Imatges de pàgina

rowel, which then becomes the initial of the reduplicated syllable, and combines with the augment W o, according to 260. a.- thus, "S?' to infer' makes the base of its causal aorist a)f«i^ ujih; and with ^ prefixed, iHl(»i^ (wrf»T?' I caused to infer'). So also, W*5th c, 'to obtain,' makes WlfllM ' I caused to obtain;' ^2d c.,'to praise,' makes Vfet' I caused to praise.' Compare the Greek ad aorist r/yayon from ayv, and wpopov from opvv/u.

a. If a root end in a compound consonant, the first member of which is a nasal or r, this nasal or r is rejected from the final, but not from the reduplicated letter: thus, Im^ 'to be worthy' makes Wlftr? ' I caused to be worthy,' 'I honoured;' so ^BT", causal base from ^V 'to prosper,' makes 'HTfifV ' I caused to prosper;' and a^ 'to moisten' makes ^ilf^ 'I caused to moisten.'

b. But when the first member of the compound is any other letter, then the corresponding consonant to this first member of the compound is reduplicated by 331. c- thus, ^B^' to see' makes ^fa^J* aiiiksham,' I caused to see;' W^'togo' makes Wflw ' I caused to go.'

c. Roots consisting of a single vowel, form their causal aorists from the causal base (after rejecting ay a): thus, the root ^ 'to go' makes its causal base arp,' to deliver over;' and its causal aorist 'WlfQu ' I caused to deliver.'

d. "*^ ' to cover' makes its causal aorist WHU«J<( ; WW 10th c. 'to be blind,' WT^V; and '9R^ 10th c. 'to diminish,' *fi»H.

e. When the consonant which follows the initial vowel has another vowel after it, this vowel must appear in the reduplication: thus, from xiiWK 10th c,' to despise,' comes the aorist <HN<lliK>

Benedictive and conditional of causah.

495. The base of the causal benedictive Atmane, and of the causal conditional in both voices, does not differ from that of the nonconjugational tenses; but the last a of aya is dropped before the inserted ^ i, which is always assumed. In the benedictive Parasmai both aya and i are rejected, but any other change of the root is retained: thus, To ' to know' makes in causal benedictive bodhya8am &c, bodhayishiya &c.; in conditional, abodhayishyam &c, abodhayishye &c.

Infinitive of causah.

a. The infinitive is formed regularly from the 3d sing. 1st future, as explained at 459: thus, from To comes VhrftfiTT 'he will cause to know,' wtvftrj ' to cause to know.'

Passive of causah.

496. In forming a passive verb from a causal base, the causal

affix tnj is rejected, but the other causal changes of the root are retained before the passive affix ya: thus, from the causal base HM«J pdtaya (from Ith 'to fall') comes the passive vxn pdlya, making ist sing, mitt 'I am made to fall/ 3d sing. VT?nt 'he is made to fall.' Similarly, wt' to stand' makes WTTTftl 'he causes to stand,' Tqvtrn ' he is caused to stand;' and yr 'to know' makes S*T*fir' he causes to know,' and 'QUIT ' he is caused to know,' 'he is informed.'

a. In the non-conjugational tenses, the base of all the tenses, excepting the perfect, may vary from the Atmane form by the optional rejection of the conjugational 1% But in the perfect (2d preterite), the Atman of the usual form with dm and the auxiliaries (490, 385) is admitted for the passive. In the aorist (3d preterite), the usual reduplicated form (492) gives place to the Atmane form which belongs to those verbs of the first nine classes which assume i: thus, from HT^n, the causal base of 'k ' to be,' come the passive perfect xnuw* or Mnuihih or HKiuiyw^; ist fut. HT^ftnrrtor "Tf*We d fut. WMfaut or mft^; aorist ^wivf^fM or ^wrfafa, 3d sing. Wffa; bened. tfTlflNhl or mftnihl; cond. ^JHT^ftr^ or ^SMTftra. Similarly, from what, causal base of fire ' to know,' come passive perfect flumy* &c. ' I have been caused to know;' 1 st fut. ^vfrsT? or tnfuiii^ &c. 'I shall be caused to know;' 2d fut. wtvftr«T or *Tfv«fr &c.; aorist wrftrftrfa or TT^ftrfa, 2. TPftvfinrrw or tpftfVtTV, 3. with 'I have been caused to know,' &c. So also, from yRH, causal base of JP^' to cease,' come the passive perfect 31ml iy» or sjHUWlil &c.' I have been caused to cease,' &c.; ist fut. JprftniT^ or tyftMlf; 2d fut. Jjufaai or $rf»r«r; aorist ^rjprftrfa or ^r$rfi»fa, 3d sing, vstfk; bened. jprftrfhl &c.: and the radical a may be optionally lengthened; thus, 1st fut. SjHfrriit or ffTufinni &c.

b. So also, mfr or ^TErrftj, 3d sing, aorist, from causal of & Even TJ5^, vz, WT, and some other roots which end in a double

consonant, may optionally lengthen the medial a: thus, aorist 3d sing. WlTy or wufy.

Deriderative of causals. 497. When causals and verbs of the 10th class take a desiderative form (see 498), they retain ay, and are all formed with isha: thus, TE, makes iutorayishdmi, 'I desire to cause to steal,' &c.; mAUlfn


41 cause to fall' makes funirffumfa 'I desire to cause to fall," Winnifa 'I cause to sleep' makes rorrqftraTft 'I desire to cause to sleep.'

a. The desiderative base of the causal of w<ft, 'to go over,' is either tsumfqufijq or ^rfvfiTinjftni; of the causal of it 'to call,' »jrraftpi (as if from ^t^tt); of the causal of w 'to know,' |fNt (or regularly fajmfin or fsrsnrftrq); of the causal of fig 'to swell,' mmfin (or regularly fijraTuftpi).


498. Every root in the ten classes may take a desiderative form.

a. Although this form of the root is not often used, in classical composition, in its character of a verb, yet nouns and participles derived from the desiderative base are not uncommon (see 80. XXII, and 82. III). Moreover, there are certain primitive roots which take a desiderative form, without yielding a desiderative sense; and these, as equivalent to primitive verbs (amongst which they are generally classed), may occur in classical Sanskrit. For example, jugvps, 'to blame,' from *pipu/>,- 6ikits, 'to cure,' from fsfi^kitJ titiksh, 'to bear,' from fft*{tijJ •i'whi mimams, 'to reason,' from RR man; bibhats, 'to abhor,' from Wtv^or "WW.

499. Desideratives take the terminations of the scheme at 247, with the substitutions required in the 1st, 4th, 6th, and 10th classes; and their inflection, either in the Parasmai or Atmane, is generally, though not invariably, determined by the practice of the primitive verb: thus, the root 'wvbudh, 1st c, 'to know,' taking both inflections in the primitive, may take both in the desiderative (bubodhishdmi &c, or bubodhishe &c, 'I desire to know5); and j&^labh, 'to obtain,' taking only the A'tmane in the primitive, may take only the Atmane in the desiderative {lipse &c, 'I desire to obtain').

500. Rule for forming the base in the four conjugational tenses. Reduplicate the initial consonant and vowel of the root, and generally, though not invariably, if the primitive verb inserts ^ t (see 392— 415). affix j^ish or in a few roots fw(see 393); if it rejects i, then simply Ti s, changeable to ^sh (by 70)*, to the root so reduplicated. The vowel a is then added, as in the 1st, 4th, 6th, and 10th classes; and, agreeably to the rule in those classes, this a becomes a before terminations beginning with m and v (but not before simple m).

* See, however, 500./.

a. Thus, from f^ij kship, * to throw,' comes the hase Hkshipsa {tikshipsd-\- mi = f^f^rrf»* Sikshipsdmi &c., 'I desire to throw'); but from the vid, 'to know,' taking inserted i, comes vividisha (vividishd

+ mi = ftrftrf^rfa vividishdmi &c. In Atm. vivitsa).

b. Some roots, however, which reject the inserted t in other forms, assume it in the desiderative, and vice versa. Some, again, allow an option: thus, TO 'to be' makes f*HfJi«i &c. or ffTOJTfir &c. See the lists at 39a—415.

c. The reduplication of the consonant is in conformity with the rules at 331; that of the vowel belonging to the initial consonant follows the analogy of causal aorists at 493; that is, the vowel ^ t is reduplicated for a, d, i, i, ri, ri, Iri, e, or ai; but the vowel ? u for u, u, and o; and also for the a of av or dv preceded by any consonant except /, a labial or a semivowel: thus, from tl^'to cook' comes the base pipak$ha by 296; from IT^'to ask' comes yiydciska; from *TT^'to live,' jijhiska; from TS^ 'to see,' didrikska; from W^'to serve,' sisevisha; from st ' to sing,' jigdsa; hnafl' to\,'jijiidsa(yiyvii)<TKCc): but from an' to join' comer ynyuksha; from XI 'to purify,' pvpusha; from The 4th c, 'to know,"**JWbubkulsa, see 299. a; from iiiMj causal base of ^ 'to praise,' nundvayiska; from UTTOj causal base of pit, to purify,' pipdvayiska.

d. And if the root begin with a vowel the reduplication still follows the analog}' of the same tense at 494: thus, from ^STS? comes tiGjo;; and with Aisha added, ^litl^m. Similarly, from w comes arjikiska; from '911?, ujikiska; from $T3[, iiikikitka; from y?r, undiditka: see 494.

Observe—In reduplication the vowel i takes the place of a, as being lighter; see Mr. d. It is probably the result of a weakening of a.

e. In desiderative bases formed from the causals of TO 'to fall,' Tr ' to run,' ^ ' to go,' ST' to leap,' W 'to hear,' W ' to distil,' and *|' to flow,' a or o may be represented by either u or i: thus, the causal of TO makes f""!q 1q P*IM or WWrjftjW.

f. Observe—When the inserted s becomes tk by r. 70, the initial F of a root will not be affected by the vowel of the reduplicated syllable: thus, rid makes sisikska, not riskikska; and sev makes siseviska. Except, however, WT, which makes *yM: and except the desid. of causals, as fiTMVfiro; from causal of ftp*.

501. When a root takes the inserted t or i (393), and forms its desiderative with isha or Ohm then final ^ ri is gunated: thus, w 4 to cross' makes titarisha or titarisha (also titirsha, see 502).

a. Moreover, initial and medial i, u, ri are often, but not always, gunated if followed by a single consonant: thus, TW ' to go' makes otikhisha; T', ' to wish,' eshishisha; tins 'to play,' didevisha; mt 'to dance,' ninartisha: but fire 'to know,' vividisha.

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