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fleeted in the plural; 2d, inflected in the dual; 3d, inflected in the singular. In the first two cases the final letter of the base of the word terminating the compound determines the declension, and its gender the particular form of declension; in the third case it seems to be a law that this kind of compound cannot be formed unless the last word ends in *r a, or in a vowel changeable to v a, or in a consonant to which w a may be subjoined; and the gender is invariably neuter, whatever may be the gender of the final word.
Inflected in the Plural.
748. When more than two animate objects are enumerated, the last is inflected in the plural, the declension following the gender of the last member of the compound; as, ^jPHi* unjoin ' Indra, Anila, Yama, and Arka' (for %*£*, flfWcJH, TfHTt, *rifa); UH.rtBHJU/Rdl* 4 Kama, Lakshmana, and Bharata;' *<J| «mM«U. 3h*ww 'the deer, the hunter, the serpent, and the hog.' The learner will observe, that although the last member of the compound is inflected in the plural, each of the members has here a singular acceptation. But a plural signification may often be inherent in some or all of the words constituting the compound; thus, rfUKjjBjPd^ ^3« 31 jl*< ' Brahmans, Kshatriyas, Vaisyas, and Suclras;' (Hdl^mt'l SjtfqH' friends, neutrals, and foes' (for ftr?nftr, s^nffrtnr, sraro); ^J f*M/ q. fad frf faflja I fa 'sages, gods, ancestors, guests, and spirits' (for ^TOT, ^TTW, ftnrCH, wfifquw, vnnfJT ^); fa'^miHH/>UII« 'lions, tigers, and serpents;' ^BTTM *5* *14W Hi« iriH|il^m«l« 'dogs, vultures, herons, ravens, kites, jackals, and crows.'
749. So also when more than two inanimate objects are enumerated, the last may be inflected in the plural; as, V^ptTKPnrtelT'T 'virtue, wealth, enjoyment, and beatitude' (for vfa, ^r*hr, <*IH«, *fiya); ^i4jju<<H,<MirH 'sacrifice, study, and liberality' (for J?m, wuppf, $T»t ^). In some of the following a plural signification is inherent; as, y-M/M ifcrilfa ' flowers, roots, and fruits;' wmnjTPJwRrt 'of the unborn, the dead, and the fooUsh' (for VITTVPlt, >J*Mi, «jwnni ^); Hd.*H:,4<Wl<<rc^' eyes, mind, and disposition;' O'l.jfll.Mfi.dl«l#sj •*!•<. <H*MlfH ' sickness, sorrow, anguish, bonds, and afflictions;' 'MV>»M.Mic4.»JcJ.'»vfiT ' wood, water, fruit, roots, and honey.'
750. So also when only two animate or inanimate objects are enumerated, in which a plural signification is inherent, the last is form the Dvandva compound of this kind, by doubling an adjective or participle, and interposing the negative *& a; M, ^TT^T 'moveable and immoveable' (for ^«.«i ^nrt W); ^J*Tr?TH 'good and evil;' ftnrrfW 'in agreeable and disagreeable' (forfW ^tfitH M)-, PT' 'seen and not seen;' "PW' 'done and not done;' The 'gentle and cruel.'
a. In the Dvandvas which occur in the Vedas, the first member of the compound, as well as the last, may sometimes take a dual termination; thus, fafli."*t><ui (see 97. a), ^i.p^uji, firjrrxirrnTT; and some of the anomalous Dvandvas used in more modern Sanskrit are probably Vaidik in their character; thus, OTTrqfVpft ' heaven and earth;' Hldl/MilU 'mother and father,' &c.
b. It is a general rule, however, that if a compound consists of two crude bases in ri, the final of the first becomes ,HT, as in •unifMno above. This also happens if the last member of the compound be p, as ftriTPJ?n ' father and son.'
c. Greek and Latin furnish examples of complex compounds involving Dvandvas; thus, PaTpayo-jj.vo-iJMyja, ' frog-mouse war;' su-mi-taurilia,' pig-sheepbull sacrifice;' %coo-<f>VTOV, 'animal-plant.' Zoophyte is thus a kind of Dvandva. In English, compounds like 'plano-convex,' 'convexo-concave,' are examples of the relative form of Dvandva explained at 765.
DESCRIPTIVE (OR DETERMINATIVE) COMPOUNDS (KARMA-DHARAYA). 755. In describing, qualifying, or defining a substantive by means of an adjective or participle, it is common in Sanskrit to compound the two words together, placing the adjective or participle in the first member of the compound in its crude base; as, Him *«!« 'a good man' (for «tvt TTW); fat./Hd 'an old friend' (for f*i firs); 3*l4a: ' a troubled ocean f gw;^ ' a holy act;' VHHIJWI 'the infinite soul;' «Hid]f*« 'polished speech;' ujw^iftii ' holy acts' (for writ' ^Tftrr); 3WM4.UUT 'of the best men' (for TWrTCT iRTOt); H^l.uifl* 'a great crime' (see 778); HfTtnTV 'a great king' (see 778); ftrnrmr' a dear friend' (see 778); ffiTTTCt ' a long night' (see
a. The feminine bases of adjectives do not generally appear in compounds; thus, ftpwnrr ' a dear wife' (for ftrTf >TT«rt); H*IMl3l ' a great wife5 (for rrpft trfa, see 778); Ctotat ' a beautiful wife' (for feM«lifl »TT^T); Ml**4fcfl ' a she-cook' (for uiP«*i frfl).
b. There are, however, a few examples of feminine adjective bases in compounds, e. g. qiH^HTo.1 'a wife with beautiful thighs;' *nfi»'farm, 'an impassioned woman,' where VTfipft is perhaps used substantively. See also 766. c, note.
756. An indeclinable word or prefix may sometimes take the place of an adjective (such as Trfir, wtV, Wtj, trfir, &c, at 783) or an adverbial prefix (such as Trvt 'as/ Trmr 'as far as/ w or «r5» 'not/ w? ' with/ &c). The last member is a substantive which takes the form of an accusative case neuter, whatever may be the termination of its crude base; thus, Tnrr^TI' according to faith' (from Tr«rf and ^r^T); wfirftr?!' every night' (from Tlfit and fir^tr); Hfirf^3T 'in every quarter' (from lrfff and f$"3»J; 'BfipJ ' beyond the ship' (from ^rfrl and iff).
a. Many of these compounds are formed with the adverbial preposition Try, generally contracted into K; thus, »*\<i ' with anger* (from « and grrq); wr^t'with respect' (w^rt^t); tilglffHlil 'with prostration of eight parts of the body.' Panini (II. 1,9, &c.) gives some unusual forms with postpositions; as, *ju.ufrf ' a little sauce.'
b. The following are examples of indeclinable compounds with other prefixes; ■w^m* 'according to seniority;' HN Jf 'over every limb;' MMi/flti 'every month' (730. d); M*JI fqlV 'according to rule;' qvitjlf* or JJiq«a*i (49) * according to one's ability;' qvj|*J*| 'happily;' -tl V| |^ 'suitably,' ' worthily;' T'TTSR 'as described;' W4 HJ4U 'every moment;' 4IHKJ ' before the eyes' (778); JTfrTRW' upon the shoulders;' wfv*lV!J ' upon the tree;' v««3l<4 ' without doubt;' CtR^M ' without distinction;' TUirrj ' in the middle of the Ganges.'
c. Analogous indeclinable compounds are found in Latin and Greek, such as admodum, obcium, affatim, avTlfiiyv, avrifiiov, inripfupov, TtapayjprfiM. In these, however, the original gender is retained, whereas, according to the Sanskrit rule, obrium would be written for obviam, and affate for affatim. In Greek compounds like arjfxtpov, the feminine f^ipo. appends a neuter form, as in Sanskrit.
d. The neuter word ^1' for the sake of,' 'on account of (see 731. a), is often used at the end of compounds; thus, HMIVJ 'for the sake of sleep;' <**nnBmr«J 'for the sake of the performance of business.' See, however, 731, note.
e. There is a peculiar adverbial compound formed by doubling a crude base, the final of the first member of the compound being lengthened, and the final of the last changed to X »'■ It generally denotes mutual contact, reciprocity, or opposition; thus, gtffojtV 'fist to fist;' -iUiUfiH 'stick to stick' (fighting); W^Ttftl 'share by share;' 19114^1 ' pulling each other's hair;' WflrlffJ- ' body to body;' ■WTTTTfrrBj' arm to arm.'
/. Somethmfrin the same manner, W and VC, 'another.' arc doubled; thus, •aftai, ««*.♦*««., 'one another,' ' mutually,' 'together.'
RELATIVE COMPOUNDS (MOSTLY EQUIVALENT TO BAHUVRlHl).
761. The greater number of compounds in the preceding four
divisions are terminated by substantives, the sense of each being
in that case absolute and complete in itself. AH such compounds
may be used relatively, that is, as epithets of other words, the final