Imatges de pàgina

before it, Vriddhi take place in a final vowel capable of such a change, and y be interposed after final d: thus, from VQ6i may come the bases 6dyi and a6dyi {(dyishiya, atdyishye); from ^ hu, hdvi and ahdvi; from ^ kri, kdri and akdri; from (JT dd, ddyi and addyi. But 6esh{ya, adeshye, hoshiya, ahoshye, &c, the forms belonging to the At mane of the primitive verb, are equally admissible in the passive.

Passive infinitive mood.

477. There is no passive infinitive mood in Sanskrit distinct in form from the active. The affix turn, however, is capable of a passive sense, when joined with certain verbs, especially with the passive of ^ra sak, ' to be able.' It is also used passively, in connection with the participles drabtiha, nirupita, yukta, &c. See Syntax, 869.

Passive verbs from roots of the 10th class.

478. In forming a passive verb from roots of the 10th class, although the conjugational ^T is rejected in the first four tenses, yet the other conjugational changes of the root are retained before the affix ya.- thus, from ^T. 10th c, to steal,' comes the base torya (*n*nf). In the perfect "OTl is retained (see 473.0), and in the other non-conjugational tenses the base may deviate from the Atmane form of the primitive by the optional rejection or assumption of WT, especially in the aorist. See Causal Passives at 496.


479. Every root in every one of the ten classes may. take a causal form, which is conjugated as a verb of the 10th class; and which is not only employed to give a causal sense to a primitive verb, but also an active sense to a neuter verb; see 2X9, 254: thus the primitive verb bodhati, 'he knows' (from the root budh, 1st c), becomes in the causal wfaprfn" bodhayati, ' he causes to know,' 'he informs;' and the neuter verb kshubhyati, ' he shakes,' 'is shaken' (from ks/ivbb, 4th c), becomes fcflMnfrf 'he shakes' (actively).

a. This form msiy rarely imply other analogous senses: thus, hdrayati, ' he allows to take;' ndsayati, 'he suffers to perish;' abhishetayati, ' he permits himself to be inaugurated;' kshamayati, 'he asks to be forgiven;' ^rfw^rj VTWPT 'allow yourself to be inaugurated.'

480. As to the terminations of causal verbs, they are the same as those of the scheme at 247, p. 126; and the same substitutions are required in the first four tenses as in the 1st, 4th, 6th, and icth classes.

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Non-conjugational tenses.

489. The changes of the root required to form the base of the conjugational tenses are continued in the non-conjugational. Moreover, aya is retained in all these tenses, except the aorist and except the benedictive, Parasmai; but the last a of aya is dropped before the inserted ^ i, which is invariably assumed in all other conjugational tenses.

Perfect (second preterite) of causals.

490. This tense must be of the periphrastic form, as explained at 385; that is, *rr* dm added to the causal base is prefixed to the perfect of one of the three auxiliary verbs, ^TCf ' to be,' C' to be,' or * 'to do:' thus, TV 'to know' makes in causal perfect 'meat- or «M*NIHI*I or Wm 1*1*3 *.

First and second future of causals.

491. In these tenses the inserted ti is invariably assumed between the base, as formed in the conjugational tenses, and the usual terminations: thus, TI makes iftufttllftn &c, qtafr unfit &c.

Aorist (third preterite) of causals and verbs of the 10th class.

493. The terminations are those of form II at 435. In the formation of the base of this tense, the affix ay is rejected; but any other change that may take place in the conjugational tenses, such as the insertion of p or y, is preserved. The base is a reduplicated form of this change, and to this reduplication the augment <8 a is prefixed: thus, taking the bases bodhay and jdpay (causal bases of budh, ' to know,' and ji, 'to conquer5), and rejecting ay, we have bodh and jap; and from these are formed the bases of the aorist abubudh and ajijap (www abubudham &c, W^V abubudhe &c, wirhnm ajijapam &c, Withm ajijape &c, cf. the Greek pluperfect).

493. The rule for this reduplication is as follows:—The initial consonant of the root, with its vowel, is reduplicated, and the reduplicated consonant follows the rules given at 331; but the reduplication of the vowel is peculiar.

Reduplication of the rowel of the initial consonant in the causal aorist. a. Causal bases, after rejecting ay, will generally end in ay, tire d, or a consonant

* It may be questioned whether 1*3 is found added to causals.

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