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vyapadttab,. Tatpdnipatitd ghantd vdnaraih prdptd. Te vdnards torn ghantdm anukshanam vddayanti. Tato nagarajanair manushyah khddito drishtah pratikshanam ghantdrdvas6a bruyate. Anantaram ghantdkarnah kupito manushydn khddati ghantdm 6a vddayati ityuktvdjandh sarve nagardt paldyitdh. Tatah kardlayd ndma hit tiny a' vimri&ya markatd ghantdm vddayanti svayam vijndya rdjd vijndpilah. Deva yadi kiyaddhanopakshayah hriyate taddham enam ghantdkarnam sddhaydmi. Tato rdjnd tushtena tasyai dhanani dattam. Kuttinyd 6a mandalam kritvd tatra gane&ddigauravam darkayitvd svayam vdnarapriyaphaldnydddya vanam pravikya phaldnydkirndni. Tato ghantdm parityajya vdnardh phaldsaktd babhuvuh. Kuttini 6a ghantdm grihitvd nagaram dgatd sakalalokapujydbhavat.
Observe, that Anusvara at the end of a word, when a consonant follows, is most conveniently transliterated by ip, and vice versa; thus, brahmapurdkhyam nagaram «wjj*j<ph TiR. Strictly, however, the m, being influenced by the following n, is equivalent in sound to n, and the two words might have been written brahmapunthhyan nagaram «W|J<.HJf^«1'l<. Similarly, pratikshanam before ghantdrdvas is written TTfinSpj pratikshanam, though equivalent in sound to TJnTEpjTs^ pratikshanan-, in consequence of the following tl.
SANDHI OR EUPHONIC COMBINATION OF LETTERS.
We are accustomed in Greek and Latin to certain euphonic changes of letters. Thus rego makes, in the perfect, not regsi, but reksi (rexi), the soft g being changed to the hard k before the hard s. Similarly, veho becomes veksi (vexi). In many words a final consonant assimilates with an initial; thus avv with yviifin becomes avyyvwfitj; en with \dpirw, iWafiirw. Suppressus is written for subpressus; appellaius for adpellatus; immensn* for inmensus; affinitas for adfinitas; offero for obfero, but in perfect obtuli; colloquium for conloquium; irrogo for inrogo. These laws for the euphonic junction of letters are applied throughout the whole range of Sanskrit grammar; and that, too, not only in uniting different parts of one word, but in combining words in the same sentence. Thus, if the sentence " Rara avis in terris" were Sanskrit, it would require, by the laws of Sandhi or combination, to be written Rardvir ins terrify; and might even be joined together thus, Raraviriwterrih. The learner must not be discouraged if he is unable to understand all the laws of combination at first. He is recommended, after reading those that are printed in large type, to pass at once to the declension of nouns and conjugation of verbs. To attempt to commit to memory a number of rules, the use of which is not fully seen till he comes to read and construct sentences, must only lead to a loss of time and patience.
Sect. I.—CHANGES OF VOWELS.
27. It is to be observed that there are two distinct classes of rules of Sandhi; viz. 1. Those affecting the final or initial letters of complete words in a sentence; 2. Those which take effect in the
formation of words by the junction of roots or crude bases with affixes or terminations. Of the latter, those which come into operation in the formation of verbs, are reserved till they are wanted (see rule 294), but those which come into immediate application in the formation and declension of nouns will be explained here; and amongst these, the changes of vowels called Guna and Vriddhi should be impressed on the memory, before another step is taken in the study of the Grammar. When the vowels 5 t and t i are changed to * e, this is called the Guna change, or qualification; when i and 1 are changed to ^ ai, this is called the Vriddhi change, or increase *. Similarly, 7 u and T» u are often changed to their Guna ^■T 0, and Vriddhi 5sn* au; N ri and ^rf to their Guna *rc ar, and Vriddhi *nr ar; and ^J a, though it have no corresponding Guna change, has a Vriddhi substitute in *rr a.
a. Observe—Native grammarians consider that a is already a Guna letter, and 00 that account can have no Guna substitute. Indeed they regard a, e, 0 as the only Guna sounds, and d, ai, au as the only Vriddhi; a and a' being the real Guna and Vriddhi representatives of the vowels I and T£. It is required, however, that r should always be connected with a and d when these vowels are substituted for ri; and /, when they are substituted for Iri.
28. Let the student, therefore, never forget the following rules.
* ^JTO guna in Sanskrit means 'quality,' and VTT vriddhi, 'increase.' It will be convenient to Anglicise these words.
There is no Guna substitute for 53 a, but its is the Vriddhi substitute for *r a; E e is the Guna, and it ai the Vriddhi, for ^ i and t i; nit o is the Guna, and ^ au the Vriddhi, for V u and 'W u; TPC ar is the Guna, and ^rrc ar the Vriddhi, for N ri and ^ ri; ^G\ al is the Guna, and 'mt dl the Vriddhi, for 75 Iri and 7£ Iri. Moreover, t ai is the Vriddhi of the Guna TJ e, and w au the Vriddhi of the Guna *ft 0.
a. Observe—It will be convenient in describing the change of a vowel to its Guna or Vriddhi substitute, to speak of that vowel as gunated or vriddhied.
b. But in the formation of bases, whether for declension or conjugation, the vowels of roots cannot be gunated or vriddhied, if they are followed by double consonants, i. e. if they are long by position; nor can a vowel long by nature be so changed, unless it be final. The vowel ^r a is of course incapable of Guna. See 27. a.
29. Again, let him bear in mind that the Guna sounds E e, >sft 0 are diphthongal, that is, composed of two simple vowel sounds. Thus, E e is made up of v a and ^ i; *ft 0 of V a and V «; so that a final w a will naturally coalesce with an initial ^ t into ? e; with an initial 7 u into nit 0. Again, ^rr ar may be regarded as made up of « a and I ri; so that a final ^ a will blend with an initial N ri into wc ar. Compare 18. c.
a. Similarly, the Vriddhi diphthong 7 ai is made up of a and e, or (which is really the same) d and i; and ^ au of a and 0, or (which is really the same) d and u. Hence, a final a will naturally blend with an initial * e into ? ai; and with an initial ^sfto into WT au. Compare 18. c; and see the note to the table in the next page. It is to be observed, that the simple vowels in their diphthongal unions are not very closely combined, so that e, 0, ai, au are constantly liable to be resolved into their constituent simple elements.
6. If ai is composed of d and i, it may be asked, How is it that long a as well as short a blends with i into e (see 32), and not into ai? In answer to this, Professor Bopp (Comparative Grammar, p. 2) maintains that a long vowel at the end of a word naturally shortens itself before an initial vowel. His opinion is, that the very meaning of Guna is the prefixing of short a, and the very meaning of Vriddhi, the prefixing of long a, to B simple vowel. He therefore holds that the Guna of i is originally a i, though the two simple vowels blend afterwards into e. Similarly, the original Guna of « is a u, blending afterwards into 0; the original Guns of A is a ri, blending into ar.