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from if* 'a bull,' TOirfir' (the cow) desires the bull;' from TN ' curds,' ^WWtf* 'I desire curds,' &c. Compare Greek desideratives in <rt"».
523. 5thly, Those formed by affixing vrm kdmya (derived from kam, 'to desire') to a nominal base; as, from xja 'a son,' Pres. I. gygwrrft * I desire a son,' 2. ud^imfa, 3. gd4l*nfil, &c.; from ir*r« 'fame,' mHafcl»Mlfa «I desire fame.'
a. The non-conjugational tenses of these nominals will generally be formed analogously to those of other verbs: thus, from ^rfn 4I act like self comes the perfect weft; from ^nrtrrfo '1 play like a boy' comes the aorist VJJHti, &c. A long vowel in the base generally remains unchanged, and is not shortened: thus, UIWIW (from irrar 'a garland') makes wm*. So also, trfafunn 'he will wish for fuel' (Guna being omitted), yHTfonn 'he will wish for a
A. Nominal verbs may take passive, causal, desiderative, and irequentative forms. The causal of those formed with aya will be identical with the primitive nominal: thus, -tfrnfa 'I put on armour* or 'I cause to put on armour.' In reduplicating for the desiderative or frequentative, sometimes the last syllable is repeated, sometimes the first: thus, *U£l 'to scratch' makes its desiderative base wsrftifmr, and ^N' to treat as a son' makes ^J^f^or ^rfirftr^- According'to some, the middle syllable may be reduplicated: thus, jftftftl*
PARTICIPLES. PRESENT PARTICIPLES; PARASMAI-PADA.-F0RMAT10N OP THB BASE. 524. These are the only participles the formation of which is connected with the conjugation^ class of the verb. The base in the Parasmai is formed by substituting \i for nti, and ^ at for anti and ati, the terminations of the 3d plural present: thus, from U*f*» patanti, 'they cook' (3d pl. pres. of ^, 1st c), comes V^patat, 'cooking;' from wf* ghnanti,' they kill' (3d pl. of han, 2d c), comes OT ghnat, 'killing;' from *rfcr 'anti, 'they are5 (3d pL of-«, ad c,
• to be'), comes meat, 'being;' from uf* yanti, 'they go' (3d pL of
* 2d c), inr yat, 'going;' from *rn% yanti^ they go' (3d pl. of *T, v 2d c), *mr yat: from iprfa juhvati, 'they sacrifice' (3d pl. of hu,
3d c), ^juhvat; from ^oftr nrityanti, «they dance,' 4th ft, *** nrityat; from f**ftr Hnvanti, 'they gather/ 5th e, f^^Hnvat. from «rnrefcr dpnuvanti, 'they obtain,' 5th c, WTJJ** dpnuvat; from TT?f!tT tudanti, 'they strike,' 6th c, tudat; from ^rfcr rundhanti, 'they hinder,' 7th a, rundhat; from ~^lfa kurvanti, * they do,' 8th c, kurvat; from g«if*H punanti, ' they purify,' 9th c, punat.
525. The same holds good in derivative verbs: thus, from the causal whnrPtT, 'they cause to know' (479), comes ^VTiT 'causing to know;' from the desiderative ^tfinftr,' they desire to know' (499), comes «"»tflmir' desiring to know;' from f^r*rfnT,' they desire to give' (503), comes fip*j«T' desiring to give;' from the frequentative ^f^rffr,' they throw frequently,' comes ^f^TiT ' throwing frequently.'
a. Nominals form their present participles in the same way: thus, from nnfa 'they act like Krishna,' ami it c acting like Krishna;' from imwfwi 'they do penance,' HM*^ ' doing penance.'
b. In corroboration of the remark made at 253. b, that the passive verb appears in a few rare instances to assume a Parasmai-pada inflection, and that many of the neuter verbs placed under the 4th conjugation might be regarded (except for the accent) as examples of this form of the passive, it is certain that a Parasmaipada present participle derivable from a passive base is occasionally found: thus, «^m^ 'being seen,' from the passive base e^M dris'ya; Vl«in 'being gathered,' from TYT (tya (passive base of <S).
c. The inflection of Parasmai-pada present participles is explained at 141. The first five inflections of this participle in nine conjugational classes insert a nasal, proving that the base in all the classes, except the third, and a few other verbs (141. a), properly ends in ant. The Parasmai-pada frequentative, as conforming to the conjugational rule for the 3d class, also rejects the nasal. In the cognate languages the n is preserved throughout.
d. Thus, compare Sanskrit bharan, bharantam (from bhri), with dxpcov, (pfpovra, ferentem; also, bharantau (Ved. bharantd) with <f>tpOVT€ ', bharantas with <p(p<iVT(f, ferente*; bharatas with (f>epovra(i gen. sing, bharatas with <f>fpovrof,ferentis. So also, Sanskfit vahan, vahantam, with vehement, vehentem; and san, tantam (from as, 'to be'), with the sense of ab-sens, prat-sens. Compare also the base strinvant with aropwrt.
PRESENT PARTICIPLES; ATMANE-PADA FORMATION OF THE BASE.
526. The base is formed by substituting UTT mdna for it nte, the termination of the 3d plur. pres. of verbs of the 1st, 4th, and 6th