Imatges de pàgina

725. 5^R ias, forming adverbs of quantity, &c.;

As, "^"^ 'abundantly;' ^T5«r?r« 'in small quantities;' «^$I*J 'wholly ;' F*?IK' singly;' STiTWfUjr^' by hundreds and thousands;' TRUTH' by degrees;' JWJT* ' principally;' 11^1*1 ' foot by foot.'

a. ITT^ is added to nouns in connexion with the roots ^T, W^, and ^T, to denote a complete change to the condition of the thing signified by the noun; as, *<P«iWTK 'to the state of fire.' See 789, and compare 70.9.

Adverbial Prefixes.

726. *r a, prefixed to nouns and even to participles with a privative or negative force, corresponding to the Greek a, the Latin in, and the English 'in,' ' im,' * un f as, from jrw 'possible,' *fjm 'impossible;' from wnirt 'touching* (pres. part), f^TH 'not touching;' from tfm * having done' (indecl. part.), w<jr4l ' not having done.' When a word begins with a vowel, W5f is euphonically substituted; as, *Pir ' end;' «Hil 'endless.'

a. ^rfii ati, 'excessively,'' very;' as, wfh*TCl{ ' very great.'

b. WT d, prefixed to imply 'diminution;' as, ^mrnrj ' somewhat pale.' fwii is prefixed with the same sense.

c. *T kd or ^ ku, prefixed to words to imply ' disparagement;' as, ^rrg^l ' a coward;' cprrj * deformed.'

d. jw dwt or ?rt dur, prefixed to imply ' badly' or ' with difficulty;' as, 5*^nr' badly done* (see 72); jpfa' not easily broken.' It is opposed to H, and corresponds to the Greek ivtr.

e. fin» nis or ftr* nir and ftr vi are prefixed to nouns like * a with a privative or negative sense; as, fiffo 'powerless;' f<iu*<4

* without fruit' (see 72); frs\ift ' unarmed:' but not to participles.

f. "*\ m, prefixed to imply ' well,' 'easily;' as, ^WK ' well done;' wu ' easily broken.' In this sense it is opposed to Jt, and corresponds to the Greek tv. It is also used for vftr, to imply ' very,'

• excessively;' as, yrpTT ' very great.'


727. ^ 6a, 'and,' ' also,' corresponding to the Latin que and not to et. It can never, therefore, stand as the first word in a sentence, but follows the word of which it is the copulative. %* (^ *■),' also,' is a common combination.

a. mt 'and,' 'also,' is sometimes copulative. Sometimes it implies doubt or interrogation.

b. TTTT' so,'' thus,' 'in like manner5 (see 721), is not unfrequently used for ^, in the sense of 'also;' and like ^ is then generally placed after the word which it connects with another.

c. ^cn ' now,' 'and,' wit 'then,' are inceptive, being frequently used at the commencement of sentences or narratives. **RI is often opposed to ^fir, which marks the close of a story or chapter.

d. f%, 'for,' is a causal conjunction; like *T it is always placed after its word, and never admitted to the first place in a sentence.

e. ~qf%, MW, both meaning 'if,' are conditional conjunctions.

f. Hint 'upon that,'' then' (see 719), mt ' then,' YRTV, fifi, *9T*T*«, in^, ^fq% 'again,' ■ moreover,' are all copulatives, used very commonly in narration.


728. ^T vd, 'or,' corresponds to the Latin ve, and is always placed after its word, being never admitted to the first place in a sentence.

a. t, fipjj, 'but;' the former is placed after its word.

b. Tffjfa 'although;' nvufn 'nevertheless,' 'yet,' sometimes used as a correlative to the last; Mm, Mm, 'or else;' Rat ' or not;' Ml«;qi 'whether,' 'whether or no.'

c. WT9T may also be used to correct or qualify a previous thought, when it ia equivalent to ' but no,' ' yet,' however.'

d. W, 6 W, W, are expletives, often used in poetry to fill up the verse.


729. There are about twenty prepositions (see 783), but in later Sanskrit they are generally prefixes, qualifying the sense of verbs (and then called upasarga) or of verbal derivatives (and then called gati). About ten may be used separately or detached in government with the cases of nouns (and then called karma-pravafaniya); c. g. ^T, irfir, **R, ^rfrT, *3fv, wfa, f*ft, W*I, Witt, and T*I; but of these the first three only are commonly found as separable particles in classical Sanskrit.

730. WT d, generally signifying 'as far as,' 'up to,' * until,' with an ablative case; as, tuwjg'ii^ ' as far as the ocean;' «!Hi(l« 'up to Manu:' and rarely with an accusative; as, Trim WMItOH 'for a hundred births.'

a. wr d may sometimes express 'from;' as, *n*£rfl!( ' from the beginning;' Wimvim<|mi^'from the first sight.'

b. It may also be compounded with a word in the accusative neuter forming with it an Avyayi-bhava (see 760); thus, Wi*i*lpj 'as far as the girdle? (where fan& is for iNnst).

c. nfit prati, generally a postposition, signifying' at,'' with regard to,' 'to,' * towards,' ' against,' with accusative; as, »rjjf irfir ' at the Ganges;' xik jrfir'with regard to justice;' $13 irfif' against an enemy.' It may have the force of apud; as, vn jrfir 'as far as regards me.' When denoting 'in the place of,' it governs the ablative.

d. w^T ' after,' with accusative, and rarely with ablative or genitive; as, >ryrai W«J ' along the Ganges;' Tt?[«t or TTifts^ 'after that.'

e. irfir, and more rarely TSn* and wl, may be used distributively to signify 'each,' 'every;' thus, 301*3 tree by tree.' They may also be prefixed to form Avyayi-bhavas; HfrtlrtU or W4*IW4.' every year,' 'year by year.' See 760.

/. vftf, will, Tift, are said to require the accusative; wftl the locative or accusative; Wl and Vftt,, in the sense' except,' the ablative; TT the locative and accusative: but examples of such syntax are not common in classical Sanskrit.

g. Instances, of course, are common of prepositions united with the neuter form or accusative case of nouns, so as to form compounds, see 760. b; as, TTnTR^I 'upon the shoulders;' Hfn«i« 'face to face;' «(V<i«n 'upon the tree;' ^in'ijr 'along the Ganges'


NOUNS. 731. There are many adverbs used like the preceding prepositions in government with nouns, and often placed after the nouns which they govern.

a. These are, ^n 'besides,' 'without,' 'except,' with the accusative and sometimes ablative case. <»iin 'up to,' 'as far as,' sometimes found with the accusative. Tjw, TTCW, *PT, VP, 'with,' 'along with,' with the instrumental. fq«1l 'without,' with the instrumental or accusative, or sometimes the ablative. <*f?<L' out;' IWTTt, 'iude a,' ' from a particular time,' 'beginning with,' with the ablative, or placed after the crude base. T&, ^T«f, sir, right, 'Jpn, '^TTT, f*rf«TW, Vmnif, 'on account of,' 'for the sake of,' 'for,' with the genitive, or usually placed after the crude base *; 'wmmu 'under;' shit, 'mt', ' above,' ' over,'' upon'

* TgtJ ig generally found in composition with a crude base, and may be compounded adjectivcly to agree with another noun; as, PsiH: «h« 'broth for the Brahman;' ff illti tPHf ' milk for the Brahman.' See 760.

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733. Compounds abound in Sanskrit to a degree wholly unequalled in any other language, and it becomes necessary to study the principles on which they are constructed, before the learner can hope to understand the simplest sentence in the most elementary book. In the foregoing chapters we have treated of simple nouns, simple verbs, and simple adverbs. We have now to treat of compound nouns, compound verbs, and compound adverbs.

a. Observe, that in this chapter the notn. case, and not the crude base, of a substantive terminating a compound will be given; and in the instance of an adjective forming the last member of a compound, the nom. case masc, Fern and neut. The examples are chiefly taken from the Hitopadesa, and sometimes the oblique cases in which they are there found have been retained. A dot placed underneath marks the division of the words in a compound.



734. The student has now arrived at that portion of the grammar in which the use of the crude base of the noun becomes most strikingly apparent. This use has been already noticed at 77, p. 5a; and its formation explained at pp. 54—64.

a. In almost all compound nouns the last word alone admits of declension, and the preceding word or words require to be placed in the crude form or base, to which a plural as well as singular signification may be attributed. Instances, however, will be given in which the characteristic signs of case and number are retained in the first member of the compound, but these are exceptional.

b. It mar here be noted, that while Sanskrit generally exhibits the first member or members of a compound in the crude base with the final letter unchanged, except by the usual euphonic laws, Latin frequently and Greek less frequently change the final vowel of the base into the light vowel i; and both Greek and Latin often make use of a vowel of conjunction, which in Greek is generally 0, but occasionally 1: thus, cttli-cola for calu-cola or calo-cola; lani-ger fur lana-ger; yaXKi-vaofyiyBv-t-Qayofyfader-i-fragus. Both Greek and Latin, however, possess many compounds which are completely analogous to Sanskrit formations. In English we have occasional examples of the use of a conjunctive vowel, as in 'handicraft' for 'hand-craft.'

735. Native grammarians class compound nouns under six heads: the 1st they call DVANDVA, or those formed by the aggregation into one compound of two or more nouns (the last word being, according to circumstances, either in the dual, plural, or neuter singular, and the preceding word or words being in the crude base), when, if uncompounded, they would all be in the same case, connected by a copulative conjunction; as, 1'^ fjiaf) 'master and pupil' (for »r»j: fjr^ra); •R(U>«u.iru!}f)+i«N' death, sickness, and sorrow* (for srrjrf «ntV: sfNTO); Ttftnrnj 'hand and foot* (for mfvs: tJTeT'g). The ad, TATPURU8HA, or those composed of two nouns, the first of which (being in the crude base) would be, if uncompounded, in a case different from, or dependent on, the last; as, '•^TWT ' moon-light' (for ^*£W mr 'the light of the moon'); 3IW. + 5IMH, -77T, -75, 'skilled in arms' (for JIW'J ^T?n»); irftrvfinnT, -ttt, -IT, 'adorned with gems' (for Tfofar »jfinm). The 3d, Karma-dharaya, or those composed of an adjective or participle and substantive, the adjective or participle

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