Imatges de pàgina

Observe, that in the above table the final letter, in its changed state, has been printed, for greater clearness, separate from the initial; except in those cases where the blending of the two vowels made this impossible.

* If the initial a belong to a termination, affix, f and not to a complete word, then a u not cut off, and 0 becomes av before it. See 36. a. t If both the words are complete words, the y and v may be dropped throughout, but not so usually as in the case of e.


39. Before proceeding to the combination of consonants, let the letters be again regarded as divided into two grand classes of Hard and Soft, as explained at 20. b.


Note—In the following rules it may generally be observed, that final consonants have a tendency to adapt themselves to initial, rather than initial to final.


40. If two hard or two soft consonants come in contact, there is generally no change; and similarly, if a soft consonant ends a word, when a vowel follows: thus

fawif WSTflTT vidyut prakdsate, 'the lightning shines.'
vn* ftRSlft kumud vikasati, ' the lotus blossoms/
■5^ wfonifll drisad adhogaiihati, 'the rock descends.'
fag if +1| vidyut + 8U = mpg vidyut*U) 'in lightnings.'

a. Observe, however, that the unaspirated form of a final letter is substituted for the aspirated, as f^f?j^+ ^dfir titralikh + karoti becomes f*df?5* *Ofa 6itralik karoti,' the painter forms ;' and similarly, if two aspirated letters come in contact, the first must be written in the unaspirated form (see 5. a).

41. If any hard letter ends a word when any soft initial letter follows, the hard (unless affected by some special rule) is changed to its own unaspirated soft (but see paragraph b,next page): thus

*Hf + ^ft vdk + devi becomes ^P^l vdgdevi, ' the goddess of eloquence.' *Hf + fjl vdk + Ua = wfty vdgiia, ' the lord of speech.'

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attached to roots ending in iani""letters, rule 41 does not apply: thus mt+ ^rfrT pat 4- ati remains ^nrfisr patati, and ft^4- war remains kshipati. And even in the case of verbal terminations beginning with m, v, or y, rule 41 does not generally apply: thus vat 4- mi remains vatmi, 6ekship 4- vas remains 6ekshipvas, and kship 4- yati remains kshipyati; but tekship + dhi becomes regularly tekshibdhi.

d. Of course, rule 41 does not apply to final sibilants, as they have no corresponding soft letters. The rules for sibilants are given at 61.

e. In the case of ViZ 'six,' followed by the termination nam, the final nasal being

* According to the Laghu-kaumudi (77) it is necessarily changed when the next word is a pratyaya or affix like maya.

» cerebral affects also an initial n coming in contact with it; thus TOT. The same
applies to ^ + •nrtw, which is written ma^frt 'ninety-six.' Similarly, WW
4 six cities.' Compare f. 58. b.

,Ch 42. If a «oft letter ends a word, root, or crude base, when any .

-fastitinitial letter follows, the tar is changed to its own unaspirated ^'W * vnr jU^hsrA: thus "*&<[ + *T kumud + su becomes $TOT kumutsu, loc. pl. of

kumud, 'a lotus;' *rfinj+w samidh + su = *rf*nf samitsu, loc. pl. of^V^L P WA,'fuel.> ^

Note—Similarly in Latin, a soft guttural or labial often passes into a hard before * and is thus reg+si becomes reksi (rexi), scrib-\-si=scripsi, reg + tum=rektwn, &c.

a. The same may optionally take place at the end of a sentence or before a pause, as $enn 'SRi^ phullati humut or kumud. See Panini VIII. 4, 56. It is usual, however, to write the hard unaspirated form in such cases.

6. Soft letters, which have no corresponding hard, such as the nasals, semivowels, and f A, are changed by special rules.

c. If the final be an aspirated Sgfe letter, and belong to a root whose initial is 1 g or T 4, T d or T b, then the aspiration, which is suppressed in the final, is transferred back to the initial letter of the root; as ^T + ?j budh+su becomes »J3J bhtttsu, loc. pi. of budh, 'one who knows' Similarly, TR +iTS dadh + tag becomes VTTH dkattas, 'they two place;' and see 306. a, 299. a. b, 664.

Note—Greek recognises a similar principle in 'POP', 6pc%ofXAi; rpvdf, 8pv7tra>: cf. also the nom. FE i. e. Fe-; from the crude form Tp>X~

43. The following consonants are not allowed to remain unchanged at the end of words *, that is to say, they undergo modifications without reference to the following letters in a sentence; and when they are combined with the initial letters of succeeding words, or with the initial strong consonants of affixes (seey. next page), these modifications must take place before 41 and 42 are applied. 1st, A conjunct quiescent consonant (with few exceptions); ad, an aspirated quiescent consonant; 3d, the aspirate ? h; 4th, the palatal letters ^ t, \ Th, Ti, mjh (when radical, and not the result of the changes of final w / and if d at 47); 5th, the sibilants 31 * and W s/i.

a. With regard to 1, as a general rule, a compound quiescent consonant at the end of a word is reduced to a simple one, and when, a word ends in it single or conjunct quiescent consonant, and a termination to be affixed consists of a quiescent consonant, then, to avoid the concurrence of such consonants at the end, the first only is allowed to remain, and the termination is dropped: thus ^T7J^+ W(fora»<+» leaves ^TT rnran, going;' Tine, + 'Qaved+s becomes avets and then avet. (So <Tlrtrre» for tTWTOrr; and analogously, mulsi for mulg-si, sparsi for sparg-si, &c.)

* Of course, however, roots and crude forms are first cited in their unchanged state; and are so found in dictionaries and vocabularies.


Observe, however, that a radical ^, Z, W, or T, preceded by ^ r, remains; as, st nom. of 'atif 176. A.

But in the case of such a word as abibhar at p. 231, the affix t in the third person is dropped, as not being radical.

And in such a word as f^lfHt (nom. P^fh 'desirous of doing'), the final quiescent sibilant, though belonging to the base, is dropped after r. See 166. a.

b. With regard to 2, the unaspirated form is substituted for the aspirated.

c. With regard to 3, a final 'W his usually changed either to ^ i or 3 (. See 182, 305, 306, 17. a. (So in Arabic 11 h becomes « t.)

d. With regard to 4, palatals, as being derived from gutturals (see_20^c), generally revert to their originals; i. e. final ^ 6 and fRj'A are usually changed to ^ (see 12), but 'a in may become ^ ((176); ^j becomes R * or l^j, but sometimes Z I or Z if. (So in cognate languages ch is often pronounced as k, or passes into k. Compare ' archbishop,' 'archangel,'' church,' kirk,'&c. Again, nature' is pronounced like ' nacbure,' and ;/ in English is often pronounced as j.)

e. With regard to 5, final T * and TJ sh usually pass into either R t or ^ /. See 181, lab ; and compare ' parish.'' parochial,' nation'for nashun,'&c.

/. The above changes must hold good, whatever may be the initial letter of a following word; but rules 41 and 42 must be afterwards applied. They also hold good before all terminations or affixes beginning with strong consonants (i. e. all consonants except nasals and semivowels); but before vowels (except the affix a at 80. I) and weak consonants (i. e. nasals and semivowels) the finals remain unchanged. See 41.6, and met at 176, and trad at 650.


44. The special rules for the changes of consonants are very numerous, but since comparatively few words in Sanskrit end in any other consonants than R t and z d, the nasals tT n and R m, the dental sibilant H s, and the semivowel T r, it will be sufficient for all practical purposes to notice these special rules under four heads:

1st, Changes of final Tt and ?.

2d, Changes of the nasals, especially n and ij.

3d, Changes of final tf.

4th, Changes of final T.


45. By the general rule (41), final n" t becomes z. d before soft consonants, and before vowels; as iRfn" + ^TfiT marut + vdti becomes »r^7 ^rfk marud vdti, 'the wind blows.' But see exception, r. 41. b.

a. Except, also, bases ending in I followed by the affixes rat, mat, vin, vala; at, vidyut-vat, possessed of lightning;' garut-mat, ' possessed of wings.'

b. There is an exception also in the case of verbal terminations beginning with m, v, y; see 41. c, and compare 554.

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