Imatges de pàgina

being placed first in its crude base, when, if uncompounded, it would be in grammatical concord with the substantive; as, «l« jflciH 'a good disposition' (for Trr»: jftgw); 1l#^5«nfio 'all things' (for «t3ifia ■J^rffiB). The 4th, DVIGU, or those in which a numeral in its crude base is compounded with a noun, either so as to form a singular collective noun, or an adjective; as, ftpri 'three qualities' (for a*ft jprnr); fpTTjTirxf, -Wf, -W, 'possessing the three qualities.' The 5th, BAHU-VHfm, or attributive compounds, generally epithets of other nouns. These, according to Panini (II. 2, 24), are formed by compounding two or more words to qualify the sense of another word; thus, HTMl-i^t ?rm: for Utrr ^tjt V W%± a village to which the water has come.' The 6th, AVYAYI-BHAVA, or those resulting from the combination of a preposition or adverbial prefix with a noun. The latter, whatever may be its gender, always takes the form of an accusative neuter and becomes indeclinable.

a. Observe—These names either furnish examples of the several kinds of compounds, or give some sort of definition of them: thus, s*S> is a definition of the ist kind, meaning 'conjunction;' nrM«\Ht, 'his servant,' is an example of the 2d kind (for TTW U.4$m:); «CTVrrij: is a somewhat obscure definition of the 3d kind, i. e. 'that which contains or comprehends (VTCTfil) the object' (^W); lay; is an example of the 4th kind, meaning 'any thing to the value of two cows;' i§«Tfi£t is an example of the 5th kind, meaning 'possessed of much rice.' The 6th class, Warrjhjr^: avyayi-bhiiva/i, means 'the indeclinable state' (' that which does not change,' na ryeti).

736. It should be stated, however, that the above six kinds of compounds really form, according to the native theory, only four classes, as the 3d and 4th (i. e. the Karma-dharaya and Dvigu) are regarded as subdivisions of the Tat-purusha class.

As such a classification appears to lead to some confusion from the absence of sufficient distinctness and opposition between the several parts or members of the division, the subject is discussed in the following pages according to a different method, although it has been thought desirable to preserve the Indian names and to keep the native arrangement in view.

737. Compound nouns may be regarded either as simply or complexly compounded. The latter have reference to a class of compounds within compounds, very prevalent in poetry, involving two or three species of simple compounds under one head.


738. These we will divide into, ist, Dependent compounds or compounds dependent in case (corresponding to Tat-purusha); ad, Copulative (or Aggregative, Dvandva); 3d, Descriptive * (or Determinative, Karma-dhdraya); 4th, Numeral (or Collective, Dvigu); 5th, Adverbial (or Indeclinable, Avyayi-bhdva); 6th, Relative (Bahumoi). This last consists of, a. Relative form of absolute Dependent compounds, terminated by substantives; b. Relative form of Copulative or Aggregative compounds; c. Relative form of Descriptive or Determinative compounds; d. Relative form of Numeral or Collective compounds; e. Relative form of Adverbial compounds.

a. Observe—A list of the substitutions which take place in the final syllables of certain words in compounds is given at 778.

Accusatively Dependent.

739. These comprehend all those compounds in which the relation of the first word (being in the crude base) to the last is equivalent to that of an accusative case. They are generally composed of a noun in the first member, and a participle, root, or noun of agency in the last; as, ^rfi Wihh, -in, -H, 'one who has obtained heaven' (equivalent to ^m imnr); fm^qivfl 'one who speaks kind words f TERRY 'one wno gives much;' fTOfTJV 'one who bears arms;' Md.'IrM^, -m, -it,' committed to a leaf,' 'committed to paper' (as * writing') ; f<va;irirfl, -TTT, -IT,' committed to painting ;' ^ftHnrnft, -fH»ft, -fir, 'thinking one's self handsome.'

a. Iff 'gone' (past pass. part, of fj ' to go') is used loosely at the end of compounds of this description to express relationship and connexion, without any necessary implication of motion. In the above compound, and in many others (such as fflri^Mi^'Irit «<{<!|H ' a jewel lying in the cleft of a rock;' *«.nw,JinW, -TIT, -IT ' lying in the palm of the hand'), it has the sense of W' saying :' but it may often have other senses; as, «ii»1 mm, -at, -If, ' engaged in conversation;• WBrTl Mtn ' something relating to a friend.'

b. In theatrical language ftlrtMlrJ and Hart (lit. ' gone to one's self) mean 'spoken to one's self,' 'aside.'

* As being composed of an adjective or participle preceding a substantive, and always descriptive of the substantive. Prof. Bopp calls them ' Dcterminativa,' a word of similar import.

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manner that one case depends upon another in a sentence; thus, TWfsjTTTfirWtTH, -fTT, -*iT, 'passed beyond the range of the eye' (for ^BJ"^ fTTT* wfrfdilMW); <V|4HH|#«*^ ' standing in the middle of the chariot;' >flll#MftdlT!T^^M l rt*"T M Hits n « 'skilful in censuring the means of rescuing those in danger.'

a. There is an anomalous form of Tat-purusha compound, which is really the result of the elision of the second or middle member (uttara-pada-lopa, madhyamapada-lopa) of a complex compound; thus, ■wihshi ?i«ti«i 'token-Sakuntali' for wfWjrHTRTr^r^fTcST ' Sakuntala (recognised) by the token.'

b. Dependent compounds abound in all the cognate languages. The following are examples from Greek and Latin; ojyo-ftjun;, oiKO-<piXa%, Xi6o-<rrporrof, ywaiKo-KvipvKTOf, avOpvvo-SfiiaKTOS, kosher, 8eo-Tperro(, "xttpo-votrfTif, auri-fodina, manu-pretium, parricide for patri-cida, parri-cidium, matri-cidhm, marti-cultoT, mus-cerda. English furnishes innumerable examples of dependent compounds, e. g. 'ink-stand,' 'snow-drift,' 'moth-eaten,' 'priest-ridden,' 'doors mat,' ' writing-master,' &c. •


746. This class of compounds has no exact parallel in other languages.

When two or more persons or things are enumerated together, it is usual in Sanskrit, instead of connecting them by a copulative, to aggregate them into one compound word. No syntactical dependence of one case upon another subsists between the members of Dvandva compounds, since they must always consist of words which, if uncompounded, would be in the same case. The only grammatical connexion between the members is that which would be expressed by the copulative conjunction and in English, or ^ in Sanskrit. In fact, the difference between this class and the last turns upon this dependence in case of the words compounded on each other; insomuch that the existence or absence of such dependence, as deducible from the context, is, in some cases, the only guide by which the student is enabled to refer the compound to the one head or to the other: thus, 'J^fiJl'U.iMSlH may either be a Dependent compound, and mean 'the servants of the pupils of the Guru,' or a Copulative, 'the Guru, and the pupil, and the servant.' And *' ufarjftftni may either be Dependent, 'the blood of the flesh,' or Copulative,' flesh and blood.' This ambiguity, however, can never occur in Dvandvas inflected in the dual, and rarely occasions any practical difficulty.

747. There are three kinds of Copulative compounds': 1st, in

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