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a. In their inflection, as well as their formation, they resemble present participles; see 524 and 526.
b. Observe—The future participle in mdna may be compared with the Greek in /xevo: ddsyamuna ^UffOfMVCif.
PARTICIPIAL NOUNS OF AGENCY.
579. These have been already incidentally noticed at 80, 83, 84, 85, 87. As, however, they partake of the nature of participles, and are often used as participles (see Syntax, 909—911), a fuller explanation of them is here given. They may be classed under three heads: 1st, as formed from the root; 2dly, as formed from the 1st future; 3dly, as formed from the root by changes similar to those which form the causal base.
580. The base of the first class is often identical with the root itself; that is, the unchanged root is frequently used at the end of compounds as a noun of agency, t being added if it ends in a short vowel; see the examples at 84. I. and 87.
a. Another common noun of agency is formed from the root by affixing ^f a (as in the first group of conjugational classes at 257. a), before which a, G unit, and rarely Vriddhi, of a final vowel is required; as, from fi(ji, 'to conquer,' Tfnjaya, 'conquering.' Medial vowels are generally unchanged; as, from mt vad,'to say,' ^ vada,' saying;' from jpr tud, 'to yes,' W,' tuda, 'vexing.'
b. And final ,«TT «, wr am, or ^i«^ an, are dropped; as, from ^r da, 'to give,' ^ da, 'giving;' from Tjh gam, 'to go,' i\ ga, 'going;' from ir^jan, 'to be born,' "Ha, 'being born.' Their declension follows the first class of nouns at 103.
581. The base of the second class (see 83) is formed from the 3d pers. sing, of the 1st future of primitive verbs, by substituting the vowel N ri for the final vowel «, the nominative case being therefore identical with the 3d pcrs. sing, of that tense (see 386): thus, from >fhsT bhoktd, ' he will eat,' nfai bhoktri, 'an eater;' from altar 'he will fight,' Tfte 'a fighter;' from trrftrirt 'he will ask," jrrfVij 'an asker;' from Otigi 'he will bear,' H)^ 'a bearer,' &C. They are inflected at 127.
582. The base of the third class is formed in three ways.
«. By adding F, in to the root (sec 85. V), before which affix changes take place similar to those required before the causal affix ay a (481, 482, 483); as, from y, *\$K\ kdrin, 'a doer;' from f^ (488), ^rfinrghdtin, 'a killer," from $ft, 'that 'a sleeper:' y being inserted after roots in a (483); as, from m, Tfftr^ 'a drinker;' from ^T, J^fa^ddyin, ' a giver.' They are inflected at 159.
b. By adding «T aka to the root (see 80. IV), before which affix changes take place analogous to those before the causal ay a (481, 482, 483); as, from ^, ^srCcS kdraka, 'a doer,' 'doings' from At, HU)<* ndyaka, * a leader,' 'leading;' from jr^, jn?^ grdhaka; from ftr», Otto; from ^r, vmi; from p, gro; from W^, WTO; from 'N, H«<*; from WT, WIM<*.
c. By adding ^nr ana to some few roots ending in consonants (see 80. V), after changes similar to those required before the causal affix; as, from ?r^, H^tf nandana, 'rejoicing;' from CT, ^*M * vitiating;' from ^pr, ^ftvf • cleansing.'
Observe—The inflection of the last two follows that of the first class of nouns at 103.
EXAMPLES OF PRIMITIVE VERBS IN THE TEN CLASSES, AND OF DERIVATIVE VERBS INFLECTED AT FULL.
583. We begin by giving a synopsis of the inflection of the primitive liinns of the ten roots: ^v budh, 'to know,' 1 st c.; ipr nfit, 'to dance,' 4th c.; first did, 'to point out,' 6th c.; 3^ yuj, 'to unite,' 10th c.; fircf vid, 'to know,' 2d c.; H bkfi, * to bear,' 3d c.l fi|^ bhid, * to break,' 7th c.; N H, 'to gather,' 5th c.; IPf^ tan, 'to stretch,' 8th c.; \pu, 'to purify,' 9th c.: grouping together, first, the 1st, 4th, 6th, and 10th classes; then the 2d, 3d, and 7th; and lastly, the 5th, 7th, and 9th, for the reasons stated at 257. In the next place, the passive forms of these ten roots will be synoptically exhibited, followed by the present tense of the causal, desiderative, and frequentative forms, and the participles. Examples will then be given of primitive verbs of all the ten classes (according to the same grouping), infected at full; and under every verb the derivative forms and participles will be indicated. Lastly, a full example will be given of each of the four kinds of derivative verbs, passives, causals, desideratives, and frcqucntatives.