Imatges de pàgina
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Parasmai-pada (see 327).

584. Note, that although this root belongs to the ad class, its inflection is exhibited here, both because it is sometimes used as an auxiliary, and because it is desirable that the student should study its inflection at the same time with that of the other substantive verb *j^6A«, 'to be,' which will follow at 585, and which supplies many of the defective tenses of ^Ptf. Two other roots in Sanskrit are sometimes employed as substantive verbs, with the sense 'to be,' viz. WT 1st c. 'to stand' (see 269,587), and ^TTWad c. 'to sit' (see 317. a). Indeed,the root WW as, here inflected, is probably only an abbreviation of WPH ds.

All the cognate languages have two roots similar to the Sanskrit for the substantive verb 'to be.' Compare d*>\> and ac (er) in Greek, es (turn) and fu {fui) in Latin; and observe how the different parts of the Sanskrit verbs correspond to the Greek and Latin: thus, ami, asi, asti; (fJ-fJii, ttrai, Iuti; sum, es, est, Compare also santi with sunt; (islam, dstdm, with tjorov, Yj<TTf)V; dsma, dsta, with rj<jfj.ev, IJOTt, &o.

Present, 'I am.' Potential, 'I may be,' &c.

8IN0. DUAL. PLURAL.

'r f

**il*\ Bum mm sydea fJIH sydma
WTW syds WIHHxyn'/nm TQTK syiitu
*M\n sydt +mn\*\sydtdm WJ syus

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Imperfect or first preterite, ' I was.' Imperative, ' Let me be/

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WTC? dse ■•uifat*dsirahe 1*I?*in7dsimahe
Wlm MdsiskeV\H\V dsdthe WlftlU) dsidhve
Wra ase' WIHIfl d»a'<e fllftU. and/

Observe—The root as, 'to be,' has no derivative forms, and only two participles, viz. those of the present, Parasmai and Atmane, F7T sat, WTT *rfna (see 524, 526). The conjugational tenses have an Atmane-pada, which is not used unless the root is compounded with prepositions. In this Pada ^ A is substituted for the root in ist sing, pres., and W * is dropped before dh in 2d plur.: thus, Pres. he, sr, ste; svahe, sdthe, sate; smahe, date, sate: Impf. dsi, dsthds, dsta; dsvahi, dsdtkdm, dsdtdm; dsmahi, ddhcam, dsata: Pot. siya, sithds, sita; sivahi, sty at ham, siydtdm; simahi, sidhram, siran. Impv. asai, sva, stam; asdvahai, sdthdm, sdtdm; asamahai, dhvam, sat dm: see 327.

* The perfect of as is not used by itself, but is employed in forming the perfect of causals and some other verbs, see 385, 490; in which case the Atmane may be , used. The other tenses of as are wanting, and are supplied from bhu at 585.

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* These derivative verbs will be inflected at full at 703, 705, 706, 707.

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