Imatges de pàgina
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507. Every one of the roots in nine of the classes may take a frequentative form.

a. Nevertheless this form is even less common in classical composition than the desiderative. In the present participle, however, and in nouns, it not unfrequently appears (see 80. XXII). It either expresses repetition or (rives intensity to the radical idea: thus, from ^\ 'to shine' comes the frequentative base dedipya (Pres. 3d sing, dedipyate, 'it shines brightly'), and the present participle dedipyatndna, 'shining brightly:' so also, from 3W 'to be beautiful' comes sosubhya and sosubhyamdnn; from ^7 ' to weep,' rorudya and rorudyamdna.

b. Observe—There is no frequentative form for roots of the 10th class, or for polysyllabic roots (•^ f to cover' excepted, which has for its first frequentative form ■arcrffrrri, and for its second 3nlft^), or for most roots beginning with vowels. Some few roots, however, beginning with vowels take the Atmane form of frequentative; see examples at 511. a, b, 681. a.

508. There are two kinds of frequentative verb, the one a reduplicated i&mane-pada verb, with ya affixed, conforming, like neuter and passive verbs, to the conjugation of the 4th class, and usually, though not always, yielding a neuter signification; the other a reduplicated Parasmai-pada verb, following the conjugation of the 3d class of verbs. The latter is less common in classical Sanskrit than the former, and will therefore be considered last*.

a. The terminations for the first form of frequentative will be those of the Atmane at 247, with the usual substitutions required for the 4th class of verbs. For the second form they will be the regular Parasmai-pada terminations of the memorial scheme at 246.



509. Rule for forming the base in the four conjugational tenses. Reduplicate the initial consonant and vowel of the passive base according to the rules for reduplicating consonants at 331, and gunate the reduplicated vowel (if capable of Guna), whether it be a long or short vowel: thus, from the passive base ^tal (of da, ' to give') comes

* Intensive or frequentative forms are found in Greek, such as va*waAA», SoubiMa), fuujia^w or fi/ufjJua, va/juftatvv, akaka'Cu.

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cases in which a vowel immediately precedes that letter *: thus, from ^'"l is formed the perfect (or 2d pret.) 1 st sing. qSfatT^Bi &c, rejecting ya; but from <!<^1 comes «i{l«<i=4'3i &c, retaining]/. Similarly in the other tenses: 1st fut. dedipitdhe, dediyitdhe, Sec.; 2d fut. dedipishye, dedtyishye, &C. ; aorist adedtpishi, adediyiski, &C. ; precative (or bened.) dedtpishiya, dediyishiya, &c.; cond. adedipishye. adediyishye, &c. In the 3d sing, of the aorist (or 3d preterite) ^i is not allowed to take the place of the regular terminations, as in the passive form.

a. The infinitive, as formed in the usual manner from the 3d sing. 1st future, will be dedipitum &c.


514. Rule for forming the base in the four conjugational tenses. The base is here also formed by a reduplication similar to that of Atmane-pada frequentatives; not, however, from the passive, but from the root: thus, from the root TW pad comes pdpaig from PT? vid comes vevid; from T3T comes dartdris; from "9 comes farikri.

a. But in the Parasmai form of frequentative, Wt art and W^ ar as well as WET art may be reduplicated for the vowel N ri; so that T?T may make <;oc:m or ?jfC^3T or e< e 31f; and if, ■qOef or ^f*.* or MW. Similarly, J§K may make

6. Again, in roots ending in long ^£n', d is reduplicated for ^ ri, and this a is retained even when ri becomes ir.- thus, TR ' to scatter' makes 1. idkarmi; PI. 3. 6dkirati. Similarly, from qt to cross' come tdtarmi and tdtirati.

c. In accordance with the rules for the 2d and 3d class (307, 332), the radical vowel is gunated before the P terminations of the scheme at 246. Hence, from rid come the two bases revived and revised (Pres. vevedmi, vevelsi, veretti; Du. vevidrat, &C. ; Impf. avevedam, avevet, avevet, avevidva, &c.; Pot. veridydm, &c, ; Impv. veveddni, veviddhi, teveltu, veveddva, vevittam, &c).

d. Again, the base will vary in accordance with the rules of combination at 296— 306, as in ▼" budh (Pres. bobodhmi, bobhotsi, boboddhi, bobudhtas, &C. ; see 298). So also, ^ vah makes in 3d sing. <u^Hc vdvodhi (see 305. a); JJ makes 7WV (3°o); T? makes 11 if* (305 note); "ZW makes ^Vjtfe or ejjlf'*; and fB?, WHlrf?' or «Wf'U (305. ft).

e. And in further analogy to the 2d class (313, 314) long i is often optionally inserted before the consonantal P terminations (Pres. vevedimi, vevedishi, vevediii; Du. vevidvas, &C. ; Impf. arevedam, averedis, avevedit, avevidva, &C. ; Impv. vereddni, veviddhi, vevedtiu).

515. Lastly, when the root ends in a vowel, the usual changes take place of i and 1'to y or iy; of u and u to ur; and of ri to r (see 312): as in the roots wibht,

* In passives this coalition of vowels is avoided by the change of a final vowel to Vriddhi, as of A* to tdy, of he to Arfr, and of kri to kdr; and by the change of final u to try, as of day to day; see 474.

*J6Aii, * kri (Pres. ist sing, bebhemi, bobhomi. iarkarmi; 3d plur. bebhyati, bobhi.rati, iarkrati).

a. Observe—Many of the anomalous formations explained under Atmane-pada frequentatives must be understood as belonging also to the Parasmai-pada: thus, ^ (512. 4) makes in Parasmai Whlftr, mlufrtl, M^imptj, &c; and so with the other roots at 512. b.

b. ^ 'to kill,' *! 'to swallow' (512. c), and some others have a separate Paraimai-pada form («nffrl, «1I'|R; the last identical with pres. of >TTn).

Non-conjugational tenses of Parasmai-pada frequentatives.

516. The perfect (or second preterite) follows the usual rule for polysyllabic bases (385), and affixes Wf^dm with the auxiliaries: thus, from ^Vv6«rfA, 'to know,' comes bobudhdmdsa, bobudhdmbabhiiva, bobudhdnfakdra; from V^! rid, ' to know,' comes veviddmdsa. Guna of a final and sometimes of a penultimate vowel is required before dm.- thus, bobhu (from ^JJ becomes bobhavdmdsa. So also, Y"( makes vdcartdmdsa. In the other tenses, excepting the benedictive, inserted 1 is invariably assumed; and before this inserted i some roots are said to forbid the usual Guna change of the radical vowel in the 1st future &c.: thus, budh is said to make bobudhitdsmi; bhi, 'to fear,' bebhyitdsmi, &c. (374); 2d fut. bobudhishydmi, bebhyishydmi, &c.; aorist abobudhisham, abebhnyisham, &c.; prec. or bened. bobudhydtam, bebhiydtam, &c.; cond. abobudhishyam, abebhyishyam, &c. The rejection of Guna from the radical syllable, however, admits of question: thus, bku, 'to be,' makes, according to the best authorities, bhobhavitdsmi, &c. The infinitive will be formed in the usual way from the ist future, see 513.0.

Passive, causal, desiderative, and desiderative causal form of frequentatives.

517. Frequentatives are capable of all these forms. The passive, when the root ends in a consonant, will be identical with the Atmane-pada frequentative formed by reduplication and the affix ya.- thus, from the frequentative base totud, 'to strike often,' comes lotudye, ' I am struck often;' but from loluya (lu,' to cut'), Miiyye, &c Again, from totud comes totudaydmi, 'I cause to strike often;' totudishdmi, ' I desire to strike often;' totudayishdmi, ' I desire to cause to strike often.'

a. The ya of the Atmane-pada frequentative if preceded by a consonant is rejected; but not if preceded by a vowel: thus, loluya, frequentative base of lu, 'to cut,* makes loluyishdmi, ' I desire to cut often.' See 331.?.


518. These are formed by adding certain affixes to the crude base of nouns. They are not in very common use, but, theoretically, there is no limit to their formation. They might be classed according to their meaning; viz. ist, transitive nominals, yielding the

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