The adverbial prefixes JTand ^ (726. d.f) impart a passive sense to participial nouns of agency, just as Sucr and ev in Greek; thus, 5**^' difficult to be done,' W^C' easy to be done;' <JroH ' difficult to be obtained,' ^?W ' easy to be attained;' *«*. ' difficult to be crossed.' Compare the Greek cixfnpes, 'easy to be borne;' tivcrvopof, 'difficult to be passed,' &c.

/. ^niMfl» -TT, -T, possessed of a master,' is sometimes used at the end of compounds to denote simply ' posseesed of,' ' furnished with;' thus, farfMt«HH fyrtmrt 'a stone-seat furnished with a canopy;' fijIrimg.MHIviT *nPT! 'sui arbour having a marble-slab as its master,' i. e. 'furnished with,' ' provided with," &c. Similarly, if =(» «ni«ii itf^m^st 'a fig-tree occupied by a number of cranes.'

g. Observe—The relative form of a compound would be marked in Vedic Sanskrit by the accent. In the Karma-dharaya compound mahd-bdhu, 'great arm,' the accent would be on the last syllable, thus *i?i«i(c ; but in the Relative mahdbdhu, 'great armed,' on the ante-penultimate, thus H^I'll?• So, native commentators often quote as an example of the importance of right accentuation, the word Indra-satru, which, accented on the first syllable, would be Bahu-vrihi (see Pan. VI. 2,1, by which the first member retains its original accent); but accented on the penultimate would be Tat-purusha. The sense in the first case is 'having Indra for an enemy;' in the second, the enemy of Indra.'

h. Note, that wiw* and 'Fl are used at the end of relative compounds to denote ' composed of,' consisting of;' but are more frequently found at the end of complex relatives; see 774.

COMPLEX COMPOUND NOUNS. 770. We have now to speak of complex compound words, or compounds within compounds, which form a most remarkable feature in Sanskrit composition. Instances might be given of twenty or thirty words thus compounded together; but these are the productions of the vitiated taste of more modern times, and are only curious as showing that the power of compounding words may often be extravagantly abused. But even in the best specimens of Sanskrit composition, and in the simplest prose writings, four, five, or even six words are commonly compounded together, involving two or three forms under one head. It will be easv, however, to

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